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Full text of "Bulletin of Wake Forest University"

(Lul^JLs 



Wake Forest 
University 

The Undergraduate Schools 







1992-1993 

Bulletin of Wake Forest University 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://archive.org/details/bulletinofwakefo19921993 



New Series April 1992 Volume 87, Number 3 



Wake Forest College 

and 

The School of Business 
and Accountancy 

The Undergraduate Schools 
of Wake Forest University 



Announcements for 

1992-93 

This bulletin represents a record of the year 1991-92. 



BULLETIN of Wake Forest University (USPS 078-320) is published seven times a year in March, April, May, 
June (2 issues), July and November by the University Editor's Office, Wake Forest University, P.O. Box 7205 
Reynolda Station (1834 Wake Forest Road), Winston-Salem, NC 27109. Second class postage paid at Winston- 
Salem, NC, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to BULLETIN of Wake 
Forest University, Director of Admissions, Box 7305 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, NC 27109. 



The Academic Calendar 



Fall Semester 1992 



August 


20 


Thursday 




Residence halls open at 8:00 a.m. 










for first-year 


students 


August 


20-25 


Thursday- 




Orientation for first-year students 






Tuesday 








August 


22 


Saturday 




Residence halls open at 10:00 a.m 
for transfer students 


August 


22-24 


Saturday- 




Orientation for transfer students 






Monday 








August 


23 


Sunday 




Residence halls open at noon for 
returning students 


August 


24-25 


Monday, 




Registration for all students 






Tuesday 








August 


25 


Tuesday 




Opening Convocation* 


August 


26 


Wednesday 




Classes begin 




September 


8 


Tuesday 




Last day to add courses 


September 


22 


Tuesday 




Last day to drop courses 


October 


16 


Friday 




Midterm grades due 










Fall holiday 




November 


25-29 


Wednesday- 
Sunday 




Thanksgiving : 


recess 


November 


30 


Monday 




Classes resume 


December 


4 


Friday 




Classes end 




December 


7-9 


Monday- 
Wednesday 




Examinations 




December 


10 


Thursday 




Reading Day 




December 


11-12 


Friday- 
Saturday 




Examinations 




1992 












JANUARY 


FEBRUARY 




MARCH 


APRIL 


S M T W 


T F S 


S M T W T F S 


S 


M T W T F S 


S M T W T F S 


1 


2 3 4 


1 


1 


2 3 4 5 6 7 


12 3 4 


5 6 7 8 


9 10 11 


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 


8 


9 10 11 12 13 14 


5 6 7 8 9 10 11 


12 13 14 15 


16 17 18 


9 10 11 12 13 14 15 


15 


16 17 18 19 20 21 


12 13 14 15 16 17 18 


19 20 21 22 


23 24 25 


16 17 18 19 20 21 22 


22 


23 24 25 26 27 28 


19 20 21 22 23 24 25 


26 27 28 29 


30 31 


23 24 25 26 27 28 29 


29 


30 31 


26 27 28 29 30 


MA> 




JUNE 




JULY 


AUGUST 


S M T W 


T F S 


S M T W T F S 


S 


M T W T F S 


S M T W T F S 




1 2 


12 3 4 5 6 




12 3 4 


1 


3 4 5 6 


7 8 9 


7 8 9 10 11 12 13 


5 


6 7 8 9 10 11 


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 


10 11 12 13 


14 15 16 


14 15 16 17 18 19 20 


12 


13 14 15 16 17 18 


9 10 11 12 13 14 15 


17 18 19 20 


21 22 23 


21 22 23 24 25 26 27 


19 


20 21 22 23 24 25 


16 17 18 19 20 21 22 


24 25 26 27 


28 29 30 


28 29 30 


26 


27 28 29 30 31 


23 24 25 26 27 28 29 


31 










30 31 


SEPTEMBER 


OCTOBER 




NOVEMBER 


DECEMBER 


S M T W 


T F S 


S M T W T F S 


S 


M T W T F S 


S M T W T F S 


1 2 


3 4 5 


1 2 3 


1 


2 3 4 5 6 7 


12 3 4 5 


6 7 8 9 


10 11 12 


4 5 6 7 8 9 10 


8 


9 10 11 12 13 14 


6 7 8 9 10 11 12 


13 14 15 16 


17 18 19 


11 12 13 14 15 16 17 


15 


16 17 18 19 20 21 


13 14 15 16 17 18 19 


20 21 22 23 


24 25 26 


18 19 20 21 22 23 24 


22 


23 24 25 26 27 28 


20 21 22 23 24 25 26 


27 28 29 30 




25 26 27 28 29 30 31 


29 


30 


27 28 29 30 31 



'Subject to change 



December 


14-15 


Monday- 
Tuesday 


Examinations 


December 


16- 


Wednesday 


Christmas recess 


January 


10 


Sunday 





Spring Semester 1993 



January 
January 

January 
January 

January 

February 

February 

March 

March 

March 
April 
April 
May 

May 
May 

May 

May 
May 



10 


Sunday 


11 


Monday 


12 


Tuesday 


18 


Monday 


26 


Tuesday 


(Date to be 


announced) -f 


9 


Tuesday 


5 


Friday 


6-14 


Saturday- 




Sunday 


15 


Monday 


9 


Friday 


30 


Friday 


3-5 


Monday- 




Wednesday 


6 


Thursday 


7-8 


Friday- 




Saturday 


0-11 


Monday- 




Tuesday 


16 


Sunday" H'-v* 



17 



Monday 1.3o*- 



Residence halls open at noon 
Validation of registration for all 

students 
Classes begin 
Martin Luther King Jr. Day - 

no classes 
Last day to add courses 
Founders' Day Convocation /la -r^ 
Last day to drop courses 
Midterm grades due 
Spring recess 

Classes resume 
Holiday, Good Friday 
Classes end 
Examinations 

Reading Day 
Examinations 

Examinations 

Ba ccalauro a \°% a * c ^f_ ' 
Commencement ^^^^^rvff^f^ 




- j - ■■■ 



tf,Ai% 



JANUARY 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


FEBRUARY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 


MARCH 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 31 


APRIL 

S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 


MAY 
S M T W T F S 
1 
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 
30 31 


JUNE 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 


JULY 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 


AUGUST 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 

29 30 31 


SEPTEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 


OCTOBER 

S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


NOVEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 


DECEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 31 



Table of Contents 



The Academic Calendar 2 

The University 8 

Buildings and Grounds 9 

Computer Center 10 

Microcomputer Center 12 

Communication Services 12 

Libraries 12 

Recognition and Accreditation 13 

The Undergraduate Schools 15 

Wake Forest College 16 

Statement of Purpose 16 

History and Development 18 

Student Life 24 

Student Government 24 

Student Union 26 

Resident Student Association 26 

Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils 26 

Honor Societies, Professional Fraternities, and Clubs 27 

Academic Awards and Competitions 27 

Intramural Athletics 28 

Intercollegiate Athletics 29 

Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps 29 

Religious Activities 29 

Cultural Activities 30 

Career Services 31 

University Counseling Center 31 

Learning Assistance Program 32 

Student Health Service 32 

Health Education Program 32 

Office of Minority Affairs 32 

Procedures 34 

Admission 34 

Application 34 

Early Decision 35 

Admission of Handicapped Students 35 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 36 

Admission of Transfer Students 36 

Expenses 36 

Tuition 37 

Room Charges 37 

Food Services 37 

Other Charges 37 

Refunds 38 



Housing 39 

Academic Calendar 39 

Orientation and Advising 39 

Registration 39 

Classification 40 

Class Attendance 40 

Auditing Courses 41 

Dropping a Course 41 

Withdrawal from the College 41 

Examinations 42 

Grading 42 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 43 

Dean's List 43 

Graduation Distinctions 43 

Repetition of Courses 43 

Probation 44 

Requirements for Continuation 44 

Requirements for Readmission 45 

Summer Study 46 

Transfer Credit 46 

Scholarships and Loans 47 

Scholarships 47 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 58 

Exchange Scholarships 59 

Loans 60 

Concessions 61 

Other Financial Aid 61 

Special Programs 63 

Honors Study 63 

Open Curriculum 63 

Study at Salem College 63 

International Studies 64 

Office of International Studies 64 

International Students 64 

Residential Language Centers 64 

International Studies House 64 

Foreign Area Studies 64 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 64 

England (London) 64 

Italy (Venice) 65 

France (Dijon) 65 

Spain (Salamanca) 65 

Institute of European Studies 65 

China (Beijing) 65 

Japan (Hiratsuka) 66 



Russia 66 

Experiment in International Living 66 

Study Abroad in Non-Wake Forest Programs 66 

Requirements for Degrees 67 

Degrees Offered 67 

General Requirements 67 

Basic Requirements 68 

Divisional Requirements 68 

Requirement in Health and Sport Science 69 

Proficiency in the Use of English 69 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 70 

Declaring a Major 70 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 71 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 71 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 71 

Minors 71 

Interdisciplinary Minors 72 

Foreign Area Studies 73 

Senior Testing 74 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 75 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 75 

Degrees in Microbiology 76 

Degrees in Dentistry 76 

Degrees in Engineering 76 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 77 

Courses of Instruction — Wake Forest College 78 

Anthropology 78 

Art 81 

Asian Studies 85 

Biology 87 

Chemistry 93 

Classical Languages 96 

East Asian Languages and Literatures 100 

Economics 101 

Education 105 

English Ill 

German and Russian 117 

Health and Sport Science 120 

History 124 

Humanities 130 

Interdisciplinary Honors 134 

Mathematics and Computer Science 137 

Military Science 143 

Music 145 

Natural Sciences 151 



Philosophy 152 

Physics 156 

Pohtics 159 

Psychology 165 

Religion 169 

Romance Languages 175 

Sociology 184 

Speech Communication 188 

Theater 192 

Overseas Courses 197 

School of Business and Accountancy 202 

Mission 202 

Objectives 202 

Admission 203 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 203 

Requirements for Continuation 204 

Requirements for Graduation 204 

Senior Honors Program 205 

Beta Gamma Sigma, National Honor Society 205 

Courses of Instruction 205 

Business 205 

Accountancy 208 

Enrollment 211 

The Board of Trustees 214 

The Board of Visitors 216 

School of Business and Accountancy Advisory Council 218 

The Administration 219 

The Undergraduate Faculties 231 

Emeriti 251 

The Committees of the Faculty 255 

Index 260 



The University 



Wake Forest University is characterized by its devotion to liberal learning and 
professional preparation for men and women, its strong sense of community and 
fellowship, and its encouragement of free inquiry and expression. 

Founded in 1834 by the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, the school 
opened its doors on February 3 as Wake Forest Institute, with Samuel Wait as 
principal. It was located in the forest of Wake County, North Carolina, on the 
plantation of Calvin Jones, near which the village of Wake Forest later developed. 

Rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College, it is one of the oldest institutions of 
higher learning in the state. It was exclusively a college of liberal arts for men until 
1894, when the School of Law was established. The School of Medicine, founded in 
1902, offered a two-year medical program until 1941. In that year, the school was 
moved from the town of Wake Forest to Winston-Salem, became associated with the 
North Carolina Baptist Hospital, and was renamed the Bowman Gray School of 
Medicine in honor of the benefactor who made possible the move and expansion to a 
full four-year program. In 1942, Wake Forest admitted women as regular undergradu- 
ate students. 

A School of Business Administration was established in 1948, and for over two 
decades offered an undergraduate program of study in business. In 1969 the under- 
graduate school was succeeded by the Department of Business and Accountancy and 
the Department of Economics in Wake Forest College; at the same time the Babcock 
Graduate School of Management was established. In 1980 the undergraduate pro- 
gram in business and accountancy was reconstituted as the School of Business and 
Accountancy. The Division of Graduate Studies was established in 1961. It is now 
organized as the Graduate School and encompasses advanced work in the arts and 
sciences on both the Reynolda and Hawthorne campuses in Winston-Salem. The 
summer session was inaugurated in 1921. 

In 1946, the trustees of Wake Forest College and the Baptist State Convention of 
North Carolina accepted a proposal by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation to relocate 
the non-medical divisions of the College to Winston-Salem, where the School of 
Medicine was already established. The late Charles H. Babcock and his wife, the late 
Mary Reynolds Babcock, contributed a campus site, andbuilding funds were received 
from many sources. Between 1952 and 1956, the first fourteen buildings were erected 
in Georgian style on the new Winston-Salem campus. In 1956 the College moved all 
operations, leaving the 122-year-old campus in the town of Wake Forest to the 
Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. 

The decade that followed was the College's most expansive, and in 1967, its 
augmented character was recognized by the change in name to Wake Forest Univer- 
sity. Today, enrollment in all schools of the University stands at over 5,000. Gover- 
nance remains in the hands of the Board of Trustees, and development for each of the 
six schools of the University is augmented by Boards of Visitors for the undergraduate 
schools as well as the Graduate School, the School of Law, the Babcock Graduate 
School of Management, and the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and by the 
Advisory Council for the School of Business and Accountancy. A joint board of 
University trustees and trustees of the North Carolina Baptist Hospital is responsible 



for the Medical Center, which includes the hospital and the medical school. Alumni 
and parents' organizations are active at Wake Forest, and support by the Z. Smith 
Reynolds Foundation and other foundations and corporations is strong and continuing. 

Wake Forest's relationship with the Baptist State Convention is an important part 
of the school's heritage. Wake Forest's founders proposed to establish an institution 
that would provide education under Christian influences. Wake Forest and the 
Convention have a fraternal, voluntary relationship under which Wake Forest is 
autonomous in governance. The University is an associate member of the Convention's 
Council on Christian Higher Education. Wake Forest receives some financial and 
intangible support from Convention-affiliated churches. 

The College, School of Business and Accountancy, Babcock Graduate School of 
Management, School of Law, and the Graduate School are located on the Reynolda 
Campus in northwest Winston-Salem. The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is about 
four miles away, near the city's downtown on what is known as the Hawthorne 
Campus. The University also offers instruction regularly at Casa Artom in Venice, at 
Worrell House in London, and in other places around the world. 

The College offers courses in more than forty fields of study leading to the 
baccalaureate degree. The School of Business and Accountancy offers courses of study 
leading to the baccalaureate in business and accountancy. The School of Law offers the 
juris doctor degree and the Babcock Graduate School of Management, the master of 
business administration degree. In addition to the doctor of medicine degree, the 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine offers, through the Graduate School, programs 
leading to the master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in the basic medical 
sciences. The Graduate School confers the master of arts, master of arts in education, 
master of arts in liberal studies, and master of science degrees in the arts and sciences 
and the doctor of philosophy degree in biology, chemistry, and physics. 

Buildings and Grounds 

The Reynolda Campus of Wake Forest is situated on approximately 340 acres; its 
physical facilities consist of over thirty buildings, most of which are of modified 
Georgian architecture and constructed of Old Virginia brick trimmed in granite and 
limestone. The Reynolda Gardens annex, consisting of about 150 acres and including 
Reynolda Woods, Reynolda Village, and Reynolda Gardens, is adjacent to the cam- 
pus. The Graylyn Estate, an educational conference center, is nearby. 

Wait Chapel is named in memory of the first president of the College. Its main 
auditorium seats 2,300 and is also the home of the Wake Forest Baptist Church. The 
Wait Chapel tower contains the Janet Jeffrey Carlile Harris Carillon, an instrument of 
forty-eight bells. Wingate Hall, named in honor of President Washington Manly Wingate, 
houses the Department of Religion, the offices of the University chaplaincy and the 
Wake Forest Baptist Church, and other classrooms and offices. 

Reynolda Hall, across the upper plaza from Wait Chapel, houses most of the 
administrative offices for the Reynolda Campus as well as the Computer and Micro- 
computer Centers. The Benson University Center is the central hub for student activities 
and events. The Z. Smith Reynolds Library houses the main collection of books and 
documents on the Reynolda Campus. Along with eight floors of open stacks, with a 
capacity for over 1,000,000 volumes, it has reading and reference rooms for study and 



10 

some academic offices. The library recently added the Edwin Graves Wilson Wing, 
53,000 square feet, which houses stacks, public service units, and the Information 
Technology Center. The Department of Economics is also in the library. 

Winston Hall houses biology and psychology; Salem Hall, the chemistry department. 
Both buildings have laboratories as well as classrooms and special research facilities. 
The Olin Physical Laboratory is a new facility for the physics department. Harold W. 
Tribble Hall accommodates the humanities and social science departments and has a 
curriculum materials center, an honors seminar room, a philosophy library and 
seminar room, and a larger lecture area, DeTamble Auditorium, with an adjacent exhi- 
bition gallery. The Museum of Anthropology houses the anthropology department. In- 
struction in business, accountancy, and mathematics is carried out in Charles H. Babcock 
Hall, which also houses the Babcock Graduate School of Management. The School of 
Law occupies Guy T. Carswell Hall. 

The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center is of contemporary design appropriate to the 
functions of studio art, theater, musical performances, and instruction in art history, 
drama, and music. Off its lobby is a large gallery for special exhibitions. In the art wing 
are spacious studios for drawing, painting, sculpture, and printmaking, along with a 
smaller gallery and classrooms. In the theater wing are design and production areas 
and two technically complete theaters, the larger of traditional proscenium design and 
the smaller for experimental ring productions. The music wing contains Brendle Re- 
cital Hall for concerts and lectures, classrooms, practice rooms for individuals and 
groups, and the offices of the music department. 

The William N. Reynolds Gymnasium has classrooms for instruction in health and 
sport science, courts for indoor sports, a swimming pool, and offices for the Depart- 
ment of Health and Sport Science and for military science. Adjacent are tennis courts, 
sports fields, the Campus Stadium, an Indoor Tennis Center, and the Athletic Center for 
intercollegiate athletics. 

The Wake Forest campus has a wide variety of housing choices available to 
students. There are three residence halls which house only male students: Taylor House, 
Palmer, and Piccolo Halls. Three residence halls house only female students: Bostwick, 
Babcock, and Efird Halls. Huffman House, Davis House, Kitchin House, Poteat House, Luter 
Hall, Johnson Hall, and South Hall are coeducational by floor or wing. First-year stu- 
dents live in Taylor, Kitchin, Davis, Bostwick, South, Huffman, and Johnson. Upper class 
students may choose to live in one of a variety of theme houses including the French 
House, WAKE Radio House, German House, Russian House, Italian House, International 
Studies House, Fine Arts House, Fitness House, Wesley Houses, and Nia House, or others 
which are currently being developed. Student housing also is available in the townhouse 
apartments and several small houses owned by the University. On the edge of the 
main campus are apartments for faculty and staff as well as graduate and married 
students. 

Computer Center 

The Computer Center supports University instruction, research, and administra- 
tive needs. The University has three mainframe computers. A Hewlett-Packard series 
3000/948, used by the administration, has 128 million bytes of memory and 2,950 
million bytes of disk storage. Academic and library computing use two Hewlett- 



11 

Packard series 9000/852 computers. These systems currently offer 192 million bytes 
of memory and ten billion bytes of disk storage. The latter two computers are available 
twenty-four hours a day from terminals in Reynolda Hall, by dial-in modems, from 
Macintoshes in the microcomputer labs, and across the campus network. 

All students on the Reynolda Campus are given a login ID on the academic 
computer, and the login is maintained as long as the student is enrolled. This single 
account provides students access to electronic mail, programming languages, and 
software packages. There is no charge to students for computing either on the 
mainframe or in the microcomputer labs. 

Computer languages available include FORTRAN77, COBOL85, Pascal and C. 
Statistical packages such as SPSSX, BMDP, SAS, and Minitab can be used for data 
analysis, forecasting, and financial modeling. Maple, a symbolic algebra package, is 
a new addition to the software. DISSPLA, a powerful graphics package, is available 
on the mainframe. 

A graphics workstation offers a DOS-based computer and a Macintosh, along with 
a scanner, Polaroid Bravo slide-maker, and a six-pen plotter. Software available 
includes HARVARD GRAPHICS, LOTUS 1-2-3, Aldus FreeHand and Persuasion, 
Digital Darkroom, Microsoft Word, Word Perfect, and SIMSCRIPT/SIMGRAPH, 
simulation and modeling software. Output can also be sent to a laser printer. 

Many departments on campus have their own computing resources in addition to 
those available through the Computer Center. For example, Physics and Chemistry 
share two Convex mini-supercomputers, and those departments and Mathematics 
and Computer Science have Sun workstations. The School of Business and Accoun- 
tancy and the Department of Education have their own microcomputer labs. 

Wake Forest has access to computing resources outside the University. The Univer- 
sity is a member of the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research 
(ICPSR), located at the University of Michigan. Membership in ICPSR provides 
faculty and students with access to a large library of data files, including public 
opinion surveys, cross-cultural data, financial data, and complete census data. The 
University is a member of EDUCOM, a national consortium of colleges and universi- 
ties concerned with computing issues. 

Wake Forest belongs to the Internet, an international network used to send elec- 
tronic mail, as well as log on and transfer files to and from remote computers. Wake 
Forest has access to a CRAY supercomputer through the Microelectronics Center in 
the Research Triangle. 

There are six microcomputer labs available for general student use. Each lab 
contains a mixture of Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. The labs are net- 
worked together and with the Computer Center. Each lab has two dot-matrix printers 
and a letter-quality printer. Students in the lab also can print to laser printers in the 
Computer Center and in the Student Union. Four of the labs, in Luter, Poteat, Wingate, 
and the area between Johnson and Bostwick residence halls, are open on a 24-hour 
basis through a card-entry system. The library lab is available during library hours. 
The David lab is staffed with assistants, and is open twelve hours a day. The Computer 
Center has student assistants staffing a telephone help line. Software available in the 
labs includes DeltaGraph, HyperCard, MacPaint, MacWrite II, Microsoft Word, 
NCSA Telnet, and Word Perfect. There is a software library from which students may 
copy shareware and freeware. 



12 



Microcomputer Center 



The Microcomputer Center provides sales and service of personal computers, 
peripherals and software to full-time students, faculty, and staff. Wake Forest has 
educational and volume discount contracts with Apple Computer, Zenith Data 
Systems, and a variety of peripheral and software vendors. Sales consultants are 
available to assist with the selection and purchase of systems. 

The Microcomputer Center is an authorized warranty repair center for Apple and 
Zenith products purchased through the University. The technical staff provides 
assistance with installation and service questions, and performs on-campus mainte- 
nance of equipment purchased from the University. 

Communications Services 

Communications Services provides telephone and cable television services to the 
students, faculty, and staff of Wake Forest University. All residence hall rooms are 
equipped with telephone jacks and cable TV connections. Local dial service for the 
campus and Winston-Salem area is provided as part of the housing package. Students 
who wish to place long distance calls over the University network can apply for 
services at the Telecommunications Department located in Room 23, Reynolda Hall. 

Cable television, while providing a recreational outlet, plays an important role by 
providing access to campus information and educational offerings. Cable channel 2 is 
the Wake Forest University information channel, providing information and a calen- 
dar of campus events. WAKE Radio, a student-run station, provides background 
music for this channel. Channel 17 carries SCOLA, which provides domestic and 
foreign educational programming. 

Libraries 

The libraries of Wake Forest University support instruction and research at the 
undergraduate level and in each of the disciplines in which a graduate degree is 
offered. An endowment provided by a substantial gift from the Mary Reynolds 
Babcock Foundation and another from the late Nancy Reynolds have been assigned 
to the sustained expansion and development of library resources, especially for the 
support of the graduate program. The libraries of the University hold membership in 
the Association of Southeastern Research Libraries. 

The library collections total 1,157,336 volumes. Of these, 897,942 constitute the 
general collection in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, 121,560 are housed in the School 
of Law, 117,915 in the library of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and 19,919 in 
the library of the Babcock Graduate School of Management. Subscriptions to 18,678 
periodicals and serials, largely of scholarly content, are maintained by the four 
libraries of the University. The holdings of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library include 
42,217 reels of microfilm, 1,231,634 pieces of microcards, microprint, and microfiche, 
and 133,911 titles and pamphlets of United States government publications. 

Special collections in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library include the Rare Books 
Collection, the Baptist Historical Collection, and the Artom Collection (a clipping file 
of national and international events from the post- World War II period through 1989). 



13 

The Rare Books Collection, greatly enhanced by the donation of the collection of rare 
and fine books of the late Charles H. Babcock, emphasizes American and British 
authors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Among such collections 
are those of Mark Twain, Gertrude Stein, William Butler Yeats and T. S. Eliot. There 
is also an extensive Anglo-Irish literature collection. The Ethel Taylor Crittenden 
Baptist Historical Collection is housed in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library. It contains 
significant books, periodicals, manuscripts and church records relating to North 
Carolina Baptists, as well as a collection of the personal papers of prominent ministers, 
educators, and government officials. The Wake Forest College /University Archive is 
maintained in this area. 

The Reference Department of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library provides several useful 
services for the university community. Through a variety of vendors, reference 
librarians conduct on-line database searches from any of several hundred data files. 
Interlibrary loan service is also available for Wake Forest graduate students, faculty, 
and staff. Books, photocopies and microform materials can be borrowed at no charge. 
The reference staff oversees the operation of an Omnifax telefacsimile machine 
capable of sending and receiving printed data worldwide. Reference librarians 
provide a variety of instructional services including an annual freshman orientation 
program, presentations to individual classes, general tours of the library, and assis- 
tance with independent and directed studies. 

The Z. Smith Reynolds Library has just been renovated. An addition of 53,000 
square feet to the rear of the library was named in honor of Edwin Graves Wilson. The 
four-story addition is connected to the library building by a glassed-in conservatory 
and skywalks. The addition houses many of the electronic information tools used for 
current research, including a center for media and a microcomputer f acility. The new 
addition, as well as a redesign and relandscaping of the main entrance to the library, 
was completed in fall 1991. 

Recognition and Accreditation 

Wake Forest College was first accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Schools, the regional accrediting agency, in 1921. The reaccreditation of 1965 
included the master's and doctoral degree programs in the Division of Graduate 
Studies. The University's accreditation was last reaffirmed in December 1987. 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is a member of the Association of American 
Medical Colleges and is on the approved list of the Council on Medical Education of 
the American Medical Association. The School of Law is a member of the Association 
of American Law Schools and is listed as an approved school by the Council of the 
Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar of the American Bar Association 
and by the Board of Law Examiners and the Council of the North Carolina State Bar. 
The Babcock Graduate School of Management and the School of Business and 
Accountancy are accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of 
Business. The program in counseling leading to the master of arts in education degree 
is accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. 

Wake Forest University is a member of many of the major institutional organiza- 
tions and associations at the national, regional, and statewide levels, including the 
following: the American Council on Education, the Association of American Colleges, 



14 



the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, the Council of 
Graduate Schools in the United States, the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools, the Southern Universities Conference, the Council of Southern Graduate 
Schools, the North Carolina Association of Colleges and Universities, and the North 
Carolina Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. In addition, many 
offices of the University are members of associations which focus on particular aspects 
of university administration. 

Wake Forest has chapters of the principal national social fraternities, professional 
fraternities, and honor societies, including Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. There is an 
active chapter of the American Association of University Professors on campus. 




Professor of Physics George P. Williams Jr. with a student 



15 



The Undergraduate Schools 



There are two undergraduate schools at Wake Forest University: Wake Forest 
College and the School of Business and Accountancy. The undergraduate schools are 
governed by the Board of Trustees, the University administration, and by their 
respective faculties. Responsibility for academic administration is delegated by the 
president and trustees to the provost, who is the chief academic officer of the 
University. Collaborating with the provost is the associate provost. The deans of the 
schools report to the provost and are responsible for academic planning and admin- 
istration for their schools. Collaborating with the undergraduate deans are three 
associate deans of the College and one assistant dean of the School of Business and 
Accountancy. 

The vice president for student life and instructional resources and the dean of 
student services coordinate student services. Other officers in the area of student 
services are the director of residence life and housing and the director of the Benson 
University Center, who direct residential, social, and cultural life with the assistance 
of a professional staff; and the directors of the Student Health Service and the 
University Counseling Center. A list of administrative officers is found in this bulletin 
beginning on page 219. In many administrative areas, responsibility is shared or 
advice is given by the faculty committees listed in this bulletin beginning on page 255. 




16 

Wake Forest College 

Wake Forest College is the undergraduate school of arts and sciences of Wake Forest 
University. It is the center of the University's academic life; through it, the University 
carries on the tradition of preparing men and women for personal enrichment, 
enlightened citizenship, and professional life. 

Wake Forest College is a place of meeting. Its teachers and students are of diverse 
backgrounds and interests, and that diversity is crucial to the distinctive character of 
the College. Wake Forest continually examines its educational purpose and evaluates 
its success in fulfilling it. A formal statement of purpose was prepared as part of the 
school's decennial reaccreditation process and was adopted by the Board of Trustees. 

Purpose 

Following is the official statement of purpose of Wake Forest College. 

Statement of Purpose 

Wake Forest is a university dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in the 
liberal arts and in graduate and professional education. Its distinctiveness in 
its pursuit of its mission derives from its private, coeducational, and residen- 
tial character; its size and location; and its Baptist affiliation. Each of these 
factors constitutes a significant aspect of the unique character of the institu- 
tion. 

The University is now comprised of six constituent parts: two under- 
graduate institutions, Wake Forest College and the School of Business and 
Accountancy; the Graduate School; and three professional schools: the 
School of Law, the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and the Babcock 
Graduate School of Management. It seeks to honor the ideals of liberal 
learning, which entail commitment to transmission of cultural heritages; 
teaching the modes of learning in the basic disciplines of human knowledge; 
developing critical appreciation of moral, aesthetic, and religious values; 
advancing the frontiers of knowledge through in-depth study and research; 
and applying and using knowledge in the service of humanity. 

Wake Forest has been dedicated to the liberal arts for over a century and 
a half; this means education in the fundamental fields of human knowledge 
and achievement, as distinguished from education that is technical or nar- 
rowly vocational. It seeks to encourage habits of mind that ask "why," that 
evaluate evidence, that are open to new ideas, that attempt to understand 
and appreciate the perspectives of others, that accept complexity and grapple 
with it, that admit error, and that pursue truth. Wake Forest College has by 
far the largest student body in the University, and its function is central to the 
University's larger life. The College and the Graduate School are most 
singularly focused on learning for its own sake; they therefore serve as 
exemplars of specific academic values in the life of the University. 



17 



Beginning as early as 1894, Wake Forest accepted an obligation to provide 
professional training in a number of fields, as a complement to its primary 
mission of liberal arts education. This responsibility is fulfilled in the convic- 
tion that the humane values embodied in the liberal arts are also centrally 
relevant to the professions. Professional education at Wake Forest is charac- 
terized by a commitment to ethical and other professional ideals that tran- 
scend technical skills. Like the Graduate School, the professional schools are 
dedicated to the advancement of learning in their fields. In addition, they are 
specifically committed to the application of knowledge to solving concrete 
problems of human beings. They are strengthened by values and goals which 
they share with the College and Graduate School, and the professional 
schools enhance the work of these schools and the University as a whole by 
serving as models of service to humanity. 

Wake Forest was founded by private initiative, and ultimate decision- 
making authority lies in a privately appointed Board of Trustees rather than 
in a public body. "Funded to a large extent from private sources of support, 
[Wake Forest] is determined to chart its own course in the pursuit of its goals. 
As a coeducational institution it seeks to 'educate together' persons of both 
sexes and from a wide range of backgrounds — racial, ethnic, religious, 
geographical, socio-economic, and cultural... Its residential features are 
conducive to learning and to the pursuit of a wide range of co-curricular 
activities. It has made a conscious choice to remain small in overall size; it 
takes pride in being able to function as a community rather than a conglom- 
erate. Its location in the Piedmont area of North Carolina engenders an ethos 
that is distinctively Southern, and more specifically North Carolinian... As 
it seeks further to broaden its constituency and to receive national recogni- 
tion, it is also finding ways to maintain the ethos associated with its regional 
roots." 

Wake Forest is proud of its Baptist and Christian heritage. For more than 
a century and a half, it has provided the University an indispensable basis for 
its mission and purpose, enabling Wake Forest to educate thousands of 
ministers and laypeople for enlightened leadership in their churches and 
communities. Far from being exclusive and parochial, this religious tradition 
gives the University roots that ensure its lasting identity and branches that 
provide a supportive environment for a wide variety of faiths. The Baptist 
insistence on both the separation of church and state and local autonomy has 
helped to protect the University from interference and domination by 
outside interests, whether these be commercial, governmental, or ecclesias- 
tical. The Baptist emphasis upon revealed truth enables a strong religious 
critique of human reason, even as the claims of revelation are put under the 
scrutiny of reason. The character of intellectual life at Wake Forest encour- 
ages open and frank dialogue and provides assurance that the University 
will be ecumenical and not provincial in scope, and that it must encompass 
perspectives other than the Christian. Wake Forest thus seeks to maintain 
and invigorate what is noblest in its religious heritage. 



18 



History and Development 



Since 1834, Wake Forest College has persevered — sometimes barely — through 
wars, economic crises, and controversy. In spite of these difficulties, perhaps because 
of them, the College has developed its distinctive pattern of characteristics: tenacity, 
independence, a fierce defense of free inquiry and expression, and a concern that 
knowledge be used responsibly and compassionately. 

That these qualities have often been passed along to Wake Forest's students is 
evident in the lives many have led. That these characteristics have served the school 
well is displayed by its growth from a small sectarian school to one of the nation's 
significant small private universities. 

A brief history of Wake Forest is useful in understanding the University as it is today 
and appreciating the process through which it developed. 

The founding of Wake Forest College in 1834 was one manifestation of the intellec- 
tual and humanitarian reform movement in North Carolina and the nation during the 
1 830s. The beginnings of the College and the formation of the Baptist State Convention 
of North Carolina were closely interwoven: a leading motive for the organization of 
the Convention was that it serve as an agency for establishing an institution that would 
provide education under Christian influences. 

The leaders in the movement for Convention and College were ministers and 
laymen from diverse backgrounds: Martin Ross, a North Carolinian; Thomas Meredith, 
a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania; and Samuel Wait, a graduate of 
Columbian College in Washington, DC. The inspiration of Ross, the scholarship of 
Meredith, and the leadership of Wait combined to lead the Baptists of North Carolina 
into the formation of the Baptist State Convention on March 26, 1830. Wait was 
appointed as the Convention's agent to explain to churches, associations, and others 
the need for a college to provide "an education in the liberal arts in fields requisite for 
gentlemen." 

For nearly three years, Wait traveled over the state in his wagon, speaking to a large 
number of the approximately 15,000 Baptists who lived in the Piedmont and coastal 
counties. Perhaps as many as one half opposed missions, education, and other 
benevolences; but after two years of educational canvassing, Wait reported enough 
sentiment in favor of the program of the Convention to proceed. 

A 600-acre plantation, located sixteen miles north of Raleigh, was purchased from 
Calvin Jones in 1832 for $2,000, and the North Carolina Legislature was asked to grant 
a charter for a literary institution based on the manual labor principle. The lobbying 
of opponents, both Baptist and non-Baptist, was effective; only the tie-breaking vote 
of William D. Moseley, speaker of the Senate and a graduate of the University of North 
Carolina, secured passage of the charter-granting bill. It was a meager charter, subject 
to various restrictions and limited to a period of twenty years, but the birth of Wake 
Forest had been achieved. Its subsequent growth would be the result of creative 
adjustments and successful responses to a series of other challenges. 

After his successful three-year canvass of the state, Samuel Wait was elected 
principal of the new institution. Sixteen students registered on February 3, 1834; 
before the end of the year, seventy-two had enrolled. The manual labor principle, 
adopted as a partial means of financing the institution, was abandoned after five years, 
and the school was rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College. 



19 

The economic crisis of 1837 had such an adverse effect that support for the College 
and student enrollment steadily declined; only a loan of $10,000 from the State 
Literary Fund in 1841 prevented bankruptcy. During these years of arduous struggle 
to keep the College alive, President Wait exhausted his physical strength and con- 
tracted an illness which forced him to resign the presidency in 1845. 

William Hooper succeeded Wait, and the prospects of the College became brighter. 
Hooper, a grandson of one of North Carolina's three signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, had received his education at the University of North Carolina. As a 
native North Carolinian with family connections extending over several generations, 
he was able to mobilize public opinion in support of the College. 

After Hooper's resignation, the trustees elected to the presidency Professor of 
Mathematics John B. White, a graduate of Brown University. Since the mortgages on 
the physical facilities had been paid during Hooper's tenure, fund-raising efforts 
during President White's administration could be concentrated on increasing the 
College endowment. The trustees authorized a capital campaign and selected as its 
leader Washington Manly Wingate, an 1849 graduate who within a year and a half 
raised approximately $33,000. 

But the temper of the times was not suited to leadership by a Northerner, and 
President White resigned in 1854. The trustees chose as his successor Wingate, then 
twenty-six years old and the first alumnus of the College to serve as president. Under 
his vigorous leadership, which spanned nearly three decades, the quality of students 
improved and new faculty members were added. During the first eight years of 
Wingate's administration, sixty-six students graduated — more than half of the total 
graduated during the first twenty-three years in the life of the College. In 1857 
President Wingate launched a campaign to produce an additional endowment of 
$50,000, over one half of which was raised in a single evening during the 1857 meeting 
of the Convention. 

This period of growth and expansion was cut short by the division of the nation in 
1861. The Conscription Act of 1863 did not exempt students, and for three years of the 
Civil War, the College suspended operations. The buildings were used briefly for a 
girls' school; after 1863 the Confederate government used the College facilities as a 
military hospital. 

Following Sherman's march through the South and Lee's surrender at Appomattox, 
a peace of desolation pervaded the region. Supporters of Wake Forest surveyed what 
remained: college buildings, now leaky and in poor repair; approximately $11,700 
from a prewar endowment of $100,000; the former president and faculty; and a loyal 
group of trustees. There was also something else: an indomitable spirit of determina- 
tion that Wake Forest should emerge from the wreck of the war and fulfill its mission. 

The needs of the College were great and financial prospects poor, but in November 
1865, barely six months after the end of the war, nine members of the Board of Trustees, 
acting with unwarranted courage, authorized the resumption of classes. Wingate was 
persuaded to resume the presidency, and on January 15, 1866, fifty-one students 
enrolled. The number increased as the South and its economy slowly recovered. 

President Wingate realized that the people of North Carolina had to be awakened 
to the need for education in the renascent South, and that they must be persuaded that 
Wake Forest could help serve that need. To launch this campaign, a Baptist-spon- 



20 

sored, statewide educational convention was held in Raleigh, but before funds could 
be collected, the financial crisis of 1873 ended all immediate hope for endowment. The 
failure of the 1873-74 fund-raising campaign placed the College in a precarious 
position. The triple encumbrances of war, reconstruction, and financial panic made it 
evident that little money could be raised in North Carolina. The Committee on 
Endowment of the Board of Trustees appointed James S. Puref oy, a local merchant and 
Baptist minister, as agent to solicit funds in the Northern states for continued 
operation of the College. While serving as treasurer of the board before the war, he 
had salvaged $11,700 from the prewar endowment of $100,000 by persuading the 
trustees to invest half of the endowment in state bonds. After two years of unrelenting 
and often discouraging labor, without remuneration, he placed in the hands of the 
trustees the sum of $9,200. 

It was also in the bleak days of financial uncertainty that a Wake Forest student, 
James W. Denmark, proposed and founded the first college student loan fund in the 
United States. A Confederate veteran, Denmark had worked six years to accumulate 
enough money for his own college expenses. Soon after entering Wake Forest in 1871 
he realized that many students had the same great financial need. From his meager 
funds he spent five dollars for postcards and wrote to college presidents across the 
country asking how their loan funds were organized. When he found that the colleges 
had none, he enlisted the support of faculty and students at Wake Forest and in 1877 
persuaded the Legislature to charter the North Carolina Baptist Student Loan Fund. 
Now known as the James W. Denmark Loan Fund, it is the oldest college student loan 
fund in the United States and has assets of $325,000 to serve the needs of students 
according to the purposes of its founder. 

By the close of President Wingate's second administration in 1879, the College had 
been successfully revived. The endowment had been increased and new construction 
had begun. Perhaps the greatest service President Wingate rendered was bringing to 
the College a faculty of highly qualified scholars who served the College with 
distinction and dedication over many years. Among them were Professors William G. 
Simmons (1855-88), William Royall (1859-70; 1880-92), William Bailey Royall (1866- 
1928), Luther Rice Mills (1867-1907), and Charles Elisha Taylor (1870-1915), who 
served as president from 1884 to 1905. Two other scholars who became tutors or 
adjunct professors in the last year of President Wingate's administration were also 
destined to play important roles in the life of the College: Needham Y. Gulley, who 
established the School of Law in 1894 and served as its first dean for thirty-six years, 
and biologist William Louis Poteat, who served the College for fifty years, twenty-two 
of them as president. 

The administration of President Thomas Henderson Pritchard, which followed that 
of President Wingate, was brief and served principally to further Wingate's efforts to 
persuade Baptists and other North Carolinians to improve the deplorable condition 
of education in the state. The second alumnus of the College to serve as president, 
Pritchard was an eloquent speaker whose prominent leadership among Baptists 
increased the patronage of the College and improved its image among its constitu- 
ency. 

Charles Elisha Taylor, whom President Wingate had brought to the faculty in 1880, 
was elected in 1884 to serve as the sixth president. 



21 

Taylor's administration from 1884 to 1905 brought enrichment of the academic 
program in a variety of ways. Academic departments were increased from eight to 
thirteen, and the size of the faculty more than doubled. Two new schools were added: 
the School of Law in 1894 and the School of Medicine in 1902. Progress in other areas 
included the addition of buildings and the landscaping of the campus. Over 400 trees 
were planted, making Magnolia grandiflora almost synonymous with the Wake Forest 
campus. 

President Taylor was succeeded by William Louis Poteat. Affectionately known as 
"Doctor Billy" to students during and after his twenty-two year administration, he 
continued to promote the general growth of all areas of college life. Special emphasis 
was placed on development in the sciences, reflecting in part the interests of the 
president and in part the need to enrich the pre-medical training required by the new 
School of Medicine. 

As student enrollment increased from 313 in 1905 to 742 in 1927, there was a 
corresponding increase in the size of the faculty. Registration in religion, English, 
education, and the social sciences required more administrative direction, and a dean 
and a registrar were employed along with a library staff. Propelled by the trend of the 
other colleges in the state, Wake Forest also gave more attention to sports and achieved 
an envied reputation in baseball and football. Also notable during President Poteat' s 
administration was the continued growth of the endowment. 

Beyond these significant material advances, President Poteat brought distinction in 
the form of state and national recognition. A devout Christian, an eloquent speaker, 
and an accomplished scholar, he became a national leader in education and probably 
the foremost Baptist layman in the state. As a distinguished scientist he was among the 
first to introduce the theory of evolution to his biology classes. The Christian commit- 
ment in his personal and public life enabled him to defend successfully his views on 
evolution before the Baptist State Convention in 1922, in a major victory for academic 
freedom that attracted nationwide attention. Through his influence and that of Wake 
Forest alumni who supported his view, the North Carolina Legislature refused to 
follow other Southern states in the passage of anti-evolution laws in the 1920s. 

During the administration of Poteat's successor, Francis Pendleton Gaines (1927- 
1930), the academic program continued to improve. In 1930, the trustees selected 
Thurman D. Kitchin, dean of the medical school, to fill the presidency. Kitchin was a 
member of a family prominent in state and national affairs: one brother, William W. 
Kitchin, had served as governor of North Carolina; another, Claude Kitchin, had 
served as majority leader in the United States House of Representatives. Kitchin's 
twenty-year administration was one of progress in the face of many obstacles — the 
Depression, destructive campus fires (one of which destroyed venerable Wait Hall), 
the disruption caused by World War II, and a depleted student body. 

Notable accomplishments during this period were the approval in 1936 of the 
School of Law by the American Bar Association and in 1941, the relocation of the 
School of Medicine to Winston-Salem, where it undertook full four-year operation in 
association with the North Carolina Baptist Hospital as the Bowman Gray School of 
Medicine, named after the benefactor whose bequest made expansion possible. 

World War Ilbrought other changes. Although the College was able to remain open, 
enrollment dropped in 1942 to 474. The College met this crisis by modifying its 



22 

century-old admissions policy and becoming a coeducational institution that year. In 
the postwar period, enrollment mushroomed with the return of the veterans and 
reached a peak of 1,762 by 1949. Just before World War II, a $7 million capital ex- 
pansion campaign for buildings and endowment had been launched by President 
Kitchin. The war forced the postponement of construction, but out of the campaign 
came a proposal which offered war-ridden Wake Forest an opportunity for yet 
another rebirth. The Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation proposed that up to $350,000 a 
year of its income (an amount which has steadily increased over the years) be given 
in perpetuity to the College, provided that the entire College be relocated to Winston- 
Salem and that other friends of the College provide a campus site and buildings. In 
1946, the Board of Trustees, the Convention, and the Baptist constituency of the state 
accepted the Reynolds proposal. Charles H. Babcock and his wife, Mary Reynolds 
Babcock, offered a 320-acre tract of their Reynolda estate as a site for the new campus. 

To move an institution over 100 years old from its rural setting 110 miles to a new 
campus in an urban area required leadership of great vision, determination, and 
youthful vigor. To succeed President Kitchin, who retired on his sixty-fifth birthday, 
the trustees in 1950 elected to the presidency Harold Wayland Tribble, then president 
of Andover Newton Theological Seminary and a noted Baptist theologian. President 
Tribble immediately began to mobilize alumni and friends of the College, and the 
Baptist State Convention, in support of the great transition. 

In the spring of 1951, William Neal Reynolds and Nancy Reynolds offered an 
anonymous challenge gift of $2 million on the condition that the College raise $3 
million by June 30, 1952. The deadline was extended and the challenge met by January 
1953. Mr. Reynolds died in September 1951 (the Foundation assumed his $1.5 million 
share of the challenge grant) and he willed to Wake Forest $1 million, to be paid at the 
time of removal. In recognition of his bequest, the new gymnasium was named for 
him. Because of the capital funds received from the Reynolds Foundation, the trustees 
voted that the library be named the Z. Smith Reynolds Library and the administration 
building, Reynolda Hall. 

Groundbreaking ceremonies were held in Winston-Salem on October 15, 1951, 
when a crowd of more than 20,000 watched President Harry Truman lift the first 
shovel of dirt to begin construction of the new Wake Forest campus. Between 1951 and 
1956, fourteen buildings were erected; the relocation of the College to its new home 
was accomplished in time for the opening of the summer session in 1956. 

During the next eleven years of President Tribble's administration, the College 
experienced many changes. It had revised its curriculum before moving to the new 
campus, offering greater flexibility to students, whose number increased to 3,022. The 
size of the faculty expanded, reducing the student /teacher ratio to fourteen to one. 

Additional resources came to the College in its new home. In 1954, the will of 
Colonel George Foster Hankins provided over $1,000,000 to be used for scholarships. 
In 1956, the Ford Foundation contributed $680,000 to the endowment of the under- 
graduate program and $1.6 million to the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. After the 
completion of a challenge gift of $3 million offered in 1965, the Foundation raised its 
annual contribution to $620,000. The holdings of the University's libraries more than 
tripled, and the Z. Smith Reynolds Library was awarded the income from an endowment 
fund of $4.5 million contributed by the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation and 
Nancy Reynolds. 



23 

Graduate work, first offered in 1866 but suspended during the removal program, 
was resumed in 1961 with the establishment of the Division of Graduate Studies. In 
1967, recognizing the augmented resources of the College, the trustees officially 
changed the institution's name to Wake Forest University. The Division of Graduate 
Studies became the Graduate School and the name Wake Forest College was retained 
as the designation for the undergraduate school. 

After seventeen years of strenuous effort, President Tribble retired in 1967, leaving 
as his lasting memorial the removal of the College from Wake Forest to Winston-Salem 
and its changed status from college to university, with enhanced resources and 
academic distinction. As his successor, the trustees chose James Ralph Scales (1967- 
1983), former president of Oklahoma Baptist University and former dean of arts and 
sciences at Oklahoma State University. His administration saw important new devel- 
opments. The Guy T. and Clara H. Carswell Scholarship Fund, valued at $1.6 million, 
was established in support of the undergraduate College. The new Babcock Graduate 
School of Management in 1969 was named in honor of Charles H. Babcock. Through 
the generosity of the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation and Nancy Reynolds, a building 
was constructed to house the Babcock School; a subsequent gift of $2 million was 
received from the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation for endowment. The James R. 
Scales Fine Arts Center was opened in 1976, marking a major phase of the College's 
growth in comprehensive liberal arts education. An athletic center and additions to 
the School of Law building, Guy T. Carswell Hall, further expanded the physical 
resources of the Reynolda Campus. 

Wake Forest has expanded its programs as well as its physical facilities. The 
University offers study for the baccalaureate degree in over thirty areas listed on page 
67. Exchange programs with local institutions and with universities abroad have 
further expanded the range of choice and opportunity. In addition, Wake Forest 
maintains residential language centers in Venice and London for foreign study within 
the college curriculum. 

President Scales left office on October 1, 1983, to return to teaching as the University's 
first Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies. The trustees selected Thomas K. 
Hearn Jr., a philosopher and former dean for non-medical affairs at the University of 
Alabama (Birmingham), as the University's twelfth president. He was inaugurated on 
November 4, 1983. 

Wake Forest celebrated its sesquicentennial anniversary in 1984. 

The Olin Physical Laboratory opened in the fall of 1989 and makes possible a physics 
program offering hands-on research and a significantly enlarged laser physics lab. 

The Clifton L. Benson University Center opened in the fall of 1990. 



24 

Student Life 



Student life at the University is designed to offer a wide range of resources which 
promote intellectual, cultural, social, vocational, physical, psychological, and spiri- 
tual growth through the services of the offices of the Division of Student Life, which 
are represented by the dean of student services and the offices of Campus Ministry, 
Career Services, Minority Affairs, Residence Life and Housing, Student Development, 
Health Education, Student Health Service, the Benson University Center, the Student 
Union, the University Counseling Center, and the Learning Assistance Program. The 
University is a community, and the sense of community is f osteredby rich opportunities 
for personal development. 

The Student Union, with offices in the Benson University Center, offers a diverse 
range of entertaining and enriching programs for the campus community. Men's 
social fraternities and women's societies and sororities are members of the 
Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils respectively. All students who live on 
campus are representedby the Resident Student Association. There are chapters of the 
major honor societies and professional societies for qualified students, and the 
University makes a number of academic awards for distinguished student achieve- 
ment and service. Intercollegiate athletics for men and women and an intramural 
sports program are strong, distinguished by tradition and performance. Religious 
activities are central to the life of the University and, like campus cultural opportuni- 
ties, are distinctive. The University offers a number of additional services to students 
relating to their physical and mental health, spiritual growth, and preparation for life. 

Student Government 

Student Government plays an important role in students' lives. It is the voice of the 
student body in the consideration of new programs and the modification of student 
life policies. 

The executive branch of the Student Government is comprised of the four student 
body officers — president, vice president, secretary, treasurer — and the executive 
advisory committees. Reporting directly to the officers are various committees which 
work on improving service to students. These committees are open to all students. 

The legislative branch of the Student Government is composed of seventy-one 
student representatives; the vice president of the student body serves as speaker. The 
Legislature represents the interests of students in social and academic matters, and 
promotes and funds projects of benefit to the student body and the larger community. 
It oversees disbursement of funds to student groups, and recommends the chartering 
of student groups seeking recognition by the University. Major committees are the 
Charter Committee, the Committee on Committees, the Campus Life Committee, the 
Economics Committee, the Judicial Committee, the Academic Committee, the Appro- 
priations and Budget Committee, and the Student Relations Committee. 

The honor system is an expression of the concern that students act with honor and 
integrity. It is an integral part of the Student Government as adopted by students and 
approved by the faculty. Its essence is that each student's word can be trusted 
implicitly and that any violation of a student's word is an offense against the whole 



25 

community. The honor system obligates students neither to give nor receive unautho- 
rized aid on academic work; to have complete respect for the property rights of others; 
to make no false or deceiving statements regarding academic matters to another 
member of the University community; not to interfere with the procedures of the 
honor system; and to confront any student who has violated the honor system and to 
remind that student of the responsibilities dictated by the honor system. 

The Honor Council consists of fourteen members — two officers selected by and 
from the Honor Council of the previous year plus three representatives from each 
class. There are three non-voting faculty advisers. 

It is the duty of the Honor Council to receive and investigate reports of honor system 
violations, to prefer charges where appropriate, and to arrange hearings for all 
charges of violations of the honor system. Penalties for a violation of the honor system 
may include a period of probation. A student who is found guilty of premeditated 
cheating is suspended or expelled from the University. Expulsion is normally auto- 
matic upon conviction for a second offense. All actions of the Honor Council are 
reported in writing to the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Business and 
Accountancy, and the dean of student services. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor system may be ineligible to represent 
the University until the period of punishment — whether suspension, probation, or 
another form — is completed and the student is returned to good standing, depending 
on the circumstances involved with the offense. A student who has been suspended 
can be readmitted to the College only on the approval of the faculty or its Committee 
on Academic Affairs. During the period of suspension, the student cannot be certified 
to another institution as being in good standing. 

The Case Referral Panel receives reports from the office of the dean of student 
services on student violations of University social regulations, conducts necessary 
investigations, and draws up specific charges. When a plea of guilty is entered, the 
Case Referral Panel levies a penalty, if one is appropriate. If a plea of not guilty or no 
plea is entered, the case is forwarded to the Student Judicial Board. 

The Student Judicial Board is composed of twelve members, at least three men and 
three women, who are elected at large from the student body. It is the duty of the Board 
to receive, prefer, and try all charges of social misconduct and violations of University 
rules and regulations for individual students as well as student organizations not 
covered by the Honor Council, the director of residence life and housing, or the Traffic 
Appeals Board. A student who violates these regulations or who behaves in such a 
way as to bring reproach upon him /herself or upon the University is subject to 
penalties ranging from verbal reprimand to suspension on the first offense. For further 
offenses, expulsion may occur. 

The interim judicial process, which provides trial before a five-person panel of faculty 
and students, is available at times when the normal processes are not functioning. 

The Judicial Council, a nine-person panel consisting of five faculty members, two 
administrators, and two students, hears appeals from the Honor Council, the Case 
Referral Panel, the Student Judicial Board, and the Interim Judicial process. The 
Judicial Council also supervises the undergraduate judicial system. 

Under the law, the University has the right to inform parents of dependent students 
and certain other qualified individuals of the contents of educational records. 



26 



Student Union 

The Student Union is responsible for scheduling entertainment activities and 
developing and presenting educational and cultural programs to complement aca- 
demic studies. The Student Union Program Council, representing all students, co- 
operates with the staff in daily operations and supervises the efforts of eleven 
committees and a large body of student volunteers. 

The Benson University Center, a 104,000-square-foot building, has a central rotunda 
capped by a skylight and contains facilities for activities and events. Starting with the 
lowest level, the five levels are: Exercise and Wellness (conditioning, aerobics, and 
karate areas); Entertainment and Nutrition (eating facilities, film auditorium and day 
student lounge); Information and Leadership (lobby, Information Desk, offices); 
Conference and Events (conference and meeting rooms, art gallery area); and Com- 
munications loft (student publications and radio station). 

Resident Student Association 

Each residence hall has a House Council which makes decisions about hall activities 
and budget allocations. House Council meetings also are forums for discussion of 
issues affecting student life in the residence halls. The Councils are comprised of an 
executive board of resident student representatives from each floor. Although each 
floor elects a House Council representative, every resident is encouraged to attend 
and to participate in meetings and functions. 

The House Councils fall under the guidance and supervision of a larger student 
governing organization: the Resident Student Association (RSA). The RSA consists of 
representatives from each House Council and elected student executive officers. The 
RSA provides financial and programming support to the House Councils, and acts as 
a liaison between the Councils and the Office of Residence Life and Housing. RSA and 
the House Councils also sponsor campus-wide programs which serve the Wake Forest 
and Winston-Salem communities. 

The House Councils and RSA not only provide social and educational opportunities 
for the University community, but also give students valuable leadership experience. 

Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils 

The Interfraternity Council is the governing body of fourteen social fraternities: 
Alpha Phi Alpha, Alpha Sigma Phi, Chi Psi, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Delta Sigma Phi, 
Kappa Alpha, Kappa Sigma, Pi Kappa Alpha, Sigma Chi, Sigma Nu, Sigma Phi 
Epsilon, Sigma Pi, Tau Kappa Epsilon, and Theta Chi. The purpose of the council is to 
govern and coordinate the campus Greek affairs and activities while promoting high 
standards of conduct, scholarship, community service, and fraternal operations. 

The Intersociety Council is the governing body of six local societies (Delphi, Fideles, 
Lynks, Phoenix, SOPHs, Strings, and Thymes) and four national sororities (Alpha 
Delta Pi, Alpha Kappa Alpha, Delta Delta Delta, and Delta Sigma Theta), each of which 
has selective membership for women. 



27 

Both the Interfraternity and Intersociety / Sorority Councils must follow University 
regulations and the national fraternities and sororities are subject to the rules of their 
national organizations. A student must have a cumulative C average to be pledged 
and initiated. Students who are on probation for any reason may not be pledged and 
initiated into any fraternity, society or sorority until the end of their probationary 
period. The Greek system is an excellent opportunity for men and women to gain 
leadership experience, develop life-long friendships, serve the Wake Forest community, 
and perpetuate excellence in scholastic achievement. 

Honor Societies, Professional Fraternities, and Clubs 

Phi Beta Kappa, established in 1776, is the oldest American Greek letter society. 
Election to membership is the highest recognition of excellence in scholarship that an 
undergraduate can achieve. Students must have qualifications of "high scholarship, 
liberal culture, and good character." The number elected each year at Wake Forest is 
approximately eight percent of the graduating class. 

A number of nationally affiliated honor societies have been established: Anthony 
Aston Society (drama), Beta Beta Beta (biology), Beta Gamma Sigma (business), Delta 
Phi Alpha (German), Eta Sigma Phi (classics), Lambda Alpha (anthropology), Omi- 
cron Delta Epsilon (economics), Phi Alpha Theta (history), Pi Mu Epsilon (mathemat- 
ics), Pi Sigma Alpha (political science), Sigma Tau Delta (English), Omicron Delta 
Kappa, and Mortar Board. There are student sections of the American Chemical 
Society, the American Institute of Physics, and the American Society of Personnel 
Administration. There is also a chapter of the national service fraternity, Alpha Phi 
Omega. 

Other student organizations include: Accounting Society, Amnesty International, 
Anthropology Club, Baptist Student Union, Black Christian Fellowship, Black Stu- 
dent Alliance, Catholic Student Association, Circolo Italiano, College Democrats, 
College Republicans, Dance Club, Economics Society, Episcopal Student Fellowship, 
Equestrian Club, Fellowship of Christian Athletes, Frisbee Club, Gospel Choir, 
Habitat for Humanity, Harbinger Corps, Hockey Club, International Club, Intervarsity 
Christian Fellowship, Karate Club, Literary Society, Marketing Society, Model United 
Nations, Peer Counselors, Politics Club, Pre-Law Society, Presbyterian Fellowship, 
Rugby Football Club, Safe Rides, Sailing Club, Scuba Club, Soccer Club, Sociology 
Club, Students Against Apartheid, Students for Life, Student Alumni Council, Vol- 
unteer Service Corps, Wesley Foundation, and Wilderness and Mountaineering Club. 

Academic Awards and Competitions 

The following awards are made annually: the A. D. Ward Medal for the senior 
making the best address at commencement; the /. B. Currin Medal for the best oration, 
essay, or work of music or art on the topic "Christ in Modern Life"; the D. A. Brown 
Prize to the student whose writing most merits recognition; the M. D. Phillips Prize to 
the outstanding senior in Greek or Latin; the John Y. Phillips Prize to the outstanding 
senior in mathematics; the H. Broadus Jones Award to the student whose paper shows 



28 

greatest insight into the works of Shakespeare; the Ruth Foster Campbell Award to the 
student whose ability in the Spanish language and spirit of joyful inquiry into Spanish 
culture have been most outstanding; the Forrest W. Clonts Award to the outstanding 
senior in history; the C.Chilton Pearson Research Prize for the outstanding paper writ- 
ten by a junior or senior American history major; the Forrest W. Clonts Research Prize for 
the outstanding paper written by a junior or senior non- American history major; the 
Phi Alpha Theta Research Prize for the best paper written by a junior or senior member; 
the Claud H. Richards Award to the outstanding senior in politics; the John Allen Easley 
Medal to the outstanding senior in religion; the American Bible Society Award for the 
outstanding senior Bible student; the Lura Baker Paden Medal to the outstanding senior 
in business; the Wall Street Journal Medal and a year's subscription to the Journal to the 
outstanding senior in finance; the A. M. Pullen and Company Medal to the senior with 
the highest achievement in accounting; the William E. Speas Award to the outstanding 
senior in physics; the Carolina Biological Supply Company Award to the major in biology 
who is judged by the department to have completed the outstanding undergraduate 
research project of the year; the Walter S. Flory Award to the senior major in biology 
who is judged by the department to have made the greatest overall contribution by an 
undergraduate to the Department of Biology. 

The William C. and Ruth N. Archie Award, established by a grant from Ruth N. Archie 
and from the Archies' son and daughter-in-law, William Archie Jr. and Margaret 
Archie, is given each year to the graduating senior who, in the opinion of the dean of 
the College and a faculty committee appointed by the dean, has shown most con- 
spicuously a commitment to liberal learning, to scholarship, and to the ideals of Wake 
Forest College. In odd-numbered years the award is presented to a female student; in 
even-numbered years it is presented to a male student. 

The Christopher Giles and Lucille S. Harris Competitions in Musical Performance have 
been held within the University annually since 1978. Five cash awards, ranging from 
$100 to $500, are awarded to student winners. Two prizes are endowed by Patricia 
Sloan Mize in honor of her parents, Joseph Pleasant and Marguerite Nutt Sloan. The 
awards are known as the Joseph Pleasant and Marguerite Nutt Sloan Prize and the 
Patricia Sloan Mize Prize. 

Intramural Athletics 

The intramural program operates under the auspices of the Department of Health 
and Sport Science. It provides a variety of competitive activities for students, faculty, 
and staff. There are sports for male, female, and coed participation. Activities usually 
included in the intramural program are basketball, cross-country, football, golf, 
racquetball, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, volleyball, water polo, wrestling, and 
weight lifting. 

Students occasionally organize club teams for other sports and activities, which are 
not taught or directed by the College, but which are conducted as student organizations 
with the approval of Student Government and the faculty. Currently these include 
rugby, karate, equestrian, sailing, scuba diving, soccer, outing, and dance. Students 
who are interested in a sport not offered through the College may organize themselves 
and petition the Student Government and faculty for approval. 



29 

Intercollegiate Athletics 

For men: 

Under the director of athletics, Wake Forest is a member of the Atlantic Coast Con- 
ference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, and participates in intercollegiate 
football, basketball, baseball, golf, tennis, soccer, cross-country, and track. 

The full scholarship allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association covers 
tuition, fees, room, board, and books. Wake Forest offers several special scholarships 
and awards: the Arnold Palmer Award for the Wake Forest Athlete of the Year, as 
judged by lettermen from each team; the Buddy Worsham Memorial Scholarship, the John 
R. Knott Scholarship, and the Lanny Wadkins Scholarship for golf; the Carl Tacy, Lowell 
"Lefty " Davis, Horace "Bones " McKinney, and Vernon Nelson Scholarships for basketball; 
the Granger Ancarrow Scholarship for track/ cross country; the Nikos Ridle and John H 
Vernon Jr. Scholarships for tennis; and the John T. Hicks Scholarships for baseball. The 
George C. Mitchell, Helen Ann Ward Straughan, Claude and Anne Bruce Brewer Gore, C. 
Hunter Moricle, and Addison Hewlett Jr. Scholarships are general athletic scholarships. 

For women: 

Under the director of women's athletics, Wake Forest is a member of the Atlantic 
Coast Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and participates in 
basketball, field hockey, golf, tennis, cross-country, and track. 

The full scholarship allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association covers 
tuition, fees, room, board, and books. 

Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps 

The Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) has served the nation with 
distinction for over seventy-five years. The Corps exists to commission the future 
officer leadership of the United States Army, the United States Army Reserve and the 
Army National Guard. 

The Wake Forest AROTC program was established in 1951 . Its graduates, both male 
and female, have served and are serving at the highest levels of all three components 
of the Army of the United States. The Corps of Cadets is organized as a Cadet Battalion. 
Participation in its activities develops self-confidence, physical and mental stamina, 
and leader competence, and instills in the cadet the tradition of selfless service to the 
nation. 

Officership is the centerpiece of the AROTC program of instruction. A baccalaure- 
ate degree and a commission are the two principal goals of the cadet. Cadets are well- 
rounded, fully-participating members of the Wake Forest community who have 
chosen to take advantage of the leadership development opportunities available 
through the Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps while simultaneously repaying 
their country for its gifts of freedom and security. 

Religious Activities 

The Campus Ministry provides a variety of opportunities for the spiritual devel- 
opment of students, faculty, and staff. Thursday Worship is a weekly service which 



30 

addresses the needs of the community through scripture, prayer, preaching, and 
music. A Pre-School Conference for freshmen each fall, a Church Vocations day in 
winter, and a Faith and Reason forum each spring promote the integration of spiritual 
and educational concerns. A Volunteer Service Corps enables students to get involved 
in the needs of the Winston-Salem community. There are ten student religious 
organizations which provide regular programs, including Bible study, music, worship, 
mission opportunities, and guest speakers on contemporary Christian concerns: 
Baptist Student Union, Black Christian Fellowship, Catholic Student Association, 
Episcopal Fellowship, Fellowship of Christian Athletes, Intervarsity Christian Fel- 
lowship, Lutheran Fellowship, Presbyterian Fellowship, United Methodist Fellowship, 
and University Gospel Choir. The University chaplain, assistant chaplain, Baptist 
campus minister, Methodist chaplain, Presbyterian campus minister, Roman Catholic 
chaplain, Episcopal chaplain, Lutheran campus minister, and the coordinator of 
Intervarsity Christian Fellowship compose the Campus Ministry staff. The chaplains 
are available for counseling in a variety of areas: spiritual direction, advice to religious 
organizations, and help in dealing with crisis situations such as serious illness or 
death. The Wake Forest Baptist Church cooperates with Campus Ministry in both joint 
and individual efforts to serve the community. 

Cultural Activities 

The University Theater presents four major productions and several lab plays 
annually, employing faculty, student, and visiting professional directors. WFDD (FM) 
broadcasts a program service of classical music, news and information, jazz, and folk 
music, 24 hours a day, 365 days per year to Piedmont North Carolina as a member of 
National Public Radio. In addition to student announcers, producers, and technicians, 
it has a professional staff of eight. WAKE Radio (FM), a completely student-operated 
radio station, is provided via the campus cable system. Intercollegiate debate at Wake 
Forest has a long record of excellence, and the College hosts two annual debate 
tournaments: the Franklin Shirley Dixie Classic and the National Early Bird High 
School Forensics Tournament. 

Student publications include Old Gold and Black, a weekly newspaper; The Student, 
a literary magazine; and the Howler, the yearbook. The Student Union sponsors major 
speakers and symposia throughout the academic year, and departments in the College 
engage specialists for other series. The Hester Philosophy Seminar, occurring every two 
years, is sponsored by the Department of Philosophy. The Albritt on, Easley, and Robinson 
Lectures are sponsored by the Department of Religion, one being held each year. The 
Department of Psychology sponsors a colloquium series throughout the academic 
year. 

The Tocaueville Forum brings nationally known speakers to campus — to lecture and 
teach — under a major grant from the Smith Richardson Foundation. 

Student musicians perform for academic credit in the Choral Union, the Concert 
Choir, the Madrigal Singers, the Opera Workshop, the University Orchestra, the 
Marching Deacons Band, the Symphonic Band, the Jazz Ensemble, various chamber 
ensembles, and the Collegium Musicum. All student ensembles give public perfor- 
mances each semester. 



31 

Major concerts by orchestras and artists from around the world are performed in 
Wait Chapel and Brendle Recital Hall in the Scales Fine Arts Center under the auspices 
of the Secrest Artists Series. The Department of Music also sponsors performances by 
faculty, students, and visiting artists, and, in cooperation with the University Theater, 
presents musical theatrical productions. Visiting dance soloists and companies and 
other musical programs are held in Brendle Recital Hall. Recitals are played by both 
students and guest carillonneurs on the Janet Jeffrey Carlile Harris Carillon. Students 
in the Chapel Bell Guild play English handbells for convocations and services in Wait 
Chapel. 

All concerts are open to students and to others in the community. 

In addition to studio instruction in the Department of Art, visiting artists teach on 
campus and at the nearby Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art. Reynolda 
House has frequent lectures related to its special collection in American art. The 
Student Union has an expanding collection of contemporary works of art, under 
student administration and exhibited in the Benson University Center and elsewhere 
on campus. The T. J. Simmons Collection of paintings, etchings, lithographs, and 
sculpture also is on permanent display throughout the campus. Cultural resources in 
the community, in addition to the Reynolda House Museum of American Art and the 
Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art, include the restored historic Moravian 
village of Old Salem, the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, the North 
Carolina School of the Arts and its associated professional performing companies in 
theater, dance, and music, and the Winston-Salem Symphony and Chorale. Folk art, 
professional art, and crafts fairs are frequent. 

Career Services 

The Office of Career Services in Reynolda Hall offers a full range of career services, 
including career counseling, library resources, and a computer program which helps 
students determine career interests. Other services include career exploration, resume 
writing and interviewing skills, and interviews with prospective employers. The 
office helps students choose careers and find full-time, part-time, and summer jobs. 
The office directs a comprehensive internship program, which provides experiential 
learning opportunities for undergraduates. 

The office maintains a file on each registered student to help with on-campus 
interviews and off-campus job search. More than 200 employers, colleges, and 
universities interview registered undergraduate and graduate students during the 
year. Job vacancy listings, employer directories, company profiles, and alumni con- 
tacts provide leads for the off-campus job search. 

Students are invited to take advantage of these services, beginning early in their 
college years. The office resources are available on a walk-in basis during regular 
office hours and individual consultations are available by appointment. 

University Counseling Center 

The University Counseling Center (118 Reynolda Hall) offers a broad range of 
counseling and psychological services. Students can discuss their personal, educa- 



32 

tional, and career concerns with a professional counselor or psychologist. A variety of 
tests are available to help students identify their vocational and educational interests, 
study skills and personality traits. 

There are a number of programs and groups designed to assist students with 
specific concerns such as self-confidence, eating disorders, stress management, rela- 
tionships, substance abuse, etc. Educational materials about these and other topics are 
available. The Center also provides referrals when necessary. Psychological emergen- 
cies are handled through the Center in cooperation with the Student Health Service. 
Appointments are available Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. Confi- 
dentiality is assured and no fees are charged to students. 

Learning Assistance Program 

Another service sponsored by the Counseling Center is the Learning Assistance 
Program. The program's services include study skills training through individual 
academic counseling, computer-assisted instruction in subject areas, and individual 
and group tutoring. The Learning Assistance Program staff presents courses and 
seminars in academic skills throughout the year. Located in 117 Reynolda Hall, the 
Learning Assistance Program is open Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 
p.m. and from 1:30 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. Students may call 759-5929 to schedule an 
appointment. 

Student Health Service 

The Student Health Service is located in Kitchin House and provides primary care 
services, including general health maintenance, diagnostic and treatment procedures, 
and referral to specialists. It is open when residence halls are in operation; a health 
information questionnaire is required to be on file for all students. The services of the 
clinical staff are covered by tuition; there are additional charges for injections, 
medications, laboratory tests, special physical examinations, and in-patient care. (See 
"Admission," page 34, and "Other Charges," page 38, for further detailed informa- 
tion.) 

The Health Education Program 

The health education program provides a variety of services geared to promote 
healthy living. The health educator offers programs in areas such as substance abuse 
prevention and intervention, nutrition and weight control, sexual health, contracep- 
tion, and exercise. A team of trained peer educators are also available to provide 
information on a variety of health-related issues. The health education office, located 
in Room 321, Benson Center, may also be used as a resource for brochures, literature, 
and videos on current health information. 

Office of Minority Affairs 

The Office of Minority Affairs helps minority students to assess their educational 
goals and academic skills in order to achieve a satisfying college experience at Wake 



33 



Forest. The staff also helps students to understand the history of the University and 
promotes an appreciation of each student's heritage and background. A variety of 
orientation services are offered to new students to facilitate their transition into 
campus life. 

The office serves as a resource for programs that foster positive race relations. In 
addition, the Office of Minority Affairs, through the work of the counselor for 
minority recruitment, has primary responsibility for the recruitment of minority 
students. 




The joys of graduation! 



34 

Procedures 

All students are responsible for familiarizing themselves with the portions of this bulletin 
which pertain to their course of study. Statements concerning courses and expenses are not to 
be regarded as irrevocable contracts between the student and the institution. The University 
reserves the right to change the schedule of classes and the cost of instruction at any time within 
the student's term of residence. 

Admission 

Candidates for admission must furnish evidence of maturity and educational 
achievement. The Committee on Admissions carefully considers the applicant's 
academic records, scores on tests, and evidence of character, motivation, goals, and 
general fitness for study in the College. The applicant's secondary school program 
must establish a commitment to the kind of broad liberal education reflected in the 
academic requirements of the College. 

Admission as a freshman normally requires graduation from an accredited secondary 
school with a minimum of sixteen units of high school credit. These should include 
four units in English, three in mathematics, two in history and social studies, two in 
a single foreign language, and one in the natural sciences. An applicant who presents 
at least twelve units of differently distributed college preparatory study can be 
considered. A limited number of applicants maybe admitted without the high school 
diploma, with particular attention given to ability, maturity, and motivation. 

All persons admitted are required to submit a health history, along with the results 
of a physical examination, certain laboratory tests, and immunization records to the 
director of the Student Health Service. If a person who has been accepted but has not 
yet enrolled has or develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the director 
of the health service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being of the student or 
others, that person may be required to delay matriculation until the problem is 
resolved. 

North Carolina law and Wake Forest University require that all new, transfer, 
readmit, unclassified or visiting students submit proof of immunization against 
tetanus and diphtheria (Td), polio, rubeola, rubella, and mumps before registration. The 
student handbook has a detailed statement. A certificate from the student's high 
school, physician, or county health department director containing the approved 
dates is acceptable proof of immunization. The Student Health Service will furnish a 
form for this purpose. North Carolina law requires that students who do not submit 
proper proof of immunization within thirty days of enrollment cannot attend Wake 
Forest University until these immunizations have been documented. 

Application 

An application is secured from the Office of Admissions in person or by mail (Box 
7305 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109). It should be completed 
and returned to that office no later than January 15 for the fall semester. Most 
admissions decisions for the fall semester are made by April 1, with prompt notification 
of applicants. For the spring semester, applications should be completed and returned 



35 

no later than October 15. Except in emergency, the final date for applying for the fall 
semester is August 1 and for the spring semester, January 1. Application on this last- 
date basis is primarily for nonresident students. 

Wake Forest accepts the Common Application in lieu of its own form and gives 
equal consideration to both. Students may obtain copies of the Common Application 
from their high schools. 

The admission application requires records and recommendations directly from 
secondary school officials. It also requires test scores, preferably from the senior year, 
on the Scholastic Aptitude Test of the College Entrance Examination Board. Accom- 
panying achievement tests are optional. All test scores should be sent directly to the 
University by Educational Testing Service. A $25 fee to cover the cost of processing 
must accompany an application. It cannot be applied to later charges for accepted 
students or refunded for others. The University reserves the right to reject any application 
without explanation. 

A $200 admission deposit is required of all students accepted and must be sent to 
the Office of Admissions no later than May 1 following notice of acceptance. It is 
credited toward first semester fees. Students notified of acceptance after May 1 for the 
fall semester or November 1 for the spring semester should make the admission 
deposit within two weeks of notification. Deposits made after May 1 and November 
1 are not refundable. Failure to make the admission deposit is taken as cancellation of 
application by the student. No deposit is required for summer session enrollment. 

Early Decision 

An early decision plan is available to well-qualified high school students who 
decide, by the close of their junior year, to apply only to Wake Forest University. An 
early decision agreement is required with the application, which is sent to the Office 
of Admissions after completion of the junior year and not later than November 15 of 
the senior year. Along with the high school record, recommendations, and scores on 
the Scholastic Aptitude Test, at least one achievement test, especially in English 
composition, is strongly recommended. 

Candidates for early decision are normally expected to have completed, or be 
enrolled in courses to complete, all the natural science, foreign language, literature, 
and mathematics requirements of the secondary school. Decisions are based upon 
junior year grades and test scores; SATs and achievement tests taken in the fall of the 
senior year cannot be considered for early decision. 

Early decision applicants with completed applications are notified of acceptance on 
a rolling basis and not later than December 1 for the fall semester, and the admission 
deposit is required by January 1. Applicants not admitted are asked to submit a senior 
year Scholastic Aptitude Test score and first semester senior year grade record, or are 
advised to apply elsewhere. 

Admission of Handicapped Students 

Wake Forest College will consider the application of any qualified student, regardless 
of handicap, on the basis of the selection criteria established by the University which 
include personal and academic merit. Upon matriculation, all students will be 
required to meet the same standards for graduation. Programs at Wake Forest are 



36 

accessible to all of its students. The University will assist handicapped students in 
making arrangements to meet special needs. Students who seek further information 
should consult the Office of Admissions or the University's equal opportunity officer. 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 

Advanced placement credit for college level work done in high school is available 
on the basis of the Advanced Placement Examination of the College Entrance Exami- 
nation Board and supplementary information. Especially well-qualified applicants 
for advanced standing may also be exempt from some basic and divisional courses 
with credit on the authorization of the department concerned. Credit by advanced 
standing is treated in the same manner as credit transferred from another college. 

Under certain conditions, especially well-prepared applicants may be granted 
limited college credit through the subject tests of the College Level Examination 
Program (CLEP) of the Educational Testing Service. Such credit maybe assigned with 
the approval of the department concerned or the dean of the School of Business and 
Accountancy. 

Admission of Transfer Students 

The number of transfer students who can be admitted each year depends upon the 
availability of space in the freshman (second semester), sophomore, and junior classes. 
In recent years, such space has been very limited. An applicant for admission who has 
attended another college must be a graduate of a standard junior college or furnish a 
certificate of honorable dismissal stating eligibility in all respects to enter the college 
last attended, and must have an overall average of at least C on all college work 
attempted. A student who is admitted from another college before fully meeting the 
prescribed admissions requirements for entering freshmen must remove the entrance 
conditions during the first year at Wake Forest. 

The writing of transfer students is evaluated during the orientation period each 
semester, and students whose writing is deficient are given a composition condition. For 
removal of a composition condition the student is required to take English 1 1 during the 
first semester for which he or she registers following the assignment of the cc. Removal 
of the deficiency is prerequisite to graduation. 

Courses satisfactorily completed in other accredited colleges are accepted subject to 
faculty approval. In general, no credit is allowed for courses not found in the Wake 
Forest curriculum. The minimum residence requirement for a baccalaureate degree is 
two academic years, the senior and one other. 

Expenses 

Statements concerning expenses are not to be regarded as forming an irrevocable 
contract between the student and the University. The costs of instruction and other 
services outlined herein are those in effect on the date of publication of this bulletin, 
and the University reserves the right to change without notice the cost of instruction 
and other services at any time. 

An admission deposit of $200, which is applied toward tuition and fees for the 
semester for which the student has been accepted, is required to complete admission. 



37 

Charges are due in full on August 1 for the fall semester and December 15 for the spring 
semester. Faculty regulations require that student accounts be settled in full before the 
student is entitled to receive a grade report, transcript, or diploma, or to register for 
the following semester or term. 

Tuition 

Per Semester Per Year 

Full-time (twelve or more credits) $6,000 $12,000 

Part-time $340 per credit 

Students should expect an average increase of about eight percent yearly in tuition. 
However, admittance to the undergraduate college is not based on financial resources. 
The University meets the demonstrated financial needs of all qualified students. 

Students enrolled in the College or in the School of Business and Accountancy for 
full-time residence credit are entitled to full privileges regarding libraries, laborato- 
ries, athletic contests, concerts, publications, the Student Union, the University 
Theater, and the health service. Part-time students are entitled to the use of the 
libraries and laboratories but not to the other privileges mentioned above. They may 
secure a part-time student ID card, admissions to games and concerts, and publica- 
tions by paying an activity fee of $125 per semester. 

Room Charges 

Per Semester Per Year 
Double occupancy $882.50 $1,765 

Most rooms available for first-year students are $882.50 per semester. Other room 
rentals range from $705 to $1,155. 

Food Services 

A cafeteria and table service dining room are located in Reynolda Hall; there is a 
food court in the Benson University Center. Board plans are available which range 
from $1,360 to $2,210 per year. The format of these plans is a credit card system in 
which the student is charged only for the amount of food purchased at the time it is 
purchased. The plan may be used at any University food services facility, and it allows 
a great deal of flexibility for eating off campus. 

Freshmen living in dormitories are required to participate in both the fall and spring 
semesters in one of the board plans. 

Other Charges 

Admission application fee of $25 is required with each application for admission to 
cover the cost of processing and is nonrefundable. 

Admission deposit of $200 is required of each student entering for the first time or 
returning after a period of non-attendance and must be sent to the director of 



38 

admissions. The deposit is credited to the student's charges for the semester for which 
he or she has been accepted for admission. 

Applied music fees are required in addition to tuition for students enrolling for indi- 
vidual study in applied music in the Department of Music and are payable in the 
controller's office. The fee for one credit per semester is $110; for more than one credit 
per semester, $175. 

Hospital charges, made when the student is confined to the Student Health Service, 
are $75 per day. Additional charges are made for medications, laboratory tests, and 
special supplies. Students must have hospital insurance. A group plan is available 
through the University for those not covered by a family plan. A $2 charge is added 
to overdue bills. 

Late registration fee of $10 is charged to students registering after the dates set by the 
faculty. 

Library fines are charged for lost books and for violation of other library regulations 
and are payable in the library. 

A tuition deposit of $200 is required, at a date set by the Office of the Controller, of 
students enrolled in the spring semester who expect to return for the fall semester. It 
is credited to the student's University charges and is refunded if the controller is 
notified in writing prior to June 1 that the student will not return. 

Room change fee of $25 is charged for any unauthorized change. 

Motor vehicle registration is $60 and traffic fines are $10 to $50. All students operating 
a vehicle on campus (including student apartments, theme, and satellite houses) must 
register vehicles they are operating day or night, whether or not owned by the 
operator. All vehicle registrations must be completed within twenty-four hours from 
the first time the vehicle is brought to campus. Proof of ownership must be presented 
when applying for vehicle registration. Fines are assessed against students violating 
parking regulations; copies of the violations are obtainable from the Office of Parking 
Management in the University security office. 

Transcripts of a student's record are issued at a cost of $2 each. 

Refunds 

During the academic year, all students, full-time and part-time, receive tuition 
refunds according to the following schedule. This policy applies to students dropping 
courses as well as those withdrawing. Withdrawals must be official and students must 
return their ID cards before claiming refunds. There is no refund of room rent or parking 
decals that have been placed on vehicles. 

Number of Weeks Attendance Percentage of Total Tuition 

(Including first day of registration) to be Refunded 

1 week Total tuition less $200 

2 weeks 75 percent 

3 weeks 50 percent 

4 weeks 25 percent 



39 

Fees for applied lessons in the Department of Music will be refunded on the 
following basis: If a student drops the course before the seventh lesson the fee will be 
one-fourteenth the full semester's instruction fee times the number of lessons the 
student has had. There is no refund after the seventh lesson. 

Housing 

All unmarried first-year students are required to live in residence halls, except (1) 
when permission is given by the dean of student services for the student to live with 
parents or a relative in the Winston-Salem area or (2) by special arrangement when 
space is not available on campus or (3) if the student has lost residence hall space 
because of a room contract violation or disciplinary action. Fifth-year students and 
part-time students are ineligible for housing except when permitted to do so by the 
director of residence life and housing. Married students are not usually allowed to live 
in residence halls except when permitted to do so by the director of residence life and 
housing. Residence halls and apartments are supervised by the director of residence 
lif e and housing, associate directors of residence life and housing, assistant directors 
of residence life and housing, and residence hall directors. 

The charges for residence hall rooms for 1992-93 will range from $1,410 per year for 
a triple room to $2,310 for a single room in an air-conditioned building. These rates will 
vary depending upon the building to which a student is assigned. 

Academic Calendar 

The academic calendar of the College and the School of Business and Accountancy 
includes a fall semester ending before Christmas, a spring semester beginning in 
January and ending in May, and two five-week summer sessions. Semesters usually 
last fifteen weeks. 

Orientation and Advising 

A four-day orientation period for new students in the College precedes registration 
for the fall semester. A faculty adviser and an upperclass student provide guidance 
during and between registration periods throughout the student's freshman and 
sophomore years. Advisers meet with students both individually and in small groups. 
Students are encouraged to take the initiative in arranging additional meetings at any 
time they feel a need for advice or other assistance. The adviser suggests and approves 
courses of instruction until the student declares a major in a field of study toward the 
end of the sophomore year. At that time, a new adviser is assigned from the 
department or departments concerned. 

Registration 

A registration period for all students in the College and the School of Business and 
Accountancy opens the fall semester and the spring semester. Registration involves 
(1) payment of all tuition and fees in full to the controller, (2) obtaining a summary of 
prior record from the registrar, (3) consultation with the academic adviser, and (4) 



40 

sectioning into courses. In certain semesters, part of these processes are accomplished 
ahead of time through preregistration. 

Classification 

Classification of students by class standing and as full-time or part-time is calculated 
in terms of credits. Most courses in the College and the School of Business and 
Accountancy have a value of four credits, but others vary from one credit to five. The 
normal load for a full-time student is eighteen credits per semester, with a maximum 
of nineteen (twenty if only four courses are involved) permitted on registration day. 
A student wishing to register for more than twenty credits per semester must seek the 
permission of the appropriate dean or the Committee on Academic Affairs after 
registration day. 

Twelve credits per semester constitutes minimum full-time registration. (Recipi- 
ents of North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants must be enrolled by the tenth day 
of classes for at least fourteen credits each semester. Recipients of veterans' benefits, 
grants from state government, and other governmental aid must meet the guidelines 
of the appropriate agencies.) A student may not register for fewer than twelve credits 
without specific permission from the Committee on Academic Affairs to register as a 
part-time student. 

A full-time student in the fall semester of any year may not be a part-time student 
in the spring semester immediately following. Any student who petitions for part- 
time status within the semester in which he or she wishes to gain such status is not 
eligible for a tuition refund. 

The requirements for classification after the freshman year are as follows: sopho- 
more — the removal of all entrance conditions and the completion of no fewer than 29 
credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 58 grade points; junior — the completion 
of no fewer than 60 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 120 grade points; 
senior — no fewer than 108 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 216 grade 
points. 

Class Attendance 

Attendance regulations place the responsibility for class attendance on the student, 
who is expected to attend classes regularly and punctually. A vital aspect of the 
residential college experience is attendance in the classroom; its value cannot be 
measured by testing procedures alone. Students are considered sufficiently mature to 
appreciate the necessity of regular attendance, to accept this personal responsibility, 
to demonstrate the self-discipline essential for such performance, and to recognize 
and accept the consequences of failure to attend. Students who cause their work or that 
of the class to suffer because of absence or lateness may be referred by the instructor 
to the dean of the College or to the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy 
for suitable action. Any student who does not attend classes regularly or who 
demonstrates other evidence of academic irresponsibility is subject to such disciplin- 
ary action as the Committee on Academic Affairs may prescribe, including immediate 
suspension from the College or from the School of Business and Accountancy. 



41 

The Office of the Dean of the College maintains a list of students who have missed 
class while acting as duly authorized representatives of the College. Such absences are 
considered excused and a record of them is available to the student's instructors upon 
request. The instructor determines whether work missed may be made up. For 
policies pertaining to absences resulting from illness, please see the statement on the 
Student Health Service and class excuses in the Student Handbook. 

Auditing Courses 

When space is available after the registration of regularly enrolled students, others 
may request permission of the instructor to enter the course as auditors. No additional 
charge is made to full-time students in the College or the School of Business and 
Accountancy; for others the fee is $80 per course. Permission of the appropriate dean, 
as well as that of the instructor, is required. An auditor is subject to attendance 
regulations and to other conditions imposed by the instructor. Although an auditor 
receives no credit, a notation of audit is made on the final grade report and entered on 
the record of regularly enrolled students who have met the instructor's requirements. 
In no case may anyone register for an audit course before the first meeting of the class. 
An audit course may not be changed to a credit course, and a credit course may not 
be changed to an audit course. 

Dropping a Course 

The last day in each term for dropping a class without a grade of F is listed in the 
calendar in the front of this bulletin. A student who wishes to drop any course 
before this date must obtain the necessary form from the registrar and confer with his 
or her faculty adviser. After this date, a student who wishes to drop a course must 
consult his or her faculty adviser, the course instructor, and the dean of the College or 
the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, as appropriate. If the dean 
approves the request, he or she authorizes the student to discontinue the course. 
Except in cases of emergency, the grade in the course will be recorded as F. 

If, at any time, a student drops any course without prior, written approval of the 
appropriate dean, the student will be subject to academic probation for the following 
semester or to such other penalties as the Committee on Academic Affairs of the 
faculty may impose. 

Withdrawal from the College 

A student who finds it necessary to withdraw from the College or the School of 
Business and Accountancy must do so through the office of the appropriate dean. 
With the approval of the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Business and 
Accountancy, no grades are recorded for the student for that semester, but the 
student's standing in courses at the time of the withdrawal is taken into consideration 
when readmissionis sought. If withdrawal is for academic reasons, failing grades may 
be assigned in all courses in which the student is doing unsatisfactory work. A student 
who leaves the College or the School of Business and Accountancy without officially 



42 

withdrawing is assigned failing grades in all current courses, and the unofficial 
withdrawal is recorded. 

Examinations 

Final examinations are given at regularly scheduled times. All examinations are 
conducted in accordance with the honor system adopted by the student body and 
approved by the faculty. Under it, the student is expected to refrain from unfairness 
in any form and to report to the Honor Council any student whom he or she knows 
to be cheating. 

Grading 

For most courses carrying undergraduate credit, there are five final and two 
conditional grades: A {exceptionally high achievement), B {superior), C {satisfactory), D 
{passing but unsatisfactory), E {conditional failure), F (failure), and I {incomplete). 

Grade of E. The grade of E entitles the student to reexamination at any regular 
examination period within a year, or during the first week of the fall semester. A 
permit for reexamination must be obtained in advance from the registrar, and no 
grade higher than D may be assigned as a result of reexamination. A student who does 
not remove a conditional failure by reexamination must repeat the course to obtain 
credit for it. 

A candidate for graduation in the final semester who has received a grade of E in the 
previous semester may apply to the registrar for reexamination thirty days after the 
opening of the final semester but no later than thirty days before its close. All 
conditions, including the grade of E, must be removed no later than thirty days before 
the end of the term in which the student graduates. The name of a candidate who has 
a condition after that date is dropped from the list of candidates. A candidate who 
receives a grade of E in the final semester or term of the graduation year is not allowed 
reexamination before the next examination period. 

Grade of I. The grade of I may be assigned only when a student fails to complete the 
work of a course because of illness or some other emergency. If the work recorded as 
I is not completed within thirty days after the student enters for his or her next 
semester, the grade automatically becomes F. The instructor must report the final 
grade to the registrar within forty-five days after the beginning of that semester. 

Grade Points. Grades are assigned grade points for the computation of academic 
averages, class standing, and eligibility for continuation, as follows: for each credit of 
A, four points; for each credit of B, three points; for each credit of C, two points; for each 
credit of D, one point; for each credit of E or F, no points. 

Pass/Fail. To encourage students to venture into fields outside their major areas of 
competence and concentration, the undergraduate schools make available the option, 
under certain conditions, of registering in courses on a pass /fail basis rather than for 
a letter grade. Courses taken under the pass /fail option yield full credit when 
satisfactorily completed but, whether passed or not, they are not computed in the 
grade-point average. In no case may a student change from grade to pass /fail mode, 
or from pass / fail to grade mode, after the last day to add a course, listed in the calendar 
at the front of this bulletin. 



43 

A student may count toward the degree no more than twenty-four credits taken on 
a pass/fail basis. Freshmen and sophomores are not eligible to elect the pass/fail 
mode, but may enroll for courses offered only on a pass /fail basis. Juniors and seniors 
may elect as many as sixteen credits on a pass /fail basis, but no more than five credits 
in a given semester. Courses used to fulfill basic, divisional, or major requirements 
may not be taken on a pass /fail basis unless they are offered only on that basis. 
Courses in the major(s) not used for satisfying major requirements may be taken on 
a pass /fail basis if the department of the major does not specify otherwise. 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 

A mid-term report and a final report of grades are issued to students by the registrar 
in the fall and spring semesters. A final report of grades is issued for each summer 
term. 

Copies of a student's cumulative record are issued by the registrar, but only on the 
written authorization of the student and payment of $2 per transcript. 

Dean's List 

The Dean's List is issued at the end of the fall and spring semesters. It includes all 
full-time students in the College and the School of Business and Accountancy who 
have a grade-point average of 3.0 or better for the semester and who have earned no 
grade below C during the semester. 

Graduation Distinctions 

Graduation distinctions are determined by the grade-point system. A degree 
candidate with a cumulative average of not less than 3.80 for all courses attempted is 
graduated with the distinction summa cum laude. A candidate with a cumulative av- 
erage of not less than 3.50 for all courses attempted is graduated with the distinction 
magna cum laude. A candidate with a cumulative average of not less than 3.00 for all 
courses attempted is graduated with the distinction cum laude. The entire record of a 
student is considered, with the understanding that a student offering transfer work for 
credit may receive no distinction which requires a grade-point average greater than 
that earned at Wake Forest University. Details are available in the Office of the 
Registrar. 

Repetition of Courses 

A student may not repeat a course in which he or she has received a grade of C or 
higher. A student may, however, repeat at Wake Forest a Wake Forest course for 
which he or she has received a grade of D or F. In this case, all grades received will be 
shown on the transcript, but the course may be counted only one time for credit. If a 
student fails a course previously passed, the credit originally earned will not be lost. 
For purposes of determining the grade-point average, a course will be considered as 
attempted only once, and the grade points assigned will reflect the highest grade 
received. These provisions do not apply to any course for which the student has 
received the grade of F in consequence of an honor violation. 



44 

Probation 

Students are responsible at all times for knowing their academic standing. Any 
student who, at the end of the fall semester, does not have the grade-point average 
normally required for continuation at the end of the following spring semester is 
automatically on academic probation. 

Any student who is placed on probation because of honor code or conduct code 
violations may be placed on such special academic probation as the Committee on 
Academic Affairs imposes. The Committee on Academic Affairs may at any time 
suspend or place on probation any student who has given evidence of academic 
irresponsibility, as, for example, by failing to attend class regularly or to complete 
papers, examinations, or other work on time. 

If poor academic performance is attributable to circumstances over which the 
student clearly had no control (e.g., serious injury or illness), the student may, after 
consultation with one of the academic deans, petition the Committee on Academic 
Affairs for further consideration of his or her status. 

In deciding whether to permit exceptions to the foregoing eligibility requirements, 
the Committee on Academic Affairs will take into account such factors as convictions 
for violations of the College honor code or social conduct code, violations of the law, 
and any other behavior demonstrating disrespect for the rights of others. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor code is ineligible to represent the 
University in any way until the period of suspension or probation is completed and 
the student is returned to good standing. Students who are on probation for any 
reason may not be initiated into any fraternity, society, or sorority until the end of their 
probationary period. 

Under the law, the University has the right to inform parents of dependent students 
and certain other qualified individuals of the contents of educational records. 

Requirements for Acceptable Academic Standing 

Students are expected to be aware at all times of their academic status and to be 
responsible for knowing whether they have met the minimum academic requirements 
for continuation in the undergraduate schools of the University. The committee of the 
faculty which oversees the academic progress of students is the Committee on 
Academic Affairs. 

Whether a student is academically eligible to continue is determined by the number 
of course credits accumulated and the grade-point average. The number of credits 
accumulated is the sum of the credits transferred from other institutions and the 
credits earned in the undergraduate schools of the University. The grade-point 
average is computed only on work attempted in the undergraduate schools of the 
University and excludes both non-credit and pass /fail courses. 

To be considered in acceptable academic standing, a student is expected to 

a. accumulate at least 24 credits during each 12-month period the student is 
enrolled; 

b. accumulate at least 8 credits each semester which fulfill basic or divisional 
requirements, until all of these requirements have been satisfied; 



45 

c. achieve a grade-point average of at least 

1) 1.45 if between 1 and 36 credits have been accumulated; 

2) 1.60 if between 37 and 72 credits have been accumulated; 

3) 1.75 if between 73 and 108 credits have been accumulated; 

4) 1.90 if more than 108 credits have been accumulated. 

A student whose academic standing is unacceptable for a continuous period of two 
semesters and one summer (in any order) is ineligible to continue. 

Any student who is in academic difficulty is strongly urged to seek advice and 
counsel from the Office of the Dean, the Office of Learning Assistance, the Counseling 
Center, and /or the student's academic adviser. 

Any student suspended from the University for failing to maintain an acceptable 
academic standing has the right to petition the Committee on Academic Affairs, 
through the Office of the Dean of the College, for reconsideration. The Committee will 
base a decision to allow the student to continue on whether there were adverse 
circumstances, such as a prolonged illness, over which the student had no control. If 
such is the case, the Committee will expect the student to demonstrate that he/she 
made every effort to maintain acceptable academic standing in spite of circumstances. 

A student whose petition for reconsideration is granted or who is readmitted after 
academic suspension and who fails in a period prescribed by the Committee on 
Academic Affairs to achieve acceptable academic standing is ineligible to continue. 

A student who has or develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the 
director of the Student Health Service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being 
of the student or others may be required to withdraw until the problem is resolved. 

Requirements for Readmission 

The Committee on Academic Affairs oversees the readmission of former students. 
In making a decision on whether to readmit, the Committee considers both the 
academic and non-academic record of the student. Academic grounds for denying 
readmission are based upon evidence of irresponsible academic performance. Students 
who have been ineligible to continue for academic reasons must present to the 
Committee a list of steps they plan to take to raise their academic standing to 
acceptable standards. Non-academic grounds for denial may include convictions for 
violations of the honor system or the social conduct code, for violations of the law, and 
for other behavior showing disrespect for the rights of others. 

Summer Study 

In addition to regular courses, a number of special summer programs for credit are 
described in the bulletin of the summer session. 

In order to be eligible to take summer courses at another college or university, the 
student must have a cumulative grade-point average of no less than 2.0, and must 
obtain advance approval of the head of the department concerned, the registrar, and 
in some cases, the dean's office. Courses taken elsewhere on the semester-hour plan 
are computed as transfer credit at 1.125 credits for each approved semester hour. 



46 

Courses taken outside the U.S. require, in addition, prior approval from the Office 
of International Studies. Students must obtain a transfer of credit form from the Office 
of International Studies. 

Transfer Credit 

All work attempted in other colleges and universities must be reported to the 
registrar of Wake Forest University. Students wishing to receive transfer credit for 
work to be undertaken elsewhere must have a cumulative grade-point average of no 
less than 2.0 and must obtain faculty approval in advance. If a student plans to seek 
approval for transfer courses after the completion of the sophomore year, such courses 
must be taken in an approved four-year institution. 

Students who wish to receive transfer of credit for courses taken outside the U.S., 
need to obtain prior approval from the Office of International Studies and then faculty 
approval. Transfer of credit forms are available in the Office of International Studies. 

Students should be aware that the minimum grade-point average for graduation 
and for graduation distinctions is computed in two ways: on all work attempted in 
Wake Forest College and the School of Business and Accountancy; and also on work 
attempted at Wake Forest and other accredited colleges and universities collectively. 



47 



Scholarships and Loans 



Any student regularly admitted to Wake Forest College who demonstrates financial 
need will receive assistance commensurate with that need. 

By regulation of the Board of Trustees, all financial aid must be approved by the 
Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. Applications should be requested from 
the committee at Box 7246 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109. 
Scholarships supported by funds of the undergraduate schools are not granted to 
students enrolled in other schools of the University. To receive consideration for 
financial aid, the applicant must either be enrolled as an undergraduate or have been 
accepted for admission. The financial aid program comprises institutional, state, and 
federal scholarship, loan, and work funds. Students enrolled at least half-time are 
eligible to apply for federal funds. Half-time and part-time students are eligible to 
apply for limited institutional funds. 

The University offers a number of scholarships based upon merit. Those with a 
stipend based upon tuition will increase as tuition increases; those with a dollar 
stipend remain fixed for the four years of enrollment. 

Need is a factor in the awarding of most financial aid, and each applicant must file 
an annual financial statement with the application for financial aid. After reviewing 
the standard financial analysis, the Committee on Scholarships determines aid awards, 
and aid is credited, by semester, to the student's account in the Office of the Controller. 
The calculation of need, and therefore the amount of an award, may vary'from year 
to year. The Committee on Scholarships reserves the right to revoke financial aid for 
unsatisfactory academic achievement or for violation of University regulations or 
federal, state, or local laws. To be eligible for renewal of aid, a student must remain 
enrolled on a normal full-time basis and be in good standing, making satisfactory 
progress toward a degree. The committee does not award institutional scholarships 
to students earning less than a 2.0 grade average on all work attempted at Wake Forest. 

Scholarships 

The Reynolds Scholarships are awarded each year to five extraordinarily capable men 
and women entering the College as first-year students. Made possible through a grant 
from the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation in honor of Nancy Susan Reynolds, these 
scholarships cover the cost of tuition, room, and board, and include an allowance for 
books and personal expenses. Scholars may receive up to $1,500 each summer for 
travel or study projects approved by the Reynolds Committee. The Reynolds Schol- 
arships are awarded without regard to financial need and will be renewed annually 
through the recipient's fourth year of college, subject to satisfactory performance. A 
separate application is required by December 1. 

The O. W. Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of O. W. Wilson of Yancey 
County, N.C., is awarded to an individual who demonstrates outstanding qualities of 
intellectual promise and leadership. The scholarship has a value equivalent to annual 
tuition and provides summer grant opportunities to encourage individual study 
projects. No separate application is required. 



48 

The Doctor George E. and Lila C. Bradford Fund awards a renewable full-tuition aca- 
demic scholarship annually to a student possessing outstanding leadership and 
aptitude who intends to pursue a pre-medical course of study. No separate applica- 
tion is required. 

The Guy T. Carswell Scholarships, made possible by and established in honor of the 
late Guy T. Carswell and his wife Clara Carswell of Charlotte, N.C., have an annual 
value ranging from a minimum stipend of $4,500 to a maximum stipend of $15,200, 
with awards for more than $4,000 determined on the basis of need. Each scholar may 
apply for at least one summer grant of up to $1,000 to fund travel and study projects 
of the student's design. A Carswell scholar must be a student applying to the College 
who possesses outstanding qualities of intellect and leadership. Up to forty scholars 
are selected annually. A separate application is due by January 15. 

The Presidential Scholarships for Distinguished Achievement, established by the 
University's alumni, award twenty renewable $4,500 scholarships on the basis of 
exceptional talent and leadership. Candidates must be students who will enrich and 
add to the diversity of life at Wake Forest through their special talents in the areas of 
the fine arts (including music, art, theater, dance, film, and other arts), debate and 
public speaking, writing, leadership, public service, and entrepreneurial achieve- 
ment. A separate application must be submitted by December 15. 

The Joseph Gordon and Wake Forest Black Student Scholarships, established by en- 
dowment from the University's Sesquicentennial Fund and gifts from the Z. Smith 
Reynolds Foundation, recognize the outstanding achievements of black students and 
are awarded each year to entering freshmen who demonstrate academic promise and 
leadership potential. This program provides seven full-tuition scholarships and three 
$2,000 per year scholarships. All scholarships are renewable annually through the 
recipient's fourth year. Awards are made without regard to financial need. A separate 
application is required by January 15. 

Wake Forest Honor Scholarships provide an annual renewable grant of $3,000 to 
students who apply for the Reynolds or Carswell Scholarships and who demonstrate 
exceptional academic ability and leadership. 

The George Foster Hankins Scholarships, made possible by the late Colonel George 
Foster Hankins of Lexington, N.C., for residents of North Carolina or children of 
alumni living in other states with preference given to residents of Davidson County, 
have an annual value of up to $16,650. Recipients must demonstrate need as well as 
academic promise. A separate application is due by January 15. 

The Graylyn Scholarship provides three undergraduate renewable one-half year tu- 
ition merit scholarships and two to three Bowman Gray School of Medicine renewable 
$6,000 merit scholarship to students who demonstrate outstanding evidence of 
academic leadership and commitment to campus life. 

The Robert P. and Dorothy Caldwell Scholarships, given by family and friends of Robert 
P. and Dorothy Caldwell, provide up to three scholarships annually on the basis of 
outstanding academic achievement, demonstrated leadership ability, record of com- 
munity service, and a commitment to helping others. A portion of these funds gives 
preference to students from Gaston and Catawba (N.C.) counties who need assistance 
in order to attend Wake Forest. 



49 

The Holding Scholarship, provided by a gift from the Robert P. Holding Foundation 
in memory of Mr. Holding, a member of the Class of 1916, offers one full tuition 
renewable scholarship annually to a student of exceptional leadership and academic 
promise, who is in residence at least one year in North Carolina. Separate application 
is not required, but the student must complete an application for either the Nancy 
Susan Reynolds or Carswell Scholarship. 

The Junius C. and Eliza P. Brown Scholarships are designed to recognize excellence 
among North Carolina students demonstrating financial need in order to attend Wake 
Forest. Preference for selection is given first to students from the Madison area of 
Rockingham County, second to students from the Reidsville area of Rockingham 
County, and third to other applicants from Rockingham County. A separate applica- 
tion is due by January 15. 

For all the following scholarships, there is no separate application required 
except where noted. Students who complete the normal application for financial 
aid, including the Wake Forest application and an FAF (Financial Aid Form), will 
be considered for appropriate scholarships. 

The Alcoa Foundation Scholarship, donated by the Alcoa Foundation, is available to a 
freshman from the Piedmont area of North Carolina who is majoring in chemistry. The 
scholarship has a value of $2,000 and is awarded on the basis of need. 

The Charles I. and Louise Allen Scholarship Fund, established under the will of Louise 
Lambeth Allen, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student who may be 
interested in pursuing a medical career. 

The Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) Scholarships are awarded for 
academic and personal achievement. These four-, three-, and two-year scholarships 
annually pay: (1) $7,500 or 80% of tuition, whichever is higher; (2) a flat rate for texts, 
equipment, and supplies (presently $450); (3) a subsistence allowance of up to $1,000 
($100 per month for the months spent in school); and (4) up to a maximum amount 
(presently $400) for certain required on-campus educational and laboratory fees. All 
benefits are tax-free. Recipients must enroll and fully participate in Army ROTC. 
Four-year AROTC scholarships are applied for during the latter part of the junior or 
the early part of the senior year of high school. Two- and three-year AROTC 
scholarships are applied for during the sophomore and freshman years, respectively, 
through the Department of Military Science. 

The Arthur Andersen Accounting Leadership Award is presented to a senior accounting 
major who has demonstrated excellence in the areas of academic performance, 
leadership, and civic /community responsibility. 

The Teresa Mae Arnold Scholarship is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a 
student enrolled in Wake Forest College. 

The Camillo Artom Fund for Italian Studies was established in 1976 in honor of Camillo 
Artom, professor of biochemistry from 1939 to 1969. Scholarship aid is made available, 
usually to one or two students each semester, to assist with their expenses. Well- 
qualified students who can demonstrate need are eligible to apply. (Interested persons 
should apply to the Office of the Provost.) 



50 

The Donald A. Baur Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of leadership, 
dedication, competitiveness, and citizenship, with preference given to members of 
Delta Nu Chapter, Sigma Chi Fraternity. 

The Beach Scholarship, established in memory of the Reverend Benjamin Beach, 
provides funding for the Poteat Scholarship winner from the congressional district 
encompassing Caldwell County, N.C. 

The George M. and Daisy Olive Beavers Scholarship Fund, donated by Lydia Beavers in 
memory of her parents, is for one scholarship awarded on the basis of leadership, good 
citizenship, and excellence of character. 

The J. Irvin Biggs Scholarship is awarded to needy and deserving undergraduates, 
with preference given to students from Lumberton or Robeson County, North 
Carolina. 

The Charles Spurgeon and Inez Black Scholarship provides one annual scholarship to 
that chemistry major having the second highest academic record in the given year. 

The Robert D. Bridger Jr. Scholarship, donated by George R. Bridger in honor of his 
father, is made to a senior major in the School of Business and Accountancy. Selection 
of the recipient is based on demonstrated academic ability and financial need, with 
preference given to students from Bladen County or southeastern North Carolina. 

The Claude U. Broach Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or upperclassman with 
preference given to students from St. John's Baptist Church of Charlotte. 

The J. Melville and Alice W. Broughton Scholarship Fund, established in honor of 
Governor, Senator, and Wake Forest Trustee J. Melville Broughton and his wife, Alice 
W. Broughton, by the Broughton family of Raleigh, N.C, awards one scholarship 
annually to a North Carolina student on the basis of academic ability and financial 
need. 

The Dean D. B. Bryan Memorial Scholarship Fund was established in honor of D. B. 
Bryan, dean of Wake Forest College from 1923 to 1957. It awards a partial or full-tuition 
scholarship to a student who plans to pursue a career in education, and who 
demonstrates financial need and academic ability. The recipient must pledge to work 
in the education field for a minimum of five years following graduation or must repay 
the scholarship to the University. 

The Lib andjoyner Burns Scholarship is awarded on the basis of both ability and need, 
with preference given first to students having a physical handicap and second to 
students from Forsyth or Guilford Counties, N.C. 

The Jack Buchanan Scholarship is awarded on the basis of financial need and academic 
ability, with preference given to students from western North Carolina planning a 
business major. 

The John Douglas Cannon Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
need. 

The J. G. Carroll Memorial Athletic Scholarship, donated in memory of J. G. Carroll, 
former associate professor of mathematics, is made to a deserving athlete who is not 
on a regular athletic scholarship, for a value of approximately $100. 

The James Lee Carver Scholarship, donated by Jean Freeman Carver with her children, 
James Lee Carver II and Elizabeth Jeanine Carver, in memory of her husband, James 
Lee Carver, is for deserving and promising students who demonstrate a need for 
financial assistance, with preference given to students from the Oxford Orphanage in 
Oxford, N.C. 



51 

The J. D. Cave Memorial Scholarship is awarded to a North Carolina male student who 
demonstrates strong character, a willingness to grow intellectually, and evidence of 
need, for an approximate annual value of $600. 

The Neal M. Chastain Memorial Scholarship, established by Mrs. June Booth of 
Charlotte in memory of her son, is awarded to a senior business major exhibiting 
Christian ideals and good academic achievement. 

The Wake Forest College Scholarships, in the amount of $100 to $10,800 each, are 
available to freshmen and upperclassmen presenting satisfactory academic records 
and evidence of need. 

The William Henry Crouch Scholarship for ministerial students has been established 
by the Providence Baptist Church of Charlotte in honor of its pastor. The scholarship 
is valued at $3,000 per year and is available for a North Carolina Baptist ministerial 
student or students based upon merit or need. 

The O. B. Crowell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by Louise T. Crowell of 
Hendersonville, N.C., in memory of her husband, O. B. Crowell, is awarded on the 
basis of character, need, and promise. 

The Gary Franklin Culler Scholarship Fund, donated in memory of Gary Franklin 
Culler, is awarded on the basis of academic ability and outstanding leadership 
potential, with preference given to students from High Point, N.C. 

The Egbert L. Davis Jr. Scholarship, provided by the Davis family in honor of Egbert 
L. Davis Jr., noted Wake Forest alumnus and benefactor, provides merit and need 
assistance to one or more students demonstrating outstanding academic perfor- 
mance, diligence, integrity, character, leadership, and reasonable athletic compe- 
tence. Awards are renewable on the basis of a B average, exemplary personal conduct, 
and participation in the religious life of the University. 

The Eleanor Lay field Davis Art Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship to a student with 
interest and ability in studio art, who has been recommended by the chair of the art 
department, to exemplify the talents and interests of Eleanor Layfield Davis. 

The Thomas H. Davis Business Scholarship, established by employees of Piedmont 
Aviation Inc. in honor of its founder and retired chairman, is awarded to a senior 
business major based on academic achievement, financial need, and potential for 
business leadership. 

The Elizabeth S. Drake Scholarship is awarded to an English major who demonstrates 
academic ability and financial need, upon the recommendation of the chair of the 
English department. 

The A. J. Fletcher Music Scholars Program, establishedby the A. J. Fletcher Foundation, 
awards eight scholarships annually. All awards are based on musical merit. Applica- 
tions must be made to the Department of Music. 

The Bobbie Fletcher Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability 
and uncommon leadership qualities to a female student from North Carolina. Recipients 
will possess the qualities of kindness, thoughtfulness, unselfishness, patience, and 
determination which distinguished Bobbie Fletcher. Preference will be given to 
students demonstrating financial need. 

The Lecausey P. and hula H. Freeman Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. G. H. 
Singleton of Raleigh, in memory of the parents of Mrs. Singleton, is available to a 
freshman, sophomore, or junior whose home is within the West Chowan Baptist 



52 

Association of North Carolina, with preference given to Bertie County students, on the 
basis of need and ability. Residents of the Roanoke Association may be considered for 
the scholarship. 

The Wallace G. Freemon Memorial Scholarship is awarded to premedical students in 
Wake Forest College. 

The Charles A. Frueauff Scholarships are provided annually by the Charles A. Frueauff 
Foundation for middle-income students who live outside North Carolina. Amounts 
vary according to need. 

The F. Lee Fulton Scholarship Fund, established by friends and associates of F. Lee 
Fulton, is awarded on the basis of leadership, citizenship, moral character, academic 
ability, and need. 

The Gaddy Scholarship Fund awards a need-based scholarship each year to a North 
Carolina student, with preference given to residents of Anson, Union, and Wake 
counties. 

The Lewis Reed Gaskin Scholarship Fund, established by E. Reed Gaskin and Jean H. 
Gaskin in honor of Lewis Reed Gaskin, is awarded to a freshman or upperclassman 
with preference given to a pre-medical student. The award shall be made on the basis 
of academic ability and potential as a physician. Recipients shall be known as Lewis 
Reed Gaskin scholars. 

The Daniel Eugene and Beulah B. Gatewood Scholarship in Accountancy, given by Beulah 
B. Gatewood in honor of her husband, is awarded to an undergraduate accounting 
major based on academic merit and financial need. 

The A. Royall Gay Scholarship is awarded on the basis of scholarship, character, and 
high ideals. Preference is given to graduating seniors from Youngsville, N.C. 

The James W. Gill Scholarship, donated by Ruth R. Gill in memory of her husband, 
James W. Gill, provides a scholarship for a deserving student, with preference given 
to students from Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties, Maryland. 

The Eugene Basil Glover Memorial Scholarship is awarded to an incoming or enrolled 
student based on ability and need, with slight preference given to students from 
Halifax County, N.C. 

The Wallace Barger Goebel Scholarship, made possible through a donation from Miriam 
M. Goebel, is based upon ability and financial need, with first preference given to a 
student with an interest in literature, second preference to a student with an interest 
in history, and third preference to a student enrolled in the pre-medical program. 

The Stanley McClayton Guthrie Scholarship Fund awards one scholarship each year to 
a needy student, with preference given to students from Halifax County, Va. 

The Fuller Hamrick Scholarship, created under the will of Everett C. Snyder of Wake 
Forest, N.C, in memory of Fuller Hamrick, is used to educate students from the Mills 
Home in Thomasville, N.C. 

The George G. and Georgeine M. Harper Charitable Trust awards scholarships of 
varying stipends annually to students with high academic potential and financial 
need, with preference to a North Carolinian. 

The Henry Russell and Clara Stephenson Harris Scholarship Fund, established by 
Elizabeth Harris in memory of her parents, provides a scholarship awarded on the 
basis of academic ability and financial need to a senior business major who plans to 
pursue a career in banking. 



53 

TheM. Elizabeth Harris Music Scholarship Fund provides an annual scholarship for a 
music major, with preference given to a student whose primary interest is church 
music. The award is made on the basis of academic ability and financial need. 

TheMargaret S. Hasty Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Judge FredH. Hasty 
in memory and honor of his beloved wife, is for one or more female undergraduate 
student(s) with good academic ability and financial need. The scholarship is renew- 
able if the student places in the upper third of her class. 

The Louise Patton Hearn Scholar ship for Human Servicers awarded to a student who has 
demonstrated exceptional service to improve the well-being of other people and who 
shows interest and potential in leading others to make similar contributions to 
humanity. 

The Frank P. Hobgood Scholarship, donated by Kate H. Hobgood of Reidsville, N.C., 
in memory of her husband, is available to those who qualify on the basis of character, 
purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to those who plan to enter the 
ministry, do religious work, become teachers, or become lawyers, the preference being 
in the order named, for the residents of the Reidsville area recommended by the 
deacons of the First Baptist Church of Reidsville. 

The W. D. and Alberta B. Holleman Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Robert 
D. Holleman in memory of his parents, is awarded on the basis of academic ability, 
need, Christian commitment, and leadership to a student from Durham County. 

The Forrest H. Hollifield Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Hollifield in 
memory of their son, Forrest H. Hollifield, is awarded to upperclassmen with 
evidence of character and need, with preference given to natives of Rowan and 
Rutherford counties, N.C., and to members of the Delta Nu Chapter of Sigma Chi 
Fraternity. 

Thejeanette Wallace Hyde Scholarship, donated by Jeanette Wallace Hyde of Raleigh, 
is awarded on the basis of financial need and academic ability. Preference is given, but 
not limited to, students from Yadkin County. 

The Jones-Holder Business Scholarship Fund, awarded upon the recommendation of 
the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, recognizes a rising senior 
business major who has demonstrated a high level of achievement. 

The }. Lee Keiger Sr. Scholarship is an academic scholarship awarded annually to a 
North Carolina student, with preference given to students living in the ALLTEL- 
Carolina Telephone Company service region. 

The Sarah C. and C. A. Kent Scholarships are awarded to freshmen and upperclassmen 
on the basis of leadership, academic merit, and financial need, without regard to race, 
religion, sex, or geographical origin. 

The Kirkpatrick-Hozvell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by the Delta Nu Chapter 
of Sigma Chi Fraternity, makes available one or two scholarships, with preference 
given to members of the Sigma Chi Fraternity, upon recommendation of the Kirkpatrick- 
Howell Memorial Scholarship Board, for a value of approximately $800. 

The Charles L. Little Scholarship Fund, established by Charles L. Little, is given to 
upperclass students. Preference is given to pre-medical students from Anson County 
and immediately adjacent counties in North Carolina who provide satisfactory 
evidence of a willingness to give serious consideration to practicing medicine in 
Wadesboro or Anson County. 



54 

The James C. Mason Scholarship Fund, created under the will of Oscar W. McManus 
of Laurinburg, N.C., is awarded to a worthy student. 

The Burke M. McConnell Management Excellence Scholarship, established by Pace 
Communications, Inc. of Greensboro, is given to the senior in the School of Business 
and Accountancy who holds the highest grade-point average for his or her first three 
years at the University. 

The Wilma L. McCurdy Memorial Fund Scholarship is awarded on the basis of char- 
acter, academic standing, and need. 

The Thane Edward McDonald and Marie Dayton McDonald Memorial Scholarship Fund, 
made possible by the late Thane Edward McDonald, professor of music, is available 
to a deserving and qualified music student. Applications must be made to the 
Department of Music. 

TheMcGladrey & Pullen Scholarship, grantedby the public accounting firm, McGladrey 
& Pullen, is awarded to a senior accounting major designated by the accounting 
faculty on the basis of merit, financial need, and interest in public accounting, and has 
a value of $750. 

The Robert A. and Margaret Pope Mclntyre Scholarship is awarded annually, with 
preference given to students from Robeson County, N.C. 

The Robert Lee Middleton Scholarship, donated by Sarah Edwards Middleton of 
Nashville, Tenn., in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of character, 
purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to the student planning to enter 
the field of literature, accounting, teaching, or the gospel ministry or other full-time 
religious work. 

The Mildred Bronson Miller Scholarship Fund, donated by Mildred B. Miller of Atlanta, 
Ga., is awarded to students on the basis of leadership, dedication, competitiveness, 
and citizenship. 

The Hiram Abif Myers III Scholarship Fund, established in memory of Hiram Abif 
("Bif") Myers who died early in his freshman year at Wake Forest, awards one 
scholarship to a senior from Roswell High School, Roswell, Ga., who best exemplifies 
the ideals and characteristics of Bif Myers. The candidate is recommended by the 
Roswell High School principal. 

The Myers Memorial Scholarship is awarded to pre-ministerial students or to students 
contributing to Christianity. 

The George Thompson Noel, M.D., Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of 
academic ability and financial need, with preference given to students from Cabarrus 
County and North Carolina. The Noel Scholarship is renewable for succeeding school 
years, provided the recipient demonstrates continuing need and ranks in the top third 
of his or her class. 

The Norfleet Scholarships, donated by Mr. and Mrs. Eustace Norfleet of Wilmington, 
N.C, in memory of his parents, John A. and Mary Pope Norfleet, are available to 
deserving and promising students needing financial assistance. 

The North Carolina Scholarships are made available by the North Carolina General 
Assembly and are awarded on the basis of financial need to full-time students who are 
bona fide residents of North Carolina. 

North Carolina Student Incentive Grants are available to undergraduate residents of 
North Carolina with exceptional financial need who require these grants in order to 



55 

attend college, for a value up to $1,500 per year. The amount of assistance a student 
may receive depends upon need, taking into account financial resources and the cost 
of attending the college chosen. 

The Curtis Eugene Overby Sr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability, 
financial need, and outstanding leadership potential to a North Carolina junior or 
senior majoring in communications, with an interest in broadcasting. Preference is 
given to students from Forsyth, Rockingham, and Caswell Counties. 

The Benjamin Wingate Parham Scholarship, donated by Kate J. Parham of Oxford, 
N.C., in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need and may 
be renewed for succeeding years. 

The H. Franklin Perritt III Memorial Scholarship Fund provides a scholarship of at least 
$1,000 annually to one or more sophomores enrolled in the Reserve Officers' Training 
Corps. Selection is based upon outstanding leadership potential. 

The Thomas F. Pettus Scholarships, administered by the North Carolina Baptist 
Foundation under the terms of the will of the late Thomas F. Pettus of Wilson County, 
N.C., make two or more scholarships available each year in memory of Mr. Pettus and 
are awarded on the basis of merit and need, with preference given to North Carolina 
Baptist students. 

The William Louis Poteat Scholarships, valued at $4,500 per year, are available to 
twelve freshmen, one from each Congressional District of North Carolina, plus three 
scholarships at large from the state. To be eligible, a student must be an active member 
of a Southern Baptist Church in North Carolina, must be likely to make a significant 
contribution to church and society, and must be appreciative of the quality of 
education available at Wake Forest University. A separate application is required by 
December 15. 

The H. Ray Pullium Scholarship Fund, established by Mrs. H. Ray Pullium in honor of 
her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need. Preference is given to 
students from North Carolina Baptist Children's Homes. 

The Kenneth Tyson Raynor Scholarship, donated by friends of the late Kenneth Tyson 
Raynor, professor of mathematics, is awarded annually by the mathematics faculty. 
The award is made on the basis of academic ability to an individual majoring in 
mathematics who has achieved junior standing. 

The Oliver D. and Caroline Revell Scholarship is awarded to needy pre-ministerial 
students or needy students entering full-time Christian service. 

The William Royal Scholarship Fund, given by family and friends of William Royall, 
provides a scholarship award for excellence in classical studies, with preference given 
to students planning to travel abroad to classical sites. Applications must be made to 
the Department of Classical Languages. 

The George D. Rovere Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship annually to a student 
planning to become an athletic trainer. 

The William Lee Rudd and Ruth Crosby Rudd Scholarship is awarded to worthy and 
needy students majoring in religion. 

The Sara Jo Brownlow Shearer Scholarship is awarded to students specializing in the 
area of learning disabilities. 

The W.D. Sanders Scholarship. Two scholarships, each in the amount of $2,000, are 
awarded annually for language study in Germany or Austria. Sophomores, juniors, or 



56 

seniors who have completed German 153 or above are eligible, and the scholarships 
are designated, in order of priority, for summer language study, semester or year 
programs with the Institute of European Studies (IES), or junior year abroad programs 
with other institutions. Applications should be made to the Department of German 
and Russian. 

The Franklin R. Shirley Debate Scholarship, established in honor of the late Franklin R. 
Shirley, professor emeritus of speech communication, is awarded to a student who has 
debate experience and who successfully participates in the University's debate 
program. 

The James F. Slate Fund provides an annual scholarship or loan to a student who plans 
a ministerial career. It is renewable upon evidence of a continuing need and interest 
in the ministry. 

The Joseph Pleasant and Marguerite Nutt Sloan Memorial Scholarship, established by 
Patricia Sloan Mize in honor of her parents, is awarded annually to an applied music 
student on the basis of academic ability. It has a value of approximately $500. 
Applications must be made to the Department of Music. 

The Robert Forest Smith III Scholarship Fund, donated by the Rev. and Mrs. Robert 
Forest Smith Jr. and other citizens of Hickory, N.C., in memory of Robert Forest Smith 
III, is awarded to an entering freshman who qualifies on the basis of need and 
distinction in high school government. Preference is given to those who plan to enter 
government service, with strong preference given to students exemplifying positive 
Christian principles. It has a value of $1,000. 

The Gilbert T. Stephenson Scholarship, established by Grace W. Stephenson in memory 
of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student from Kirby 
Township or Northampton County, N.C. 

The Sigmund Sternberger Scholarships, donated by the Sigmund Sternberger Foun- 
dation, are for needy North Carolinians, with preference given to undergraduate 
students from Greensboro and Guilford County. 

The John Belk Stevens Scholarship in Business, donated by the Belk Foundation in 
honor of John Belk Stevens, is given to senior business majors with particular interests 
in retailing or marketing and is based on academic merit and financial need. 

The Edna and Ethel Stowe Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or an upperclassman, 
with preference given to female students who have a physical handicap. 

The J. W. Straughan Scholarship, donated by Mattie, Mable, and Alice Straughan in 
memory of their brother, J. W. Straughan, of Warsaw, N.C, with preference given to 
students from Duplin County, N.C, who are interested in pursuing a medical career 
(especially in the field of family practice), is for those who need financial assistance to 
continue their education. 

The Saddye Stephenson and Benjamin Louis Sykes Scholarship, donated by Charles L. 
Sykes and Ralph J. Sykes in memory of their mother and father, is awarded on the basis 
of Christian character, academic proficiency, and financial need, with preference 
given to freshmen from North Carolina, renewable. 

The Russell Taylor Scholarship is awarded to a high school senior with a distinguished 
record in citizenship and scholarship. Preference is given to students planning careers 
in the areas of religion or law, students exemplifying positive principles of the 
Christian faith, needy students, and students from Iredell County, N.C. 



57 

The Harold Wayland and Nelle Futch Tribble Scholarship Fund, established to honor the 
late President Emeritus and Mrs. Tribble, provides a scholarship to students enrolled 
in the College who demonstrate superior academic ability. 

The Kenneth Monroe Tucker Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic merit, 
with preference given to students from Wilkes, New Hanover, or Brunswick Counties, 
North Carolina. It maybe renewed provided the recipient's cumulative average is in 
the upper twenty percent of his or her class. 

The Tyner-Pitman Scholarship Fund, donated by Cora Tyner Pitman, makes available 
at least one scholarship for needy North Carolina students. 

The John W. Ward Jr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of demonstrated need, with 
preference given to students from Robeson County, N.C. 

The Ware Foundation Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
financial need, with preference given first to students from Oxford Orphanage or 
other children's homes and second to students from Granville or Vance Counties, N.C. 

The Watkins-Richardson Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
outstanding leadership potential to students from the southeastern United States. 
Watkins-Richardson Scholarship awards are renewable for succeeding school years, 
provided the recipient ranks in the top third of his or her class and continues to display 
leadership potential. 

The Lettie Pate Whitehead Scholarships provide support to needy Christian women 
students from nine Southeastern states. 

The Alexander Hines Whitley Jr. Scholarship is awarded to qualified students selected 
by the Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. 

The Jesse A. Williams Scholarships, created under the will of the late Jesse A. Williams 
of Union County, N.C, give preference to deserving students of Union County. 

The John G. Williard Scholarship is awarded to middle income students, with pref- 
erence given to students from Davie County, N.C. 

The James Bennett Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James B. Willis of Hamlet, 
N.C, gives preference to North Carolina Baptist students interested in the ministry 
and Christian education. It is awarded on the basis of need. Applications must be 
made to the Departments of Religion or Philosophy. 

The Maria Thornton and Miriam Carlyle Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James 
B. Willis in memory of his wife and daughter, gives preference to North Carolina 
Baptist students who are interested in all phases of the ministry of music. It is awarded 
on the basis of need. 

The Charles Littell Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of Jennie Mayes Wilson 
in memory of her husband, Charles Littell Wilson, is for a freshman. 

The O. W. Wilson-Yancey County Scholarships, created under the will of O. W. Wilson 
of Yancey County, N.C, are awarded to students from Yancey County who have 
excellent academic records and who demonstrate need. 

The Phillip W. Wilson/Peat Marwick Memorial Scholarship, established as a memorial 
to Phillip W. Wilson by his friends, colleagues, and family, is awarded to a senior 
accountancy major who has demonstrated leadership skills, outstanding interpersonal 
skills, and a strong commitment to the community and the accounting profession. The 
recipient must also be in the top fifth of his or her class based on grade-point average 
within the School of Business and Accountancy. 



58 

The William H. and Anne M. Woody Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of 
character, scholastic achievement, and financial need, with preference given to 
students from Person County, N.C., and to students intending careers in medicine, 
education, or ministry. 

The William Luther Wyatt III Scholarship Trust, donated by Mr. and Mrs. William L. 
Wyatt Jr. of Raleigh, in memory of their son, William Luther Wyatt III, with preference 
given to a male student entering the junior year who has shown an interest and an 
ability in the field of biology, is based on need and ability. 

The Matthew T. Yates Scholarship Fund awards scholarships to the children of mis- 
sionaries of the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention on the basis 
of merit and need. The applicant must notify the Office of Financial Aid of his or her 
eligibility to be considered for this award. 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 

The federal government, through the Department of Education, sponsors six 
programs to help pay college costs. These programs are Pell Grants, Supplemental 
Educational Opportunity Grants (SEOG), College Work-Study (CWS), Perkins Loans, 
Stafford Loans (formerly Guaranteed Student Loans [GSL]), and PLUS Loans/ 
Supplemental Loans for Students (SLS). To receive assistance through these programs, 
a student must complete the necessary applications, meet basic eligibility requirements, 
and maintain satisfactory academic progress. (See the statement in bold face on page 
59.) The six programs are outlined as follows: 

Pell Grants are federal funds awarded to undergraduate students with exceptional 
financial need who require these grants to attend college, for a value of up to $2,400 
per year. The amount of assistance a student may receive depends upon need, taking 
into account financial resources and the cost of attending the college chosen. 

The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants are available to a limited number of 
undergraduate students with exceptional financial need who require these grants to 
attend college and who show academic or creative promise, for a value from $100 to 
$4,000 a year. The amount of financial assistance a student may receive depends upon 
need, taking into account financial resources and the cost of attending the college 
chosen. 

The College Work-Study Program makes on-campus employment available to stu- 
dents who show evidence of financial need. Students work during the academic year 
for federal minimum wage or above, at an average of ten to fifteen hours per week in 
the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, Reynolda Hall, Student Union, Reynolda Gardens, and 
other places on campus. 

The Carl D. Perkins Loan Program (formerly National Direct Student Loans) makes 
available loans for students in need of financial assistance with an interest rate of 5 
percent. These are examples of typical repayment schedules: 

Aggregate Quarterly Amount of Total Interest Total 

Loan Payments Payment Paid Payment 

$2,500 35 $ 90.00 $ 590.22 $3,090.22 

5,000 40 159.61 1,384.27 6,384.27 

7,500 40 239.41 2,076.44 9,576.44 



59 

Aggregate undergraduate sums may not exceed $4,500 for the first two years or 
$9,000 for four years, but may be extended to $18,000 for those who also borrow for 
graduate or professional study, with an interest rate of 5 percent. 

The Stafford Program makes available loans up to $2,625 for the first two years of 
undergraduate study and $4,000 for subsequent undergraduate study. Aggregate 
undergraduate sums may not exceed $1 7,250, but may be extended to $54,750 for those 
who also borrow for graduate or professional study. The maximum loan per year for 
graduate students is $7,500. Loans are insuredby the federal government or guaranteed 
by a state or private nonprofit guarantee agency. The federal government pays the 
interest during in-school and grace periods. Applications and information may be 
obtained from state guarantee agencies or the financial aid office. 

The PLUS and Supplemental Loan Programs make available loans to parents and some 
undergraduate students. PLUS enables parents to borrow up to $4,000 per year, to a 
total of $20,000, for each child who is enrolled at least half-time and is a dependent 
student. Independent undergraduates may borrow up to $4,000 per year to a total of 
$20,000 from the Supplemental Loan Program. In exceptional circumstances, dependent 
undergraduates may also apply for a Supplemental Loan. Applications and information 
may be obtained from the state guarantee agencies or from the financial aid office. 

Financial aid under the Federal Title IV Program is available to eligible students 
enrolled in a course of study leading to a degree. Federal regulations specify that the 
student maintain satisfactory progress in order to receive federal financial aid. 
Wake Forest University policy on satisfactory academic progress for financial aid 
purposes is available upon request from the financial aid office. Students who do 
not meet the minimum requirements at the end of the spring semester may be 
allowed to continue with the permission of the Committee on Academic Affairs. 
Such students may be granted federal financial aid for a period of one additional 
semester. Failure to meet the stated minimum requirements will result in termination 
of all federal financial aid. 

Exchange Scholarships 

The German Exchange Scholarship, established in 1959 with the Free University of 
Berlin, is available to a student with at least two years of college German or the 
equivalent, who has junior standing by the end of the semester in which application 
is made, but who need not be a German major. It provides 750 German marks per 
month for ten months, remission of fees, 200 marks per semester for books, and 250 
marks per month for rent. (Interested students should communicate with the chair of 
the Department of German.) 

The Spanish Exchange Scholarships are available for study at the University of the 
Andes in Bogota, Colombia, and at the University of Salamanca in Spain. The Bogota 
scholarship may be awarded to two students for one semester's study each or to one 
student for two semesters. Applicants must have completed at least two years of 
college Spanish or the equivalent. Scholarships provide remission of fees and the cost 
of books, board, and accommodations. (Interested students should communicate 
with the chair of the Department of Romance Languages.) 



60 

The French Exchange Scholarship, established with the University of Burgundy, France, 
is available to a graduating senior, who receives a graduate teaching assistantship at 
a lycee in Dijon for two semesters. (Interested students should communicate with the 
chair of the Department of Romance Languages.) 

Loans 

The James F. and Mary Z. Bryan Foundation Student Loan Plan is for residents of North 
Carolina enrolled full-time for a value of up to $7,500 for undergraduate study. The 
amount of each loan is determined by the College Foundation, with an interest rate of 
1 percent during the in-school and grace periods and 7 percent during the repayment 
period. 

TheBushnell Baptist Church Loan Fund, established in 1945 with funds suppliedby the 
Bushnell Baptist Church of Fontana Dam, N.C., is for needy students. 

The Council Fund, established in 1935 by C. T. Council of Durham, is for the aid of 
senior students. 

The James W. Denmark Loan Fund, originated in 1875 by James William Denmark of 
Dudley, N.C., is available to qualified students, with preference given to students 
from North Carolina, for an amount not exceeding $2,500 each year and $10,000 
during the entire period of enrollment. 

The Olivia Dunn Student Loan Fund, established under the will of Birdie Dunn of 
Wake County, N.C., in memory of her mother, is for needy students. 

The Duplin County Loan Fund, donated in 1942 by anonymous friends of the College, 
is limited to students from Duplin County, N.C. 

The Elliott B. Earnshaw Loan Fund, established by the Board of Trustees, is a memorial 
to the former bursar. 

The Friendly Student Loan Fund, established in 1948 by Nell E. Stinson of Raleigh, in 
memory of her sister, Mary Belle Stinson Michael, is for the benefit of worthy students 
who need financial aid. 

The George Foster Hankins Loan Fund, established under the will of George Foster 
Hankins of Lexington, gives preference to applicants from Davidson County, N.C. 

The Harris Memorial Loan Fund, established by the late J. P. Harris of Bethel, N.C, in 
memory of his first wife, Lucy Shearon Harris, and his second wife, Lucy Jones Harris, 
is for students who have demonstrated ability to apply educational advantages to the 
rendition of enriched and greater Christian service in life and who require financial 
assistance to prevent the disruption of their education. 

The Hutchins Student Loan Fund, originated by Robert W. Hutchins Jr. on behalf of 
himself and his late wife, Nancy D. Hutchins of Winston-Salem, is in honor of 
members of the Hutchins' family who have attended Wake Forest and is for the benefit 
of needy undergraduate students. 

The Edna Tyner Langston Fund, established in 1942 by Henry J. Langston of Danville, 
Va., in memory of his wife, is available to a student agreed upon by the donor and the 
College. 

The Watts Norton Loan Fund, established in 1949 by L. Watts Norton of Durham, is 
for worthy students enrolled with the Department of Religion who need financial 
assistance. 



61 

The Powers Fund, established in 1944 by Frank P. Powers of Raleigh, in memory of 
his parents, Frank P. and Effie Reade Powers, is for the benefit of needy students, with 
preference given to orphans. 

The Grover and Addy Raby Loan Fund, established in 1945 by J. G. Raby of Tarboro, 
N.C., in memory of his parents, gives preference to applicants from the First Baptist 
Church of Tarboro. 

The James F. Slate Loan Fund, established in 1908 by J. F. Slate of Stokes County, N.C., 
is available for ministerial students who have been licensed to preach. 

The Sidney G. Wallace Loan Fund, created under the will of Mrs. Blanche Wallace, is 
used to assist undergraduate students. Preference is given to students studying in a 
Wake Forest-sponsored or approved overseas program. 

Concessions 

North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants. The North Carolina General Assembly 
provides yearly grants to all legal residents of North Carolina. To be eligible a student 
must be enrolled for at least fourteen credits each semester (through October 1 in the 
fall and through the tenth day of classes in the spring) and complete a Residency Form 
100. The student must not have received a bachelor's degree previously. To receive the 
grant, the student must also complete an NCLTG application and return it to the 
financial aid office by a specified deadline. 

Ministerial students receive an $800 concession per year if they (1) have a written 
recommendation or license to preach from their own church body and (2) agree to 
repay the total amount, plus 4 percent interest, in the event that they do not serve five 
years in the pastoral ministry within twelve years of attendance in the College. 

Children and spouses of pastors of North Carolina Baptist churches receive an $800 
concession per year if they are the children or spouses of (1) ministers, (2) missionaries 
of the Southern Baptist Foreign Mission Board, (3) officials of the Baptist State 
Convention of North Carolina, or (4) professors in North Carolina Baptist colleges or 
universities who are ordained ministers. Pastors themselves are also eligible. 

Children of other ministers who are not eligible for the above concession receive a $150 
concession per year if their parent makes a living chiefly by the ministry and they have 
a demonstrated need. 

Other Financial Aid 

Church Choir Work Grants, given by the College and Wake Forest Baptist Church to 
encourage outstanding music students, are awarded on the basis of talent, reliability, 
and interest in the church on the recommendation of the music committee of the 
church and the Department of Music, for the value of $300. (Interested students should 
communicate with the chair of the Department of Music.) 

The Ministerial Aid Fund, established in 1897 by the estate of J. A. Melke, is available 
to pre-ministerial students on a loan or grant program on the basis of merit and need, 
and, particularly in the case of grants, academic achievement. 

Student/Student Spouse Employment is possible for part-time, on-campus and off- 
campus work, for a recommended maximum of twenty hours per week for full-time 



62 

students. Summer employment may also be available. (Interested students should 
communicate with the Office of Career Services.) 

Veterans' Benefits are administered by the Office of the Veterans' Administration in 
the Federal Building at 251 North Main Street in Winston-Salem. Records of progress 
are kept by this institution on veteran and non-veteran students alike. Progress 
records are furnished to the students, veterans and non-veterans alike, at the end of 
each scheduled school term. 

Outside Assistance 

Students who apply for financial aid from Wake Forest must advise the College if 
they receive any assistance from outside organizations, including but not limited to 
National Merit or Achievement Scholarships; College Scholarship Service-sponsored 
scholarships; local, state, and national scholarship and loan programs. This outside 
assistance will be considered when the financial aid award is calculated. 




The Benson University Center contains modern facilities for student activities and events. 



63 

Special Programs 



Students in the College are encouraged to apply to special programs, both on and 
off campus, which correspond to their abilities and interests. These include the 
programs described below and the special degrees, minors, and concentrations 
described on page 67 and beyond. 

Honors Study 

For highly qualified students, a series of interdisciplinary honors courses is described 
under Courses of Instruction. Under the supervision of the coordinator of the Honors 
Program, students may participate in three or more honors seminars during the 
freshman, sophomore, and junior years. Those who complete four seminars with a 
superior record and who are not candidates for departmental honors may complete 
a final directed study course. With a superior record in that course and a grade-point 
average of 3.0 in all work, a student may be graduated with the distinction "Honors 
in the Arts and Sciences." 

For students especially talented in individual areas of study, most departments in 
the College offer special studies leading to graduation with honors in a particular 
discipline. The minimum requirement is a grade-point average of 3.0 in all work and 
3.3 (or higher in some areas) in the major. Other course, seminar, and research 
requirements vary from one department to another. 

Open Curriculum 

For students with high motivation and strong academic preparation, the Open 
Curriculum provides the opportunity to follow a course of study planned within the 
framework of a liberal arts education but not necessarily fulfilling all basic and 
divisional requirements for the degree. Under the Committee on Open Curriculum, 
a limited number of students is selected by previous record of achievement, high 
aspirations, ability in one or more areas of study, strength of self-expression, and other 
special talents. The course of study for the degree is designed by the student and his 
or her adviser. 

Study at Salem College 

For full-time students, Wake Forest and Salem College share a program of exchange 
credits for courses taken at one institution because they are not offered at the other. An 
application must be approved by the academic adviser and the dean of the College or 
the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy. Except in courses of private 
instruction, there is no additional cost to the student. Grades and grade points earned 
at Salem College are evaluated as if they were earned at Wake Forest. 



64 

International Studies 



Office of International Studies 

The Office of International Studies provides information on all programs in inter- 
national studies. Students interested in studying abroad should visit the office for 
assistance and program approval. Any student taking non-Wake Forest courses 
overseas for either the summer, semester, or year should visit the office for program 
approval and a transfer of credit form. The office also administers the international 
studies minor. For a full description of the minor see page 72. 

International Students 

International students can obtain information and assistance in the Office of the 
Dean of the College. 

Residential Language Centers 

For students prepared to speak French, German, Italian, or Russian on a regular 
basis with other students studying the same language, the University offers residential 
language centers coordinated by members of the Romance languages department and 
the German and Russian department. Such students attend regular classes on the 
campus. Organized social and conversational programs are available in all these 
languages. 

International Studies House 

Students interested in international studies who would like to live with other 
students sharing these interests may apply to live in the International Studies House. 
Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Foreign Area Studies 

The Foreign Area Studies program enables students to choose an interdisciplinary 
concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. For a full description of 
these programs, see page 73. 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 

Wake Forest Programs 

England (London) 

A program of study is offered each semester at Worrell House, the University's 
residential center near Regent's Park in London. Courses typically encompass aspects 
of the art, theater, literature, and history of London and Great Britain. (See, for 
example, Art 2320, English Art, Hogarth to the Present, and History 2260, His tory of London, 



65 

in the course listings of those departments.) Each term a different member of the 
faculty serves as the director of the program, which accommodates sixteen students. 
Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Italy (Venice) 

Students wishing to spend a semester in Italy may apply to study at Casa Artom, the 
University's residential center on the Grand Canal in Venice. Under the direction of 
various members of the faculty, approximately twenty students per semester focus on 
the heritage and culture of Venice and Italy. (Courses offered usually include Art 2693, 
Venetian Renaissance Art; Italian 153, Intermediate Italian; Italian 215, Introduction to 
Italian Literature I; Italian 216, Introduction to Italian Literature II; and other courses of- 
fered by the faculty member serving as director.) Students selected for the Venice 
program are required to have completed elementary training in Italian. Limited 
scholarship aid is available to one or two students each semester to assist with 
expenses. Further information maybe obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

France (Dijon) 

Students wishing to study in France may apply for a semester's instruction at the 
University of Burgundy. Under the direction of a faculty residential adviser from the 
Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the University of Burgundy 
by student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in French is not required, 
but French 221 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Spain (Salamanca) 

Students wishing to study in Spain may apply for a semester's instruction at the 
University of Salamanca. Under the direction of a faculty residential adviser from the 
Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the University of Salamanca 
by student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in Spanish is not required, 
but Spanish 221 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Institute of European Studies 

Students who wish to spend a semester or year in a German- or Slavic-speaking 
country may apply to programs of study available through the Institute of European 
Studies. Qualified Wake Forest applicants may study during their junior or senior year 
in Germany (Berlin or Freiburg) or Austria (Vienna). Two new exchange programs 
have been established, one in Kiev and the other in Moscow. As with other Wake 
Forest programs, students receive direct credit for all courses taken with I.E.S. and 
may apply any form of financial aid available to them here on campus to their program 
of study. Interested students should contact the Department of German and Russian. 

China (Beijing) 

Students who wish to study in China may apply to participate in the Wake Forest/ 
SASASAAS Program in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. Offered only in the fall 



66 

semester, the program includes courses in both Chinese language and culture. It is 
open to students with no previous knowledge of Chinese or to those wishing to 
continue their study of the language. Further information may be obtained in the 
Office of International Studies. 

Japan (Hiratsuka) 

For students wishing to study in Japan, Wake Forest offers a fall semester in Tokai 
University, outside Tokyo. Coursework focuses on Japanese language and culture: 
one course is taught by a Wake Forest professor; another course is taught by Japanese 
faculty members, in English, on various aspects of Japanese society; a third course is 
the Japanese language at the appropriate level. No prior knowledge of Japanese is 
required. Further information maybe obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Russia 

One or two students wishing to study individually in Russia can apply to spend a 
fall or spring semester at Moscow University, formerly Moscow State University, each 
year. The requirements are a good academic record and the ability to attend and pass 
classes that are taught entirely in Russian. For more information, contact William 
Hamilton, associate dean of the College. 

Experiment in International Living 

The Independent Study Program of the Experiment in International Living is 
recognized by the College. To participate in this program, a student must be regularly 
enrolled and plan to return to the College after study abroad; arrangements must be 
made with the chair of the department of the major and the director of the Office of 
International Studies. Up to fourteen credits for a one-semester program may be 
granted upon evidence of satisfactory completion of work taken, but this is subject to 
evaluation by the dean of the College. 

Study Abroad in Non-Wake Forest Programs 

Students wishing to study abroad in a non-Wake Forest program should visit the 
Office of International Studies for assistance. The office houses a sizable collection of 
material on a wide variety of overseas programs. 

A student's participation in a non-Wake Forest program must be approved in 
advance by the Office of International Studies. A transfer of credit form, available in 
the Office of International Studies, must be filled out once one is accepted into a 
program. Transfer credit is computed at 1 . 125 credits for each approved semester hour 
and .75 for each quarter hour taken abroad. Students in programs other than those 
offered by Wake Forest must apply for readmission to the University. Scholarship and 
financial aid can now be carried into approved non-Wake Forest programs. Further 
information is available in the Office of International Studies. 



67 

Requirements for Degrees 

Degrees Offered 

The College offers undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor of arts and 
bachelor of science degrees. The bachelor of arts degree is conferred with a major in 
anthropology, art, chemistry, classical studies, economics, English, French, French- 
Spanish, German, Greek, history, Latin, music, philosophy, physics, politics, psychol- 
ogy, religion, sociology, Spanish, speech communication, or theater. The bachelor of 
science degree is conferred with a major in biology, chemistry, computer science, 
health and sport science, mathematical economics, mathematics, or physics. The 
bachelor of arts degree is available with a major in elementary education or education 
with a state teacher's certificate in social studies. The bachelor of science degree is 
available with a major in education with a state teacher's certificate in science. The 
bachelor of science degree may be conferred in combined curricula in dentistry, 
engineering, forestry and environmental studies, medical technology, microbiology, 
and the physician assistant program. The School of Business and Accountancy offers 
undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor of science degree with a major in 
accountancy or business. (See page 202 of this bulletin.) 

A student who receives the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree may not 
thereafter receive another bachelor's degree from Wake Forest. 

General Requirements 

Students in the College have considerable flexibility in planning their courses of 
study. Except for two semesters of required health and sport science courses, only 
three specific courses are required, one in English composition and two in a foreign 
language. To complete preparation for more specialized work in a major field or fields, 
students select three courses in each of four divisions of the undergraduate curricu- 
lum: (1) literature and the arts; (2) the natural sciences and mathematics; (3) history, 
religion, and philosophy; and (4) the social and behavioral sciences. Normally the 
basic and divisional requirements are completed in the freshman and sophomore 
years and the requirements in the field or fields of the major are completed in the junior 
and senior years. 

All students must complete (1) the basic and divisional requirements (unless 
accepted for the Open Curriculum), (2) a course of study approved by the department 
or departments of the major, and (3) elective courses for a total of 144 credits. No more 
than sixteen credits toward graduation maybe earned from among all of the following 
courses: Education 353; all military science courses; Music 111-123 (ensemble courses); 
and elective 100-level courses in health and sport science. A cross-listed course may 
be taken one time for credit toward graduation, unless otherwise specified by the 
course description. 

All students must earn a C average on all work attempted at all colleges and 
universities and on all work attempted in Wake Forest College and the School of 
Business and Accountancy. Of the 144 credits required for graduation, at least 72 must 
be completed in the undergraduate schools of Wake Forest University, including the 
work of the senior year (except for combined degree curricula). 



68 

A student has the privilege of graduating under the requirements of the bulletin 
of the year in which he or she enters, provided that course work is completed within six 
years of entrance. After six years, the student must fulfill the requirements for the class 
in which he or she graduates. 

Basic Requirements 

All students must complete three required basic courses (unless exempted through 
procedures established by the departments concerned): 

English 110 (composition) or 112 (composition and literature) 
Foreign language 153 (intermediate level) 
Foreign language (literature) 

French 213, 216, 217, or the equivalent 

Spanish 214, 217, 218, or the equivalent 

Italian 215, 216, or the equivalent 

German 215 or 216 

Russian 215 or 216 

Greek 211 or 212 

Latin 211, 212, or 216 

Hebrew 211 

Japanese 211 

Chinese 211 

No credit is given for any language course below the one recommended by the 
department on the basis of the placement test unless the student is given permission 
to earn such credit by the Language Placement Appeals Board. 

Divisional Requirements 

All students must complete three courses in each of the four divisions of the 
undergraduate curriculum (unless exempted by completion of advanced placement 
requirements or by participation in the open curriculum): 

Division I. Literature and the Arts (three courses; no more than one course from any 
one of the four groups) 

1. English literature (English 160 or 165) 

2. American literature (English 170 or 175) 

3. Foreign literature (other than the one used for the basic requirement) 
Classical languages 

Greek 211, 212, 231, 241, or 242 

Latin 211, 212, 216, 221, 225, or 226 

Classics 253, 254, 263, 264, 265, or 272 
German 215 or 216 
Chinese 211 
Japanese 211 

Romance languages (French, Italian, or Spanish) literature 
Russian 215 or 216 
Humanities 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, or 222 



69 

4. Fine Arts 

Art 103 or 111 

Music 101, 102, 181, or 182 

Theater 110 or 112 

Division II. The Natural Sciences and Mathematics (three courses, selected from two 
of the four groups) 

1. Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (any one; if two, may be any two taken 
in any order) 

2. Chemistry 111, 116 (unless advanced preparation indicates a higher 
course); if one course, 111; if two courses, 111, 116. 

3. Physics 109, 110, 113, 114 

4. Mathematics 108, 109, 111, 112, 117, Computer Science 173 (any one; 
if two, the pair must include 108 or 111 but not both) 

Division III. History, Religion, and Philosophy (three courses; no more than one course 
from each group) 

1. History 101, 102, 103, or 104 

2. Religion (any four credits at the 100-level) 

3. Philosophy 111 

Division IV. The Social and Behavioral Sciences (three courses, no more than one from 
any one department) 

1. Anthropology 151 or 152 

2. Economics 150 

3. Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116 

4. Psychology 151 

5. Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154 

Requirement in Health and Sport Science 

All students must complete Health and Sport Science 100 and 101. This requirement 
must be met before enrollment in additional health and sport science elective courses, 
and in any case before the end of the second year. 

Proficiency in the Use of English 

Proficiency in the use of the English language is recognized by the faculty as a 
requirement in all departments. A composition condition, indicated by cc with the grade 
for any course, may be assigned in any department to a student whose writing is 
unsatisfactory, regardless of previous credits in composition. The writing of transfer 
students is checked during the orientation period each term, and students whose 
writing is deficient are given a composition condition. For removal of a composition 
condition the student is required to attempt English 11 during the first semester for 
which he or she registers following the assignment of the cc. Removal of the defi- 
ciency is prerequisite to graduation. 



70 



Basic and Divisional Requirements 



The basic and divisional requirements are intended to introduce the student to 
various fields of knowledge and to lay the foundation for concentration in a major 
subject and related fields during the junior and senior years. For this reason, as many 
of the requirements as feasible should be taken in the freshman and sophomore years. 

No course requirements may be set aside or replaced by substitutes except through 
regular procedures already established by the faculty, or through a specific vote of the 
faculty in regular session. 

Declaring a Major 

To enter upon a major, a student should have earned at least sixty credits. The 
normal time for reaching this point is the end of the second semester of the sophomore 
year. Thirty days before the end of the sophomore year, each student who will have 
acquired the requisite credits by the end of the semester or the end of the summer 
school is required to indicate to the registrar and to the department or departments 
concerned the selection of a major for concentration during the junior and senior years. 
Before this selection is recorded by the registrar, the student must present a written 
statement from the authorized representative of the department or departments 
indicating that the student has been accepted as a candidate for the major in that 
department. An adviser is available to assist the student in planning a course of study 
for the junior and senior years. A department which rejects a student as a major must 
file with the dean of the College a written statement indicating the reason(s) for the 
rejection. 

If thirty days before the end of the sophomore year a student sees that he or she will 
begin the fifth semester without attaining sixty credits, he or she should consult the 
registrar's office about the proper course to follow. 

A student wishing to major in business or in accountancy should make application 
to the School of Business and Accountancy. (See page 202 of this bulletin.) 

The undergraduate schools try to provide ample space in the various major fields 
to accommodate the interests of students. It must be understood, however, that the 
undergraduate schools cannot guarantee the availability of space in a given major 
field or a given course, since the preferences of students change and there are limits 
to both faculty and facilities. 

After the beginning of the junior year, a student may not change from one major to 
another without the approval of the departments concerned. The student's course of 
study for the junior and senior years includes the minimum requirements for the 
departmental major, with other courses selected by the student and approved by the 
adviser. 

At least half of the major must be completed at Wake Forest University. 

The following fields of study are recognized for the major: accountancy, anthropol- 
ogy, art, biology, business, chemistry, classical studies, computer science, economics, 
education, English, French, French-Spanish, German, Greek, health and sport science, 
history, Latin, mathematical economics, mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, 
politics, psychology, religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish, speech communication, 



71 

and theater. Students preparing for the ministry are advised to elect three courses in 
religion beyond the course included in the divisional requirements. 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 

Within the College, a maximum of 48 credits in a single field of study is allowed 
within the 144 credits required for graduation. Fifty-six credits toward graduation are 
allowed in any department authorized to offer two fields of study or more, except for 
those double-majoring within the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. 

These stipulations exclude required related courses from other departments. They 
further exclude, for students majoring in English, English 110 and 112; for students 
majoring in mathematics and minoring in computer science, Mathematics 111 and 
112; and, for students majoring in a foreign language, elementary courses in that 
language. These limits may be exceeded in unusual circumstances only by action of 
the dean of the College. 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 

For purposes of satisfying graduation requirements, a student must select one, and 
only one, of the following options, which will receive official recognition on the 
student's permanent record: (1) a single major, (2) a joint major, (3) a single major and 
a minor, (4) a double major. In addition to the options above, a student may complete the 
requirements of a foreign area studies program. 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 

A student may major in two departments in the College with the written permission 
of the chair of each of the departments and on condition that the student meet all 
requirements for the major in both departments. For administrative purposes, the 
student must designate one of the two fields as the primary major, which appears first 
on the student's record. For purposes of the double major only, the Department of 
Mathematics and Computer Science is considered as two departments. 

A joint major consisting of fifty-six credits in two fields of study is available in 
classical studies, in mathematical economics, and in French-Spanish. 

Minors 

A minor is not required. Those students, however, who select a single major — not 
those working toward a double or joint major — may choose a minor field from among 
the following: anthropology, art, biology, chemistry, computer science, dance, educa- 
tional studies, professional education, English, French language and culture, French 
literature, German, Greek, health and sport science, history, Italian, Latin, mathemat- 
ics, music, philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, Russian, sociology, 
Spanish language and culture, Hispanic literature, speech communication, and the- 
ater. 

For details of the various minors, see the appropriate departmental headings in the 
section of this bulletin that lists course offerings. 



72 



Interdisciplinary Minors 



A Minor in Cultural Resource Preservation. The Departments of Anthropology, Art, 
History, and Sociology offer an interdisciplinary minor in cultural resource preserva- 
tion (CRP) which will give students preliminary training in the field of historic 
preservation and cultural resource management aimed at the protection and enhance- 
ment of archeological, historical, and architectural resources. 

The minor requires Studies in Historic Preservation (History 366) and four other 
courses for a total of twenty credits. The courses must be distributed among at least 
three departments. The following courses maybe included in the minor: Anthropology 
152, General Anthropology II: Cultural Anthropology (may count as a Division IV re- 
quirement); Anthropology 300, Museum Practicum; Anthropology 310, Museum De- 
sign and Operation; Anthropology 370, Old World Prehistory; Anthropology 374, Pre- 
history of North America; Anthropology 378, Conservation Archeology; Anthropology 381 / 
382, Archeological Research; Art 233, American Architecture; Art 275, History of Landscape 
Architecture; Art 288, Modern Architecture; Art 293, Practicum; History 381/382, Pres- 
ervation Practicum I, II; History 398, Individual Study; Sociology 151, Principles of 
Sociology (may count as Division IV requirement); Sociology 205, Photography in the 
Social Sciences; Sociology 333, The Urban Community. 

Students intending to minor in cultural resource preservation should consult the 
adviser appointed from one of the participating departments and listed with the 
registrar. Students are strongly urged to consult the adviser during the first semester 
of their junior year. Equivalent courses must be approved by the adviser. 

A Minor in Early Christian Studies. The interdisciplinary minor in early Christian 
studies requires 22-23 credits. The student must take Greek 231, Greek New 
Testament; Religion 112, Introduction to the New Testament or 164, The Formation of the 
Christian Tradition; Classics 270, Greek Civilization or 271, Roman Civilization; Classics/ 
Religion 285, Inter disiciplinary Seminar in the Greco-Roman World; and two additional 
courses, with no more than one from any one department, from the following: Art 241, 
Ancient Art; Art 244, Greek Art; Art 245, Roman Art; Art 296 a or b, Art History 
Seminar; Classics 270 or 271 (whichever is not used to satisfy the requirement for the 
interdisciplinary minor); History 215, 216, The Ancient World; Philosophy 201, Ancient 
and Medieval Philosophy; Religion 215, Visions of the End: Jewish and Christian 
Apocalyptic; Religion 320, Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels; Religion 322, The General 
Epistles; Religion 326, Early Christian Theologians: Paul; Religion 327, Early Christian 
Theologians: The Fourth Evangelist; Religion 328, The New Testament and Ethics; Religion 
336, Hellenistic Religions. Other courses may be allowed with the permission of the 
Departments of Classical Languages and Religion. 

A Minor in International Studies. The minor in international studies consists of a total 
of twenty credits. Candidates for the minor are required to take Politics 116, International 
Politics, and one of the following: Economics 251, International Trade; Economics 252, 
International Finance; Economics 253, Economics of Communism; Economics 254, Capi- 
talism and Planning; or Politics 253, The Politics of International Economic Relations. In 
addition, students must take twelve other credits in international studies from an 
approved list on file in the Office of International Studies. No more than eight of the 
twenty credits for the minor may be taken in a single department. Study of a foreign 



73 

language beyond the basic requirement is strongly recommended. Formal advising of 
minors is not required but the director of international studies is responsible for 
certifying the successful completion of requirements for the minor. For more informa- 
tion, contact the Office of International Studies. 

A Minor in Women's Studies. The interdisciplinary minor in women's studies re- 
quires a core course (Humanities 121) and five other courses. At least two of the five 
courses must be in the humanities and two must be in the social sciences, and the 
courses must be distributed among at least three departments, for a total of twenty- 
four credits. It is recommended that one of these courses be the upper division 
seminar, Humanities 321. This structure gives students an understanding of the 
interdisciplinary nature of women's studies within the context of the traditional 
liberal arts curriculum. A student minoring in women' s studies might take Humanities 
121 as a sophomore, one humanities and one social science course as a junior, and 
Humanities 321, another humanities course, and another social science course as a 
senior. 

The following courses may be included in the minor: 

Humanities: Art 251, Women and Art; Classical Languages 252, Women in 
Antiquity; English 340, Women Writers in Society; English 376, American Poetry from 
1855 to 1900; English 381, Studies in Black American Literature; English 377, American 
Jewish Writers; History 365, Women in American History; Humanities 347, Women 
Writers in Japanese Culture; Humanities 353, African and Caribbean Women 
Writers; Humanities 359, Fathers and Daughters; Humanities 396, Independent Study: 
Internships in Women's Studies; Music 208, Women and Music; Religion 338, Ethics in 
Feminist Perspective; Religion366, Gen der and Religion; Speech Communication 357, 
The Rhetoric of the Women 's Rights Movement. 

Social Sciences/ Sciences: Biology 302, Women in Science; Politics 229, Women in 
Politics; Psychology 265, Human Sexuality; Psychology 358, Psychology of 
Women; Sociology 153, Marriage and the Family; Sociology 305, Male and Female 
Roles in Society; Sociology 309, Sex and Human Relationships; Sociology 311, Women 
in Professions; Sociology 348, Sociology of the Family; Sociology 359, Race and Ethnic 
Relations. 

Students intending to minor in women's studies should consult the coordinator of 
Women's Studies in Tribble A-106B, preferably during the sophomore year. 

Foreign Area Studies 

The foreign area studies programs enable students to choose an interdisciplinary 
concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. An area studies concen- 
tration may include courses in the major and also in the minor field, if a minor is 
chosen. Foreign area studies do not replace majors or minors; they may supplement 
either or both. A faculty adviser coordinates each foreign area studies program and 
advises interested students. Further questions may be directed to the Office of 
International Studies. These programs are currently available: 



74 

East European Studies. Coordinator, Perry Patterson (Economics) 
Russian 215 or 216 is required, plus twenty-four credits from the following: four 
additional credits in Russian at the 200 level, History 331, History 332, Politics 232, 
Economics 253, Anthropology 350, Humanities 215, Humanities 218, and relevant 
seminars, colloquia, or independent studies in any of the departments above. 

German Studies. Coordinator, Larry E. West (German/ Russian) 
Twelve or thirteen credits from German 153, 215, 216, 217, 220, or 221 are required. 
In addition, the student should take four courses from the following groups, at 
least one from each group: (1) History 320 and History 318 / German 231; (2) Politics 
233 and 273; (3) Philosophy 241 and 242. Appropriate credit in the above areas may 
be obtained by study in Germany. 

Italian Studies. Coordinator, Antonio Vitti (Romance languages) 
Italian through the 215 level is required, plus three courses from the following 
groups, at least one each from groups (2) and (3): (1) Literature: Italian 216 (or any 
Italian course above 215), Classics 251, Classics 272, and Religion 277; (2) Fine Arts: 
Art 245, 267, 268, 296C, and 2693; and Music 181, 201, 206, 220, and 221; Humanities 
357, 382, 383; (3) History and the Social Sciences: Classics 271; History 221, 222, 223, 
and 398; appropriate courses in religion, politics, economics, anthropology, soci- 
ology, and psychology taught in the Venice program, and individual study 
courses in those departments (appropriate topics). A semester in Venice or another 
approved course of study in Italy also is required. 

Latin American Studies. Coordinators, Mary Friedman and Linda Maier (Romance 

languages) 

History 375, Politics 236, and Spanish 218 and 223 are required, plus twelve credits 

from the following: History 373, 374; Economics 252; Politics 242 and 292 if the topic 

pertains to Latin America; Spanish 219, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266; and Humanities 384. 

It is recommended that students take Spanish 263, 264, 265 or 266 to fulfill the 

foreign literature requirement in Division I. 

Spanish Studies. Coordinator, Kathleen Glenn (Romance languages) 
History 2019, Sociology 2029, either Art 2029 or Spanish 224, and Spanish 217 are 
required, plus twelve credits from the advanced courses in Spanish language and 
the literature of Spain offered by the Department of Romance Languages or from 
those offered at the University of Salamanca. Students are required to participate 
in the semester in Spain program at Salamanca. 

Senior Testing 

All seniors are required to participate in a testing program designed to provide 
objective evidence of educational development and employing measures of academic 
achievement such as selected portions of the Graduate Record Examination and other 
tests deemed appropriate by the Committee on Academic Affairs. The tests are 
administered during the spring semester, and relevant results are made available to 



75 

the student for his or her information. The primary purpose of the program is to 
provide the University with information for assessing the total educational process. 
The program does not supplant the regular administration of the Graduate Record 
Examination for students applying for admission to graduate school. 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in medical technology by 
completion of the academic requirements outlined in the following paragraph and by 
satisfactory completion of the full program in medical technology offered by the 
Division of Allied Health Programs of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. A grade 
of at least C is required in all courses taken in the program in medical technology. At 
least one year (thirty-six credits) of the required academic work must be completed in 
the College. (Under current scheduling, successful candidates receive the baccalaure- 
ate degree in August rather than in May.) 

Students seeking admission to the program must file application in the fall of the 
junior year with the Division of Allied Health Programs of the medical school. 
Selection is based upon recommendations of teachers, college academic record, Allied 
Health Professions Admissions Test score, impressions made in personal interviews, 
and work experience (not essential, but important). Students must complete the basic 
course requirements; the divisional course requirements in Divisions I, III, and rV; the 
health and sport science requirement; Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (three courses or 
equivalents); Biology 326; Chemistry 111, 112, 221, and 222; mathematics (one course); 
and electives for a total of 108 credits. Desirable electives outside the area of chemistry 
andbiology include physics, data processing, and personnel and management courses. 
(Interested students should consult a biology department faculty member during the 
freshman year for further information.) 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in the physician assistant 
program by completion of three years (108 credits) in the College with a minimum 
average grade of C, and by satisfactory completion of the full twenty-four-month 
course in the physician assistant program offered by the Division of Allied Health 
Programs of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six 
credits) of the required academic work must be completed in the College. Candidates 
for the degree must complete the basic course requirements, the divisional course 
requirements, the health and sport science requirement, and at least four courses in 
biology (including one course in microbiology). At least four courses in the social 
sciences (including sociology, psychology, and economics), a course in statistics, and 
three or four courses in chemistry are recommended. Applicants to the program must 
have a minimum of six months of clinical experience in patient care services. (Inter- 
ested students should consult a biology department faculty member during the 
freshman year for further information.) 



76 

Degrees in Microbiology 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in microbiology by completion 
of three years (112 credits) in the College with a minimum average grade of C, and by 
satisfactory completion of a thirty-two hour major in microbiology in the Bowman 
Gray School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the required academic 
work must be completed in the College. Candidates for the degree must complete the 
basic course requirements, the divisional course requirements, and the health and 
sport science requirement; Microbiology 302, 304 (or Biology 462), and Biology 371. 
Additional courses to complete the major will be selected from Microbiology 402, 403, 
404, 405, 408, 410, 411, 413, 414, 432, 433, 434, Biology 321, 360, 372, 373, 380, and 391, 
392. Required related courses are two courses in physics and at least two courses in 
organic chemistry. Additional chemistry and mathematics courses maybe suggested 
by the major adviser for students progressing toward advanced work in microbiol- 
ogy. The student should consult the microbiology adviser during the sophomore year 
to establish a program of study. Work on the major must begin no later than the fall 
semester of the junior year. 

Degrees in Dentistry 

A student may fulfill the requirements for the bachelor of science degree with a 
major in dentistry by completing three years of work in the College with a minimum 
average grade of C, and by satisfactorily completing the first two years of work in one 
of certain approved dental schools designated by the University, with a record 
entitling advancement to the third-year class. 

For this degree, the requirements in the College are the same as those for the degree 
with a major in medical sciences. 

Degrees in Engineering 

The College cooperates with North Carolina State University and other engineering 
schools in offering a broad course of study in the arts and sciences combined with 
specialized training in engineering. A program for outstanding students covers five 
years of study, including three years in the College and approximately two years in 
one of the schools of engineering. (Depending upon the field chosen, it may be 
advisable for a student to attend the summer session in the engineering school after 
transfer.) Admission to Wake Forest does not guarantee admission to the engineering 
school. Those decisions are based on the student's transcript, performance, and status 
at the time of application. Upon successful completion of the five years of study, the 
student receives the bachelor of science degree in engineering from the University and 
the bachelor of science degree in one of the specialized engineering fields from the 
engineering school. 

The curriculum for the first three years must include the basic and divisional 
requirements. Suggested courses for the freshman year are English 110 and 160 (or a 
foreign literature); foreign language courses 211, 215, or 216; Mathematics 111, 112; 
Physics 113, 114; and Health and Sport Science 111, 112. Suggested courses for the 



77 



sophomore year are English 170 (or a foreign literature); Philosophy 111; Mathematics 
301 or 251; Physics 141, 161, and 164; and Chemistry 111, 112. Suggested courses for 
the junior year are a history course, a religion course, Mathematics 302, and Economics 
150. 

This rigorous curriculum demands special aptitude in science and mathematics. 
Electives are chosen in consultation with the chair of the Department of Physics. 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 

The College cooperates with the Duke University School of Forestry and Environ- 
mental Studies to offer students interested in these areas the possibility of earningboth 
bachelor's and master's degrees within five years. For details about the program, 
students should consult a faculty member in the biology department. 




78 

Courses of Instruction 

Plans of study, course descriptions, and the identification of instructors apply to the 
academic year 1991-92 unless otherwise noted, and reflect official faculty action through 
March 16, 1992. 

The University reserves the right to change programs of study, academic requirements, 
assignment of lecturers, or the announced calendar. 

Odd-numbered courses are normally taught in the fall, even-numbered in the 
spring. Exceptions are noted after course descriptions. Number of credits is shown by 
numerals immediately after the course title — for example, (3) or (3,3) . The symbols P — 
and C — followed by course numbers or titles are used to show prerequisites and 
corequisites for a course. 

Courses 101-199 are primarily for freshmen and sophomores; courses 200-299 are 
primarily for juniors and seniors; courses 301-399 are for advanced undergraduates 
and graduate students. (Other graduate courses are described in the bulletin of the 
Graduate School; a complete listing of summer courses is in the bulletin of the Summer 
Session.) 

Anthropology 

David S. Weaver, Chair 

Professors E. Pendleton Banks, David K. Evans, 

Stanton K. Tefft, David S. Weaver, J. Ned Woodall 

Director/Curator, Museum of Anthropology/ 

Assistant Professor Mary Jane Berman 

Adjunct Professor Jay R. Kaplan 

Visiting Assistant Professor Dorothy J. Cattle 

A major in anthropology requires a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include 
Anthropology 151, 152, 390, and either 370 or 374. 

Students are encouraged but not required to enroll in a course offering intensive 
field research training. However, only four credits from Anthropology 381, 382 and 
four credits from Anthropology 383, 384 may be used to meet major requirements. 
Additional courses are counted within the limits specified for a single field of study. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in anthropology courses is required at the 
time the major is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all anthropology 
courses is required for graduation. 

A minor in anthropology requires twenty-four credits and must include Anthropol- 
ogy 151 and 152. Minors will not receive credit for Anthropology 390, 398, or 399. Only 
four credits from Anthropology 381, 382, 383, and 384 may be used to meet minor 
requirements and departmental permission must be obtained for minor credit in these 
courses. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Anthropology," highly qualified 
majors should apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They 
must complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily 
defend their work in an oral examination. For additional information, members of the 
departmental faculty should be consulted. 



79 

151. General Anthropology I: Archeology and Human Evolution. (4) Origin and 
evolution of man with a focus on human biological and sociocultural change during 
the Plio-Pleistocene. 

152. General Anthropology II: Cultural Anthropology. (4) A cross-cultural analysis 
of human institutions with a survey of major theories explaining cultural variety and 
human nature. 

300. Museum Practicum. (4) Designed to give the student practical experience while 
working at the Museum of Anthropology in six basic areas of museum operation: 
administration, research, curatorial duties, conservation, exhibition design, and edu- 
cation. P — Permission of instructor. 

310. Museum Design and Operation. (4) The principles of museum design and op- 
eration through lectures, readings, workshops with visiting experts in the field, and 
field trips to neighboring museums (possibly to Washington, DC). Students have an 
opportunity to put some of the principles in practice by planning and designing 
exhibits in the Museum of Anthropology. P — Permission of instructor. 

320. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk and tribal cultures 
from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P — Permission of instruc- 
tor. 

330. The Ethnographic Documentary. (4) Through the use of ethnographic docu- 
mentary films and videos from different historical periods and by filmmakers from 
different cultural backgrounds, this course will present a historical and cross-cultural 
perspective on cultural systems. The course will analyze the technological and 
aesthetic aspects of film and video production and assess the effectiveness of visual 
communication in conveying ideas about culture and society. P — Anthropology 151 
or Anthropology 152 or permission of instructor. 

335. Mountain Folklore in North Carolina. (4) The role folklore plays in all human 
cultures in general and in the culture of the mountain people of Western North 
Carolina in particular. Field trips to mountain counties conducted. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

340. Anthropological Theory. (4) A study and evaluation of the major anthropological 
theories of humans and society, including cultural evolutionism, historical particular- 
ism, functionalism, structuralism, cultural ecology, and cultural materialism. The 
relevance and significance of these theories to modern anthropology are discussed. 
P — Anthropology 151 and 152 and junior standing, or permission of instructor. 

345. Primitive Religion. (4) The world-view and values of non-literate cultures as 
expressed in myths, rituals, and symbols. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

350. European Peasant Communities. (4) Lectures, reading, and discussion on se- 
lected communities and their sociocultural contexts, including folklore, folk art, and 
processes of culture change. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 



80 

352. Peoples and Cultures of Africa. (4) The ethnology and prehistory of Africa south 
of the Sahara. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

354. Peoples and Cultures of China. (4) A survey of the Han and non-Han (Mongo- 
lian, Tibetan, Shan, Miao, etc.) peoples of China and their traditional cultures drawing 
on ethnographic and village studies. P — Permission of instructor. 

358. The American Indian. (4) Ethnology and prehistory of the American Indian. P — 
Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

360. Human Ecology. (4) The relations between the human being and the inorganic 
and organic environments as mediated by culture; laboratory experience with aerial 
photography and other remote sensing techniques. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthro- 
pology 152 or permission of instructor. 

362. Medical Anthropology. (4) The impact of Western medical practices and theory 
on non- Western cultures and anthropological contributions to the solving of world 
health problems. P — Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

364. Physical Anthropology. (4) Introduction to biological anthropology, human 
biology, evolution, and variability. P — Anthropology 151. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. P — Anthropology 151 and permission of 
instructor. 

368. Human Osteology. (4) A survey of human skeletal anatomy and analysis, em- 
phasizing archeological and anthropological applications. P — Anthropology 151 and 
permission of instructor. 

370. Old World Prehistory. (4) Survey of Old World prehistory, with particular 
attention to geological and climatological events affecting culture change. P — Anthro- 
pology 151 or permission of instructor. 

372. Archeology of Early Complex Societies. (4) Comparison of the archeology of 
early complex societies, with special attention to the Maya, Aztec, and Teotihuacan 
cultures in Mesoamerica; the Huari and Inca in South America; the Anasazi of North 
America; and Egyptian and Mesopotamian groups of the Old World. An emphasis 
will be given to theories of origins and change in complex societies. P — Anthropology 
151 or permission of instructor. 

374. Prehistory of North America. (4) The development of culture in North America 
as outlined by archeological research, with an emphasis on paleoecology and socio- 
cultural processes. P — Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

376. Archeology of the Southeastern United States. (4) A study of human adaptation 
in the Southeast from Pleistocene to the present, emphasizing the role of ecological 
factors in determining the formal aspects of culture. P — Anthropology 151. 

378. Conservation Archeology. (4) A study of the laws, regulations, policies, pro- 
grams, and political processes used to conserve prehistoric and historic cultural 
resources. P — Anthropology 151 and Anthropology 359 or permission of instructor. 



81 

380. Anthropological Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in an- 
thropological research. (A student who receives credit for this course may not also 
receive credit for Biology 380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380.) 

381, 382. Archeological Research. (4,4) The recovery of anthropological data through 
the use of archeology, taught in the excavation and interpretation of a prehistoric site. 
P — Anthropology 151. 

383, 384. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology. (4,4) Training in techniques for 
the study of foreign cultures, carried out in the field. P — Anthropology 151 or 
Anthropology 152. 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline. The course concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P — Permission of instructor. 

390. Senior Seminar. (4) A review of the contemporary problems in the fields of 
archeology and physical and cultural anthropology. P — Senior standing or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A reading, research, or internship course 
designed to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under 
the supervision of a departmental faculty member. 



Art 

Harry B. Titus Jr., Chair 

Reynolds Professor Terisio Pignatti (Venice) 

Professors Robert Knott, Margaret S. Smith 

Associate Professors David L. Faber, Harry B. Titus Jr. 

Assistant Professors Bernadine Barnes, Page H. Laughlin 

Visiting Assistant Professor David Helm 

Visiting Instructors David Finn, Margaret C. Gregory, Louise Lackey-Zachmann 

Lecturer Brian Allen (London) 

Assistant Lecturer Katie Scott (London) 

Gallery Director Victor Faccinto 

The department offers courses in the history of art and in the practice of drawing, 
painting, printmaking, sculpture, and photography. A visiting artist program and 
varied exhibitions in the gallery of the Scales Fine Arts Center as well as internships 
in local cultural organizations supplement the regular academic program of the 
department. 

The major in art requires forty credits. For an art history major, eight courses are to 
be in art history and two in studio art. For a studio art major, eight courses are to be 
in studio art and two in art history. 

A minor in art requires five courses, including at least one course in art history and 
one course in studio art. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in art should consult the chair of the 
art department. 



82 

Qualified students in both the art history and studio areas may ask to participate in 
the department's honors program. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Art/' students must execute a written project or create a body of work; the results of 
their efforts must be presented and defended before a committee of the departmental 
faculty. Interested students should consult any member of the department for addi- 
tional information concerning the requirements for this program. 

Art History 

103. Introduction to the Visual Arts. (4) A historical introduction to the arts of various 
cultures and times with discussions of technique, style, methodology, and terms. 
Satisfies the Division I requirement. 

231. American Art. (4) A survey of American painting and sculpture from the Colonial 
period through the Armory Show held in 1913 in New York. 

233. American Architecture. (4) A survey of American architecture from 1650 to the 
present. 

235. Art and Architecture of the South. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and 
sculpture in the South from 1600 to the present. 

241. Ancient Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the 
prehistoric through the late Roman periods. 

244. Greek Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the prehis- 
toric through the Hellenistic periods. 

245. Roman Art. (4) A survey of Etruscan and Roman architecture, painting, and 
sculpture. 

251. Women and Art. (4) A historical examination of the changing image of women in 
art and the role of women artists. 

252. Romanesque Art. (4) Art and architecture from the Carolingian Renaissance 
through the twelfth century. 

253. The Gothic Cathedral. (4) The character and evolution of Gothic cathedrals and 
the sculpture, stained glass, metalworks, and paintings designed for them. 

254. Luxury Arts in the Middle Ages. (4) Medieval illuminated manuscripts and 
precious objects made of gold, silver, ivory, enamel, and other luxury materials are the 
subjects of this course. 

258. The History of Prints. (4) A survey of the technical and stylistic developments in 
printmaking from the fifteenth century to the present. Special attention will be given 
to the function of prints in society. Student research will focus on prints in the 
University Print Collection. 

267. Early Italian Renaissance Art. (4) An introduction to the painting, sculpture, and 
architecture of Italy from 1250 to 1500, with a concentration on the arts in fifteenth 
century Florence. 



83 

268. Italian High Renaissance and Mannerist Art. (4) A study of the arts in sixteenth 
century Italy, with emphasis on the achievement of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, 
Michelangelo, Giorgione, and Titian, and the dissolution of Renaissance idealism in 
the art of the early Mannerists. 

270. Northern Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of painting, sculpture, graphic art, and 
patronage in Northern European art from 1300 to the death of Diirer in 1528. 

271. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculpture, 
and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Offered in 
Dijon. 

272. Baroque Art. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1600 to 1700. 

275. History of Landscape Architecture. (4) Study of garden design, beginning with 
Roman gardens and continuing through the creation of public parks in the nineteenth 
century. 

281. Modern Art to 1900. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1700 
to 1900, emphasizing the nineteenth century. 

282. Modern Art after 1900. (4) A survey of European and American painting and 
sculpture from 1900 to the present. 

283. Impressionism. (4) A detailed study of the French Impressionist painters, with 
some consideration of Impressionism in other forms. 

284. Contemporary American Art. (4) An intensive study of American painting and 
sculpture from 1950 to the present. 

288. Modern Architecture. (4) A survey of European and American architecture from 
1900 to the present. 

291. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

292. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

293. Practicum. (4) Internships in local cultural organizations, to be arranged by the 
art department. Pass /fail. 

296. Art History Seminar. (2,4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty 
on topics of their choice. A paper is required. P — Permission of instructor. 

a. Ancient Art f. Contemporary Art 

b. Medieval Art g. American Art 

c. Renaissance Art h. Modern Architecture 

d. Baroque Art i. American Architecture 

e. Modern Art j. Special Topics 

2320. English Art, Hogarth to the Present. (4) A survey of English painting, sculpture, 
and architecture in the Georgian, Victorian, and modern periods. Slide lectures, 
student reports, museum visits, and lectures. Taught by special lecturer. Offered in 
London. 



84 

2693. Venetian Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of the art of the Venetian Renaissance, 
with slide lectures and museum visits. Offered in Venice. 

Anthropology 321. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk 
and tribal cultures from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

Studio Art* 

111. Introduction to Drawing and Design. (4) An introduction to the basic elements 
of two-dimensional and three-dimensional design, to include drawing, painting, and 
sculpture. Six class hours per week. Satisfies the Division I requirement. 

112. Introduction to Painting. (4) An introduction to painting fundamentals in a 
variety of contemporary styles in the oil or acrylic medium. P — Art 111. 

115. Introduction to Sculpture. (4) An introduction to basic sculptural styles and 
multi-media, with emphasis on contemporary concepts. P — Art 111. 

117. Introduction to Printmaking. (4) An introduction to one or more of the following 
areas of printmaking: lithography, intaglio, and silkscreen. P — Art 111. 

211. Intermediate Drawing. (4) Continuation of Art 111, with concentrated emphasis 
on drawing fundamentals and idea development in realistic and abstract styles, 
emphasizing composition, value, line, and form. Six class hours per week. P — Art 111. 

212. Intermediate Painting. (4) Continuation of Art 112, with concentrated emphasis 
on idea development. P — Art 112. Maybe repeated. 

215. Intermediate Sculpture. (4) Continuation of Art 115, with emphasis on idea 
development. P — Art 115. May be repeated. 

217. Intermediate Printmaking. (4) Continuation of Art 117, with emphasis on idea 
development. P — Art 117. May be repeated. 

218. Figure Drawing. (4) An introduction to figure drawing. P — Art 111. 

221. Advanced Drawing. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P— Art 211. 

222. Advanced Painting. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P— Art 212. 

225. Advanced Sculpture. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P — Art 215. 

227. Advanced Printmaking. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. 
May be repeated. P — Art 217. 

295. Studio Seminar. (2,4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on 
topics of their choice and related studio activities. P — Permission of instructor. 



*Prerequisites may be waived with permission of instructor. 



85 

Asian Studies 

Win-chiat Lee, Coordinator 

The Asian Studies program, established in 1960 with financial assistance from the 
Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation, is interdisciplinary and involves the coopera- 
tion and resources of several departments in the humanities and social sciences. Its 
objectives are to broaden the traditional curriculum with the infusion of a systematic 
knowledge and understanding of the cultures of Asia. 

Anthropology 

354. Peoples and Cultures of China. (4) 

See the course listing under Anthropology for description and prerequisites. 

Chinese Language and Literature 

111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) 

151,152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) 

211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Literature Written in Chinese. (4) 

See the course listings under East Asian Languages and Literatures for descriptions and 
prerequisites. 

History 

310. Seminar. (4) 

341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) 

343. Imperial China. (4) 

344. Modern China. (4) 

347. Japan Since World War II. (4) 

348: Modern Japan. (4) 

3461. Foreign Encounters with Japan. (4) Offered in Hiratsuka, Japan, Fall 1992. 

See the course listings under History for descriptions and prerequisites. 

Humanities 

219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) 
221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) 
347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) 



86 

348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) 

350. Modern Chinese Literature. (4) 

See the course listings under Humanities for descriptions and prerequisites. 

Japanese Language and Literature 

111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) 

151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) 

211. Bungaku: Introduction to Literature Written in Modern Japanese. (4) 

See the course listings under East Asian Languages and Literatures for descriptions and 
prerequisities. 

Philosophy 

253. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy. (4) (Also listed as Religion 380.) See 
the course listing under Philosophy or Religion for description and prerequisite. 

Politics 

246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) 

247. Islam and Politics. (4) 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) 

259. The Arab-Israeli Confrontation. (4) 

260. East Asian International Relations. (4) 
292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) 

See the course listings under Politics for descriptions and prerequisites. 

Religion 

161. World Religions. (2,2,2,2) 

161 (a) Buddhism 

161 (b) Primal Religion (Taoism and Native American) 

161 (c) Hinduism 

161 (d) Islam 

380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) (Also listed as 
Philosophy 253.) 



87 

361. Buddhism. (4) 

See the course listings under Religion for descriptions and prerequisities. 

Biology 

Gerald W. Esch, Chair 

Professors Ralph D. Amen, Ronald V. Dimock Jr., Gerald W. Esch, 

Herman E. Eure, Mordecai J. Jaffe, Raymond E. Kuhn, 

Peter D. Weigl, Raymond L. Wyatt 

Associate Professors Nina Stromgren Allen, Carole L. Browne, 

Robert A. Browne, William E. Conner, Hugo G Lane, Wayne L. Silver 

Assistant Professors James F. Curran, Gloria K. Muday 

Visiting Assistant Professors Kathleen A. Kron, Anne M. Moore 

Adjunct Professors J. Whitfield Gibbons, Harold O. Goodman, 

Terry C. Hazen, Stephen H. Richardson 
Adjunct Assistant Professors Margaret Mulvey, John M. Aho 

At the end of the sophomore year a student electing to major in biology meets with 
a major adviser to plan the course of study for the junior and senior years. The 
requirements for completion of the major are those in effect at the time of the 
conference, since the curriculum and departmental requirements may change slightly 
during the student's period of residence. All majors are required to take Biology 112, 
113, 114, in any order, and at least three 300-level 5-credit biology courses. Co-major 
requirements are Chemistry 111 and 116 and two additional courses in the physical 
sciences. 

For students declaring majors in the spring, the requirements for a major are a 
minimum of forty-one credits in biology. A minimum grade average of C on all 
courses attempted in biology at Wake Forest University is required for graduation 
with a major in biology. (Students declaring a major later than the spring should 
consult with a biology major adviser for the specific major requirement at that time.) 

A minor in biology requires twenty credits. Courses taken pass /fail cannot count 
toward a minor. A minimum overall grade average of C must be earned on all Wake 
Forest University biology courses taken to complete a minor. 

Prospective majors are strongly urged to select their first course in biology from 
among Biology 112, 113 and 114 (any order). Most prospective majors also should take 
Chemistry 111-116 as freshmen; the majority continue with Chemistry 221 and 222 
(organic chemistry) as sophomores. 

Advanced work in many areas of biology may require additional courses in 
mathematics, the physical sciences, and other areas of biology. The adviser calls these 
to the attention of the student, depending on individual needs. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in biology. To be graduated with the distinction "Honors in Biology," 
they must complete a research project under the direction of a staff member and pass 
a comprehensive oral examination. 

All 300-level courses have the 112-114 series as prerequisites. Any exceptions to this 
arrangement must be approved by the chair of the department. 



88 

111. Biological Principles. (5) A study of the general principles of living systems with 
focus on the cellular, organismal, and populational levels of biological organization, 
emphasizing the role of heredity and evolution in these systems. Course may count for 
major credit in biology, but is intended for students with little or no previous 
experience in biology. Lab — three hours. 

112. Comparative Physiology. (5) An introduction to the form and function of organ- 
isms, with emphasis on physical principles, structural organization, and critical 
function of plants and animals. Intended as a beginning course in biology for 
prospective majors and for any students with adequate high school preparation in 
biology. Lab — three hours. No prerequisites. 

113. Evolutionary and Ecological Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles of 
genetics, ecology, and evolution as they apply to organisms, populations and commu- 
nities, with emphasis on evolutionary processes within an ecological context. Intended 
as a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and for any students with 
adequate high school preparation in biology. Lab — three hours. No prerequisites. 

114. Cellular and Molecular Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles and pro- 
cesses of cellular and molecular biology including molecular organization of cellular 
structures, energetics, metabolism, and regulation of cellular functions. Intended as a 
beginning course in biology for prospective majors and for any students with 
adequate high school preparation in biology. Lab — three hours. No prerequisites. 

301-305. Topics in Biology. (1-5) Seminar and/ or lecture courses in selected topics, 
some involving laboratory instruction. 

312. Genetics. (5) A study of principles of inheritance, population genetics, and the 
molecular mechanisms of gene activity. Laboratory work in the methods of genetic 
analysis with emphasis on compiling and presenting data. Lab — three hours. P — 
Biology 112-114. 

314. Evolution. (4) Analysis of the theories, evidences, and mechanisms of evolution. 
P— Biology 112-114. 

315. Biology of Stress. (4) A lecture course involving a study of the ways in which 
plants and animals react to and cope with abiotic stresses. Foci include mechanisms 
at the ecological, organismic, cellular and molecular levels. A term paper is required, 
reviewing the literature in some area covered by the course. Credit not allowed for 
both Biology 315 and 316. P— Biology 112-114. 

316. Biology of Stress. (5) A lecture and laboratory course involving a study of the 
ways in which plants and animals react to and cope with abiotic and biotic stresses. 
Foci include mechanisms at the ecological, organismic, cellular and molecular levels. 
A laboratory project implementing the scientific method and designed to produce 
new knowledge is required. Credit not allowed for both Biology 315 and 316. P — 
Biology 112-114. 

320. Comparative Anatomy. (5) A study of chordate animals, with emphasis on 
comparative anatomy and phylogeny. Dissection of representative forms in the 
laboratory. Lab — four hours. P — Biology 112-114. 



89 

321. Parasitology. (5) A survey of protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites from 
the standpoint of morphology, taxonomy, life histories, and host/ parasite relation- 
ships. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal 
behavior. (May count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to be made at 
registration.) P — Permission of instructor. 

325. Plant Anatomy. (5) A study of comparative anatomy of the vascular plants, with 
emphasis on phylogeny. Lab — four hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

326. Microbiology. (5) The structure, function, and taxonomy of microorganisms with 
emphasis on bacteria. Some immunological processes are considered. Lab — four 
hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

328. Vascular Plants. (5) A comparative survey of the vascular plants, with emphasis 
on structure, reproduction, classification, and phylogeny. Lab — four hours. P — 
Biology 112-114. 

331. Invertebrates. (5) Systematic study of invertebrates, with emphasis on functional 
morphology, behavior, ecology, and phylogeny. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112- 
114. 

333. Vertebrates. (5) Systematic study of vertebrates, with emphasis on evolution, 
physiology, behavior, and ecology. Laboratory devoted to systematic, field, and 
experimental studies. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

335. Insect Biology. (5) A study of the diversity, structure, development, physiology, 
behavior, and ecology of insects. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

338. Plant Taxonomy. (5) A study of the classification of seed plants, with emphasis 
on the comparative study of orders and families. Lab — four hours. P — Biology 112- 
114. 

340. Ecology. (5) Interrelationships among living systems and their environments; 
structure and dynamics of major ecosystem types; contemporary problems in ecology. 
Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

341. Marine Biology. (5) An introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological 
parameters affecting the distribution of marine organisms. Lab — three hours. P — 
Biology 112-114. 

342. Aquatic Ecology. (5) A course designed to cover the general principles and 
concepts of limnology and aquatic biology as they apply to lentic and lotic habitats. A 
major portion of the field study is centered at the Charles M. Allen Biological Station. 
Lab — three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

344. Evolutionary Theory. (4) Lectures, readings, and seminars on the scientific and 
philosophic implications of evolutionary theory, including: structure and content of 
evolutionary theory, role of chance in evolution, units-of-selection controversy, 
nature of populations, nature of species, nature of selection, adaptation, sociobiology, 
and the evolutionism /creationism debates. P — Biology 112-114. 



90 

345. Neurobiology. (4) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous 
system including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neuro- 
chemical approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central 
nervous systems. P — Biology 112-114. 

346. Neurobiology. (5) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous 
system including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neuro- 
chemical approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central 
nervous systems. The laboratory will emphasize electrophysiological techniques with 
experiments from the cellular to the behavioral level. Lab — three hours. P — Permis- 
sion of instructor. 

350. Physiology. (5) A lecture /laboratory course dealing with the physiochemical 
functions common to multicellular organisms, with emphasis on the principles and 
processes of nutrition, metabolism, development, and behavior. Lab — three hours. 
P— Biology 112-114. 

351. Animal Physiology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course which discusses and 
demonstrates the principles of bioelectricity and biomechanics. Regulatory principles 
and the physiology of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems of verte- 
brates are covered. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

352. Plant Physiology. (5) A study of the mechanisms by which various plant systems 
function, thematically structured around the plant life cycle. Lab — three hours. P — 
Biology 112-114. 

354. Endocrinology. (4) A lecture course which considers the evolution of the endo- 
crine glands and hormones and the physiology of the main hormonal pathways of 
vertebrates. P — Biology 112-114. 

355. Developmental Physiology. (5) The application of the principles and postulates 
of molecular biology to the phenomenon of development in multicellular organisms 
with emphasis on the genetic and hormonal mechanisms of differentiation, totipo- 
tency, and morphogenesis. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

359. Photobiology. (4) A lecture/ seminar exploring photochemical mechanisms and 
ecological roles common to a variety of photoresponses in living organisms, including 
vision, bioluminescence, phototaxis, photosynthesis, photoperiodism, and photo- 
morphogenesis. P — Biology 112-114. 

360. Development. (5) A description of the major events and processes of animal 
development, with an analysis of the causal factors underlying them. Special attention 
is given to the embryonic development of vertebrates, but consideration is also given 
to other types of development and other organisms. Topics include fertilization, early 
development, growth and cell division, cell differentiation, the role of genes in 
development, cell interaction, morphogenesis, regeneration, birth defects, and cancer. 
Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

362. Immunology. (4) A study of the components and protective mechanisms of the 
immune system. P — Biology 112-114. 



91 

363. Sensory Biology. (4) A lecture course involving a study of the nature of energy 
in the environment and how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. 
Anatomical, physiological, biochemical and biophysical approaches will be inte- 
grated in the study of sensory mechanisms in plants and animals. A term paper is 
required reviewing the literature in some area covered by the course. Credit not 
allowed for both Biology 363 and 364. P— Biology 112-114. 

364. Sensory Biology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course involving a study of energy 
in the environment and how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. 
Anatomical, physiological, biochemical and biophysical approaches will be inte- 
grated in the study of sensory mechanisms in plants and animals . A laboratory proj ect 
implementing the scientific method and designed to produce new knowledge is 
required. Credit not allowed for both Biology 363 and 364. P — Biology 112-114. 

365. Cell Motility. (5) A lecture and laboratory course exploring the movements in and 
of cells (for example: mitosis, cytoplasmic streaming, muscle contraction, nerve 
transport). Light and electron microscopic methods as well as biochemical and 
biophysical approaches to the study of cell motility will be discussed. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. (May count as either biology or anthro- 
pology but not both; choice to be made at registration.) P — Permission of instructor. 

370. Biochemistry. (4) A lecture course introducing the principles of biochemistry 
with an emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. Included are 
surveys of essential biomolecules, their biosynthesis, and mode of action; techniques 
in the analysis of structure and function; enzyme kinetics; and macromolecular 
organization. P — Biology 112-114. 

371. Biochemistry. (5) A lecture and laboratory course introducing the principles of 
biochemistry with an emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. 
Included are surveys of essential biomolecules, their biosynthesis, and mode of action; 
techniques in the analysis of structure and function; enzyme kinetics; and macromo- 
lecular organization. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

372. Molecular Biology. (4) A lecture course that considers the role of biologically 
important molecules in membrane and intracellular regulation. Topics covered will 
include membrane receptors, transport processes, molecular models of hormonal 
regulation, and controls of gene expression. P — Biology 112-114. 

373. Techniques in Electron Microscopy. (5) An introduction to the electron micro- 
scope as an experimental tool in biology. Includes instruction in common techniques 
used in the field and lecture on recognition and interpretation of cellular ultrastruc- 
ture. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

375. Optical Methods in Biological Sciences. (5) Methods in light and electron mi- 
croscopy including specimen preparation, image generation and recording. Students 
will learn the basic techniques of photography (developing and printing), fixation and 
sectioning of specimens, and video-enhanced, computer-generated imaging as well as 
image and motion analysis. Lat> — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 



92 



376. Ichthyology. (5) A comparative study of structure /function, classification, and 
phylogeny of fish. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

380. Biostatistics. (4) An introduction to statistical methods used by biologists, 
including descriptive statistics, hypothesis-testing, analysis of variance, and regres- 
sion and correlation. May count as biology or anthropology but not both; choice to be 
made at registration. A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive 
credit for Anthropology 380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380. 

382. Paleobiology. (5) Analysis of the fossil record, with emphasis on biological and 
evolutionary principles. Topics include fossilization, paleoecology, morphologic 
analysis, biogeography, macroevolution, diversification and extinction, systematics, 
and the role of chance in evolution. Lab /discussion — three hours. P — Biology 112- 
114. 

385. Cellular Physiology. (5) In-depth examination of current topics in cell biology 
such as cellular signalling, the extracellular matrix, biogenesis of mitochondria and 
chloroplasts, control of cell division, protein sorting in the Golgi, protein translocation 
across membranes, and molecular motors. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

388. Bioenergetics. (4) Lecture /seminar course dealing with the energetic principles 
and thermodynamic relations of living systems. Attention will be paid to the 
energetics of cells and organisms, as well as ecosystems. P — Biology 112-114. 

391, 392. Research in Biology. (2,2) Independent library and laboratory investigation 
carried out under the supervision of a member of the staff. Pass /fail or for grade at 
discretion of the instructor. P — Permission of instructor. 




Biology lab 



93 

393, 394. Research in Biology. (2,2) Courses designed for students who wish to 
continue research projects beyond Biology 391 and 392. Pass /fail optional. Not to be 
counted toward major. P — Permission of instructor. 

395. Philosophy of Biology and Medicine. (4) A lecture / seminar course dealing with 
the rational structure of biologic and biomedic sciences with major emphasis on the 
reductionistic, organismic, and telenomic paradigms of modern biology and medi- 
cine. The structure of selected biologic and biomedic theories will be included. P — 
Biology 112-114. 

396. Biomedical Ethics. (4) Lectures and seminars examining contemporary issues in 
biomedical ethics including the proper role of biomedical research, and current 
controversies in health care and medical practice. P — Biology 112-114. 

397. Seminar in Biology. (2-4) Consideration of major biological topics through in- 
tensive reading and discussions. P — Biology 112-114. 

Chemistry 

Willie L. Hinze, Chair 

Professors Phillip J. Hamrick Jr., Roger A. Hegstrom, 

Willie L. Hinze, Charles F. Jackels, Susan C. Jackels, 

Gordon A. Melson, Ronald E. Noftle 

Associate Professors Huw M. L. Davies, Dilip K. Kondepudi, Mark E. Welker 

Assistant Professors James C. Fishbein, N. Ganapathisubramanian, 

Bradley T. Jones, Abdessadek Lachgar 

Visiting Assistant Professor Philip S. Hammond 

Adjunct Professor Robert A. Heckman 

The department offers programs leading to the B A and BS degrees in chemistry and 
is on the list of departments certified by the American Chemical Society. 

The bachelor of arts degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 116, 221, 222, 341, 
342 or 344 and 361; Mathematics 111-112; and Physics 113, 114. 

The bachelor of science degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 116, 221, 222, 
334, 341, 344, either 351 or 356/357, 361, 381, 382, 383, 391 or 392; Mathematics 111 and 
112 and either 113 or 301; and Physics 113 and 114. 

Additional mathematics and science courses are strongly recommended for BS 
degree candidates. The number and selection of these courses depends on the 
professional goals of the individual student. Examples of these courses are Mathemat- 
ics 302 and 304; Physics 161 and 164; and Biology 370 and 371. 

The department also offers a five-year B A/MS degree program. Students qualifying 
for the program may receive a tuition scholarship in the senior year. For information 
consult the department chair. 

A minor in chemistry requires twenty-three credits in chemistry and must include 
at least one of the following courses: 334, 341, 342 or 344, 351, 356/357, 361, 362. The 
department will not accept courses taken pass /fail to count toward the minor. 



94 

Unless otherwise stated, all chemistry courses are open to chemistry majors on a 
letter-grade basis only. Majors are also required to complete on a letter-grade basis the 
required physics and mathematics courses. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in the first two years of chemistry is required 
of students who elect to major in the department. Admission to any class is contingent 
upon satisfactory grades in prerequisite courses, and registration for advanced 
courses must be approved by the department. Candidates for either the BA or BS 
degree with a major in chemistry must have a minimum GPA of 2.0 in their chemistry 
courses numbered 200 or above. 

Qualified majors are considered for honors in chemistry. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Chemistry," a student must have a minimum GPA in 
chemistry courses of 3.3 and a minimum overall GPA of 3.0. In addition, the honors 
candidate must satisfactorily complete an approved research project, prepare a paper 
describing the project, and present results at a seminar for departmental approval. For 
additional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

For the BS major, the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 



Freshman 



Sophomore 



Chemistry 111, 116 Chemistry 221, 222 

Mathematics 111, 112 Physics 113, 114 



Junior 

Chemistry 341, 342 
Chemistry 383 
Chemistry 391 or 392 
Mathematics or 
Science 



Senior 

Chemistry 334 
Chemistry 361 
Chemistry 

300-Level 

Elective 



For the B A major the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 



Freshman 

Chemistry 111, 116 
Mathematics 111, 112 



Sophomore 

Chemistry 221, 222 
Physics 113, 114 



Junior 

Chemistry 341, 342 



Senior 
Chemistry 361 



For variations in either of the schedules above, the student should consult a member 
of the faculty in chemistry. 

Students electing laboratory courses in chemistry are required to pay for breakage 
and for certain consumable materials as determined by the department. 



111. College Chemistry. (5) Fundamental chemical principles. Laboratory covers 
experimental aspects of basic concepts. Lab — three hours. 

116. Equilibrium and Analysis. (5) Fundamental principles of equilibrium as applied 
to inorganic and generalized acid-base systems. Laboratory covers aspects of quanti- 
tative and inorganic qualitative analysis. Lab — three hours. P — Chemistry 111. 

221, 222. Organic Chemistry. (5, 5) Principles and reactions of organic chemistry. 
Lab — four hours. P — Chemistry 116. 

301, 302. Elective Research. (0,0) P — Permission of instructor. Summers only. 

323. Organic Analysis. (4) The systematic identification of organic compounds. Lab — 
four hours. P — Chemistry 222. 



95 

334. Chemical Analysis. (5) Theoretical and practical applications of modern methods 
of chemical analysis. Lab — four hours. C — Chemistry 341. 

341. Physical Chemistry I. (5) Fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics and 
electrochemistry, phenomenological kinetics, and introductory computational meth- 
ods. Lab— four hours. P— Chemistry 116, Math 111, Physics 113-114. C— Math 112. 

342. Physical Chemistry IIA. (5) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical 
thermodynamics, and introductory computational methods. Lab — four hours. P — 
Chemistry 341, Math 111-112, Physics 113-114. 

344. Physical Chemistry IIB. (5) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical 
thermodynamics, and introductory computational methods. Lab — four hours. P — 
Chemistry 341, Math 111-112 and 301 (or 113), Physics 113-114. 

351. Special Topics in Biochemistry. (4) Fundamentals of biochemistry, with par- 
ticular emphasis on mechanistic analysis of metabolic pathways, enzymatic activity, 
and drug action. P — Chemistry 222. 

356, 357. Chemical Spectroscopy. (2,2) Fundamental aspects of the theory and appli- 
cation of chemical spectroscopy, as found in the areas of analytical, inorganic, organic, 
and physical chemistry. Emphasis will vary. Seven-week courses. P — Chemistry 342 
or 344, 361, or permission of instructor. 




A chemistry student works on an experiment in the lab. 



96 

361. Inorganic Chemistry. (5) Principles and reactions of inorganic chemistry. Lab — 
four hours. P — Chemistry 342 or 344. 

362. Inorganic Chemistry. (4) Continuation of principles of inorganic chemistry with 
practical applications to inorganic systems. P — Chemistry 361. 

381, 382. Chemistry Seminar. (0,0) Discussions of contemporary research. Attendance 
required of BS chemistry majors in the junior and senior years. 

383. Chemical Literature. (1) Introduction to the chemical literature and searching 
techniques for the acquisition of chemical information. P — Chemistry 222. 

391, 392. Undergraduate Research. (2,2) Undergraduate research. Lab — eight hours. 

Classical Languages 

John L. Andronica, Chair 

Professors John L. Andronica, Robert W. Ulery Jr. 

Assistant Professors Mary L. B. Pendergraft, James T. Powell 

Visiting Assistant Professor David W. Frauenfelder 

The Department of Classical Languages offers three majors: Greek, Latin, and 
classical studies. Minors are offered in Greek, Latin, and classical studies. 

A major in Greek requires forty credits in the department. Thirty-two of these 
credits must be in the Greek language. Classics 270 is also a requirement. 

A minor in Greek requires twenty-five credits: Greek 111-112, 153, 211, and either 
212 or 231; and Classics 270. 

A major in Latin requires thirty-two credits in the department beyond Latin 153. 
Twenty-four of these credits must be in Latin courses. Classics 271 also is a require- 
ment, and Classics 270 is recommended. 

A minor in Latin requires three 200-level courses in Latin; Classics 271; and one 
additional course (three or four credits) in Greek or Latin or classics. 

A major in classical studies requires fifty-six credits. A minimum of thirty-six credits 
of course work must be taken in the department. A maximum of forty-eight credits in 
the department may be exceeded only if a student undertakes course work in both 
Latin and Greek. The student must take a minimum of two courses at the 200-level in 
either Greek or Latin and the following: Art 241 (Ancient Art), Classics 265 (Greek 
Literature), Classics 272 (Latin Literature), Classics 270 (Greek Civilization), and Classics 
271 (Roman Civilization). 

A maximum of sixteen credits maybe taken in the following: Art 244 (Greek Art), 245 
(Roman Art), 246 (Greek and Roman Architecture), 252 (Romanesque Art); History 215, 216 
(The Ancient World); Philosophy 201 (Ancient and Medieval Philosophy), 230 (Plato), 231 
(Aristotle); Politics 271 (Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy), 27 A (Noble Greeks 
and Romans); Religion 311 (Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible), 314 (Ancient Israel and 
Her Neighbors), 363 (Hellenistic Religions); Hebrew 111, 112, 153, 211. Other courses may 
be allowed with the permission of the department. 

A minor in classical studies requires five courses in addition to Latin or Greek 153: 
Classics 265, 272, and either 270 or 271; and two additional courses (8 credits) in Greek, 
Latin, classics, or other courses allowed by the department. 



97 

The requirements for certification to teach Latin in high school are the same as the 
requirements for a major in Latin. A major in classical studies serves as an appropriate 
part of the program of studies required for certification to teach Latin in high school. 
A student wishing to secure this certification should confer with the chair of the 
department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in Latin, Greek, or classical studies. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Latin," "Honors in Greek," or "Honors in Classical Studies," 
a student must complete an honors research project and pass a comprehensive oral 
examination. For honors in Latin or Greek, at least two of the courses counted toward 
the major must be seminar courses; for honors in classical studies, at least one seminar 
course in Latin or Greek is required. For additional information, members of the 
departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Greek 

111, 112. Elementary Greek. (5,5) Greek grammar; selections from Greek prose writers 
and poets. 

153. Intermediate Greek. (4) Grammar and selected readings. 

211. Plato. (4) Selections from the dialogues of Plato. 

212. Homer. (4) Selections from the Iliad and the Odyssey. 

221. Greek Readings. (2,3, or 4) A course designed to meet individual needs and 
interests. 

231. The Greek New Testament. (4) Selections from the Greek New Testament. 

241. Greek Tragedy. (3) Euripides' Medea. This course includes a study of the origin 
and history of Greek tragedy, with collateral reading of selected tragedies in transla- 
tion. Seminar. 

242. Greek Comedy. (3) Aristophanes' Clouds. This course includes a study of the 
origin and history of Greek comedy, with collateral reading of selected comedies in 
translation. Seminar. 

291, 292. Honors in Greek. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Latin 

111, 112. Elementary Latin. (4,4) Introduction to Latin grammar. 

113. Intensive Elementary Latin. (5) Introduction to Latin grammar. Covers material 
of Latin 111 and 112 in one semester. Not open to students who have had Latin 111 or 
112. 

153. Intermediate Latin. (5) Grammar review and selected readings. 

211. Introduction to Latin Poetry. (4) Readings primarily from Virgil's Aeneid, with an 
introduction to literary criticism. 



98 

212. Introduction to Latin Prose. (4) Readings primarily from the orations of Cicero, 
with attention to the elements of rhetoric in Roman public discourse. 

216. Roman Lyric Poetry. (4) An interpretation and evaluation of lyric poetry through 
readings from the poems of Catullus and Horace. 

221. Roman Historians. (4) Readings in the works of Sallust, Livy, or Tacitus, with 
attention to the historical background and the norms of ancient historiography. 

225. Roman Epistolography. (4) Selected readings from the correspondence of Cicero 
and Pliny the Younger and the verse epistles of Horace and Ovid. 

226. Roman Comedy. (4) Readings of selected comedies of Plautus and Terence, with 
a study of the traditions of comedy and dramatic techniques. 

231. Roman Elegy. (4) Readings from the poems of Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid, 
with study of the elegiac tradition. 

241. Roman Satire. (4) Selected readings from Horace and Juvenal, with attention to 
the origin and development of hexameter satire. 

243. Latin Readings. (2,3, or 4) A course designed to meet individual needs and 
interests. 

250. Prose Composition. (2) Exercises in writing of Latin prose, with an introduction 
to prose stylistics. 

398, 399. The Teaching of Latin. (4,4) A reading course and workshop in problems of 
Latin pedagogy and the secondary Latin curriculum, designed to meet the needs and 
interests of selected students. 

Seminars 

The following seminars are offered by members of the faculty on topics and authors 
of their choice. A paper is required. 

261. Seminar in Poetry of the Republican Period. (3) 

262. Seminar in Prose of the Republican Period. (3) 

281. Seminar in Augustan and Later Poetry. (3) 

282. Seminar in Augustan and Later Prose. (3) 

291, 292. Honors in Latin. (2, 2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Classics 

151. Ethics in Greece and Rome. (2) Reading and discussion of Aristotle's Ethics and 
Cicero's On Moral Duties, with attention to our own ethical dilemmas. A knowledge 
of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

220. Greek and Latin in Current Use. (3) A systematic study of Greek and Latin loan 
words, roots, prefixes, and suffixes as elements of English and specialized vocabular- 



99 

ies (e.g., scientific and legal). A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is 
not required. 

251. Classical Mythology. (4) A study of the most important myths of the Greeks and 
Romans. Many of the myths are studied in their literary context. A knowledge of the 
Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

252. Women in Antiquity. (3,4) The course explores the place of women in Greek and 
Roman society, men's views of them, their views of themselves, and their contribution 
to society, through primary source readings from the ancient authors. A knowledge 
of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

253. Greek Epic Poetry. (4) Oral epic poetry, with primary emphasis on the Iliad and 
the Odyssey of Homer and the later development of the genre. A knowledge of the 
Greek language is not required. 

254. Roman Epic Poetry. (4) A study of the Latin treatment and development of the 
literary form, with emphasis on Lucretius, Virgil, Ovid, and Lucan. A knowledge of 
the Latin language is not required. 

263. Tragic Drama. (4) A study of the origins and development of Greek tragedy and 
its influence on Roman writers, with readings from Aeschylus, Sophocles, and 
Euripides. A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

264. Greek and Roman Comedy. (4) Representative works of Aristophanes, Menander, 
Plautus, and Terence, with attention to the origins and development of comedy. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

265. A Survey of Greek Literature. (4) A study of selections from Greek literature in 
English translation. A knowledge of the Greek language is not required. 

270. Greek Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on those phases of Greek 
civilization which have particular significance for the modern world. A knowledge of 
the Greek language is not required. 

271. Roman Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on the general subject of 
Rome's contribution to the modern world. A knowledge of the Latin language is 
not required. 

272. A Survey of Latin Literature. (4) A study of selections from Latin literature in 
English translation. A knowledge of the Latin language is not required. 

279. Studies in Roman Biography. (2,3, or 4) A study in depth of a key figure of Roman 
history using the evidence of history, literature, numismatics, and epigraphy as well 
as art and archeology when appropriate. A knowledge of the Latin language is 
not required. 

280. Topics in Greek History. (4) The course will examine three central events in 
Greek history: the Persian War (490-479 B.C.), the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.), 
and the career of Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), through close study of the works 
of Herodotus and Thucy dides and of the Alexander tradition. Particular attention will 
be devoted to literary form and historiographical method. A knowledge of the Greek 
language is not required. 



100 

285. Interdisciplinary Seminar in the Greco-Roman World. (4) This seminar is de- 
signed specially to meet the needs of students earning the interdisciplinary minor in 
early Christian studies, but is not limited to them. It will explore from various points 
of view the culture of the Mediterranean world from which Christianity was born and 
grew: literature and art, history and economics, religions and philosophies. Also 
offered by the Department of Religion as Religion 285. Course may be repeated for 
credit. 

288. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) 

291, 292. Honors in Classical Studies. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 

East Asian Languages and Literatures 

Patrick Moran, Coordinator 
Assistant Professors Janice Bardsley and Patrick Moran 

Courses are offered in the Chinese and Japanese languages to meet the basic 
requirements in language. In addition, students may study abroad with Wake Forest 
programs in China and Japan. 

Chinese 

Chinese 111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of listen- 
ing and speaking skills in Mandarin. Introduction to the writing system and to basic 
sentence patterns. Lab required. 

Chinese 151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation, and composition. Lab required. P — Chinese 112 or equivalent. 

Chinese 199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

Chinese 211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Literature Written in Chinese. (4) Readings 
in Chinese in prose and poetry. P — Chinese 152 or permission of instructor. Satisfies 
a Division I requirement. 

Humanities 221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) 

Humanities 348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) 

Humanities 349. Chinese Liberation Literature Since 1948. (2) 

See the course listings under Humanities for descriptions and prerequisites of courses given 
in English. 

Philosophy 253. Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy. (4) See the course listing under 
Philosophy for description and prerequisites of courses given in English. 

Japanese 

Japanese 111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of lis- 
tening and speaking skills. Introduction to the writing systems. Basic sentence 
patterns covered. Lab required. 



101 

Japanese 151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation, and composition. Lab required. P — Japanese 112 or equivalent. 

Japanese 199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

Japanese 211. Bungaku: Introduction to Literature Written in Modern Japanese. (4) 

Readings in Japanese in prose and poetry. P — Japanese 152 or permission of instruc- 
tor. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

Humanities 219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) 

Humanities 347. Women Writers in Japanese Society. (4) 

See the course listings under Humanities for descriptions and prerequisites of courses given 
in English. 

Economics 

J. Daniel Hammond, Chair 

Reynolds Professor John H. Wood 

Professors David G. Brown, Donald E. Frey, J. Daniel Hammond, 

John C. Moorhouse, J. Van Wagstaff 

Associate Professors Claire Holton Hammond, Michael S. Lawlor, 

Perry L. Patterson 

Adjunct Associate Professor Gary R. Albrecht 

Assistant Professors Allin Cottrell, Robert M. Whaples 

Instructor Paul F. Huck 

The objectives of the economics program are to help prepare students for effective 
participation in the decision-making processes of society, to develop analytical skills 
in solving economic problems, to promote a better understanding of alternative 
economic systems, and to provide a balanced curriculum to prepare students for 
graduate study or positions in industry and government. 

The major in economics consists of thirty-six credits in economics, including 
Economics 150, 205, 206, 207, and 208. The remaining economics courses are selected 
by the student and his or her adviser. A minimum grade of C is required in Economics 
150, 205, and 207, and an overall C average in economics courses. The student also 
must take and pass Mathematics 109 and either Mathematics 108 or 111. 

The minor in economics consists of twenty-four credits, including Economics 150, 
205, and 207. The mathematics and minimum grade requirements for the minor are the 
same as for the major. 

Economics majors are encouraged to take complementary courses in mathematics, 
the humanities, or other social sciences to sharpen their analytical skills and to acquire 
a broader understanding of important issues. The faculty adviser will assist each 
student in determining the particular combination of courses that satisfies his or her 
needs. 

Economics majors with a grade average of at least 3.0 and 3.3 in economics may 
graduate with "Honors in Economics" by satisfying the research requirement of 
Economics 298. It is recommended but not required that Economics 297 be taken first. 



102 



The Department of Economics and the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six 
credits, affords the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the 
development of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major 
consists of the following course requirements: Economics 150, 205, 207, 208, 215, 218; 
Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 251; and three additional courses chosen with the 
approval of the program advisers. Recommended courses are Economics 206, 212, 223, 
231, 232, 235, 251, 252, and Mathematics 253, 311, 312, 348, 352, 353, 357, and 358. 
Students electing the joint major must receive permission from both the Department 
of Economics and the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. A mini- 
mum grade average of C in all courses attempted for the mathematical economics joint 
major is required for graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are encouraged to apply for admission to the honors 
program in the joint major. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Mathematical Economics," a student must satisfy the requirements of Economics 298 
or Mathematics 381 by successfully completing a senior research project. Consult the 
program advisers for additional information. 

For the BA in economics the following schedule is typical: 



Freshman 



Sophomore 



Junior* 



Senior 



Lower Division 
requirements 



Economics 150 
Mathematics 108 

or 111 
Mathematics 109 



Economics 205, 206 
Economics 207, 208 



Four electives 
in economics 



*It is expected that economics majors will complete the intermediate theory sequences in their junior year. 
For the BS in mathematical economics the following schedule is typical: 



Freshman 



Sophomore 



Junior 



Senior 



Mathematics 111,112 
Lower Division 
requirements 



Economics 150 
Mathematics 113, 
121 



Economics 205, 207 
Economics 208, 215 
Mathematics 251 



Economics 218 
Three electives in 

economics and /or 

mathematics 



150. Introduction to Economics. (4) A survey of micro and macroeconomic principles. 
Introduction to basic concepts, characteristic data and trends, and some analytic 
techniques. Preference in enrollment will be given to students with sophomore or 
upperclass standing. 

205. Intermediate Microeconomics I. (4) Development of demand and supply analy- 
sis, neoclassical theory of household and firm behavior, and alternative market 
structures. P — Economics 150. 

206. Intermediate Microeconomics II. (4) More advanced theory of maximizing be- 
havior of economic agents with discussion of risk, uncertainty, and economic dynam- 
ics. Theory employed in assessment of policy issues. P — Economics 205. 



103 

207. Intermediate Macroeconomics I. (4) Development of macroeconomic concepts of 
national income, circular flow, income determination, IS-LM analysis, and Phillips 
curves. Emphasizes contributions of Keynes and the Keynesian tradition, including 
some attention to primary literature. P — Economics 150. 

208. Intermediate Macroeconomics II. (4) Considers extensions of Keynesian theory, 
such as the post-Keynesians, and alternatives to Keynesian theory, such as monetarism, 
traditional classical, and new classical theories. More advanced tools of macroeconomic 
analysis may be introduced, for instance large forecasting models or dynamics. P — 
Economics 207. 

212. Economic Forecasting. (4) A computer-oriented application of modern econo- 
metric and time series methods for forecasting economic variables. P — Economics 150. 
C — Economics 207. 

215. Introduction to Econometrics. (4) Economic analysis through quantitative 
methods, with emphasis on model construction and empirical research. P — Econom- 
ics 205, 207 and Mathematics 109 or 121 . 

218. Seminar in Mathematical Economics. (4) Calculus and matrix methods used to 
develop basic tools of economic analysis. P — Economics 205, 207 and Mathematics 
111, 112. 

221. Public Finance. (4) An examination of the economic behavior of government. 
Includes principles of taxation, spending, borrowing, and debt-management. P — 
Economics 150. C — Economics 205. 

222. Monetary Theory and Policy. (4) An investigation of the nature of money, the 
macroeconomic significance of money, financial markets, and monetary policy. P — 
Economics 207. 

223. Financial Markets. (4) A study of the functions, structure, and performance of 
financial markets. P — Economics 205, 207. 

224. Law and Economics. (4) An economic analysis of property, contracts, torts, 
criminal behavior, due process, and law enforcement. P — Economics 205. 

225. Public Choice. (4) Traditional tools of economic analysis are employed to explore 
such topics in political science as political organization, elections, coalition formation, 
the optimal provision of public goods, and the scope of government. P — Economics 
205. 

231. Economics of Industry. (4) Analysis of the link between market structure and 
market performance in U.S. industries from theoretical and empirical viewpoints. 
Examines the efficiency of different firm practices including mergers and cartels. Case 
studies include automobiles, steel, agriculture, computers, sports, and telecommuni- 
cations. P — Economics 150. C — Economics 205. 

232. Business and Government. (2,4) Analysis of the logic and effectiveness of various 
regulatory instruments used by government to affect the structure and performance 



104 



of industry. Principal topics include economic regulation of natural monopoly, 
antitrust policy, and deregulation in transportation and other industries. P — Econom- 
ics 150. C — Economics 205. 

235. Labor Theory. (4) A survey of neoclassical labor economics. Includes recent 
developments in the macroeconomics of the labor market, including expectations and 
wage inflation and the wage-productivity-price relationship. P — Economics 205, 207. 

246. Urban Economics. (4) Application of economic theory to suburbanization, land 
values, urban decay and redevelopment, zoning, location decisions of firms and 
households, and metropolitan fiscal problems. P — Economics 205. 

251. International Trade. (4) Development of the theory of international trade pat- 
terns and prices and the effects of trade restrictions such as tariffs and quotas. P — 
Economics 205. 

252. International Finance. (4) A study of foreign exchange and Eurocurrency mar- 
kets, balance of payments, and macroeconomic policy in open economies. P — Eco- 
nomics 205, 207. 

253. Economics of Communism. (4) A theoretical and institutional examination of 
several non-capitalist economies, with special reference to the Soviet Union, the 
People's Republic of China, and Eastern Europe. P — Economics 150. 

261. American Economic Development. (4) The application of economic theory to 
historical problems and issues in the American economy. P — Economics 150. 

262. History of Economic Thought. (4) A historical survey of the main developments 
in economic thought from the Biblical period to the twentieth century. P — Economics 
205,207. 

265. Economic Philosophers. (4) An in-depth study of the doctrines and influence of 
three major figures in economics, such as Smith, Marx, and Keynes. P — Economics 
205, 207. 

271, 272. Selected Areas in Economics. (2,4; 2,4) A survey of an important area in 
economics not included in the regular course offerings. The economics of housing, 
education, technology, and health services are examples. Students should consult the 
instructor to ascertain topic before enrolling. P — Economics 205, 207. 

290. Individual Study. (2,4) Directed readings in a specialized area of economics. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

297. Preparing for Economic Research. (2) Designed to assist students in selecting a 
research topic and beginning the study of the selected topic. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

298. Economic Research. (4) Development and presentation of a senior research 
project. Required of candidates for departmental honors. P — Permission of depart- 
ment. 



105 



Education 

Joseph O. Milner, Chair 

Professors Patricia M. Cunningham, Thomas M. Elmore, 

John H. Litcher, Joseph O. Milner, Linda N. Nielsen, J. Don Reeves 

Associate Professors Robert H. Evans, Leonard P. Roberge 

Assistant Professors Leah P. McCoy, Mary Lynn B. Redmond, 

Loraine M. Stewart 

Lecturers G. Dianne Mitchell, Marianne A. Schubert 

Instructor Amanda C. Heinemann 

Wake Forest University believes that the teaching profession is important to society 
and that its welfare is significantly affected by the quality of educational leadership. 
One of the important objectives of the University has been and continues to be the 
preparation of teachers and other professional school personnel. The University's 
commitment to quality in teacher education is demonstrated by selective admission 
to the program, a wide range of professional courses, and closely supervised intern- 
ships appropriate to the professional development of students. 

Prospective elementary, science, and social studies teachers earn certification in 
those broad areas and major in education. Prospective secondary teachers earn a 
professional minor in education and major in other departments. In addition to the 
professional program, the department provides elective courses open to all students. 

Teacher Certification. The North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction 
issues the Professional Class A Teacher's Certificate to graduates who have completed 
an approved program, including the specified courses in their teaching fields and the 
prescribed courses in education, who have demonstrated specific competencies, and 
who receive recommendations from the designated officials in their teaching areas 
and from the chair of the department or deputy. 

Students who have graduated from an institution of higher education but have not 
completed an approved certification program may seek admission to the department 
in order to complete the Class A Certificate. 

Admission Requirements. Application for admission to the teacher education pro- 
gram normally occurs during the sophomore year. Admission involves filing an 
official application with the department's certification officer, being interviewed, and 
being officially approved by the department. In addition, the North Carolina State 
Department of Public Instruction requires teacher education program applicants to 
successfully complete the General Knowledge and Communication Skills Sections of 
the National Teachers' Examination before being formally admitted. All candidates 
for admission must have a 2.5 GPA at the time of formal admission. 

Program Area Goals. The goals and objectives for each certification area are available 
in the department's certification office. 

Course Requirements. The approved program of teacher education requires candi- 
dates to complete successfully a series of professional education courses. The exact 
sequence of professional and academic courses varies with a student's particular 
program and is determined by the adviser in conference with the candidate. For those 
seeking secondary certification, the majority of the professional work is taken during 



106 

one semester of the senior year. Candidates for the elementary certificate may begin 
course work required for certification as early as the sophomore year. 

Student Teaching. Prerequisites for registering for student teaching include (1) 
senior, graduate, or special student classification; (2) completion of two field experi- 
ence courses and the foundations of education course; (3) formal admission to the 
teacher education program. 

Students are assigned to student teaching opportunities by public school officials on 
the basis of available positions and the professional needs of the student and the public 
school system. One semester of the senior year is reserved for the student teaching 
experience and the block of courses preparatory to that experience in the schools. 
Students may not take other courses during this semester without the approval of the 
department chair. 

Exit Requirements. Students must maintain a 2.5 GPA while enrolled in the teacher 
education program, and complete the program with a minimum GPA of 2.5. The 
North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction requires candidates for profes- 
sional certification to successfully complete the Professional Knowledge Section and 
the area exam of the NTE. 

Teaching Area Requirements 

Secondary Certificate 

English — Thirty-six credits, including 287, 323, and 390 or its equivalent. 

French — Certification in K-12 in French: Thirty-six credits, including French 216, 217, 
219, 221, 223, 224, or their equivalents; at least eight credits in French literature beyond 
217. 

Spanish — Certification in K-12 in Spanish: Thirty-six credits, including Spanish 217, 
218, 219, 221, 222, 223, 224, or their equivalents; at least eight credits from 230, 232, 233; 
at least four additional credits in literature. 

German — Certification in K-12 in German: Thirty-seven credits, including German 
153, 215, 216; at least twelve credits from German 217, 218, 219, 220, 221; at least twelve 
credits in German literature beyond 215 and 216. 

Latin — The requirements are the same as those for the major in Latin. 

Mathematics — Forty credits, including Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, 331; four 
credits from 311, 317, or 357; at least two additional 300-level courses. If the student 
does not elect 357, it is recommended that he/she take 109. 

Music— Forty-eight credits, including Music 171, 172, 173, 174, 181, 182, 186, 187, 188; 
Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354. 

Science — Certification in the individual fields of science: biology (forty-one credits), 
chemistry (thirty-five credits), or physics (thirty-seven credits). Certification in com- 
prehensive science: ten credits each in biology, chemistry, and physics (all credits 
must be from the same courses required for majors in those fields); eight credits in 
mathematics (Mathematics 111,112); additional work in the area of concentration: 



107 

biology (ten credits), chemistry (ten credits), or physics (ten credits). All credits must 
be from the same courses required for majors in those fields. 

Social Studies — Forty credits, including twenty-four credits in history, with course 
work in United States, European, and Third World history; sixteen credits with one 
course in economics, geography, politics, and anthropology or sociology. 

Education courses required for a secondary certificate include Education 201, 202, 
203, 311, 314, 354, 364, and 383. (Education 201, 202, 203 are replaced by 361, 362, 363 
respectively for students with graduate or unclassified standing.) In addition to these 
requirements, students seeking K-12 certification in foreign languages must take 
Education 390 and 313. In addition, they will take either Education 250 or 364. 

Elementary Certificate 

A major in elementary education requires 48 credits in education including Education 
201, 202, 203, 221, 222, 250, 271, 293, 294, 295, 296, 311, 313, and 383 and an academic 
concentration in English, mathematics, science, or social studies. Additional re- 
quirements for an Elementary Education Teaching Certificate include eight credits in 
language arts; eight credits in social studies; eight credits in science; four credits in 
mathematics; four credits in music or art; and six credits in health and sport science 
(including HSS 223). 

Education Minor 

A minor in professional education requires Education 201, 202, 203, 311, 314, 354, 
364, 383, and is awarded only to students in the teacher education program. 

201. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foun- 
dations of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

202. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary 
classrooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass /fail only. 

203. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass / fail only. P — Education 
202. 

221. Children's Literature and Reading. (4) A survey of the types of literature appro- 
priate for the elementary grades and an investigation of the basic problems in reading. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

222. The Arts in the Elementary Grades. (2) The development of skills in music, 
movement, and fine arts, appropriate to the elementary grades. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Elementary Grades. (4) The development 
of physical education skills appropriate for the elementary grade teacher and an 
understanding of the personal and community health needs appropriate for the grade 
level. P — Education 201 or permission of instructor. 



108 

231. Adolescent Literature. (4) A study of recent fiction centering on the lives of 
adolescents. Attention is given to interpretation of literature ranging from the reader 
response approach to critical pluralism. 

250. Student Teaching: Elementary. (6) Supervised teaching experience in grades K- 
6. Pass/fail. P — Permission of instructor. 

271. Geography: The Human Environment. (4) A survey of the geography of human 
activity as it occurs throughout the world. Emphasis is placed on current problems 
related to population, resources, regional development, and urbanization. 

272. Geography Study Tour. (4) A guided tour of selected areas to study physical, 
economic, and cultural environments and their influence on man. Background refer- 
ences for reading are suggested prior to the tour. Offered in the summer. 

273. Geography: The Natural Environment. (4) A systematic study of the major 
components of physical geography with special emphasis on climate and topography. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestra and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical 
scoring and manuscript skills. Offered in alternate years, spring semester of even years. P — 
Music 174, 182. 

281. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of 
abiding significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each 
topic will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts 
tradition. The visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the class 
discussion. Politics and the Arts and Theory and Practice in Public Life are representative 
topics. 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of choral and instrumental conducting techniques, 
including practical experience with ensembles. Offered spring semester of odd years. P — 
Music 174 or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3 or 4) A survey of repertoire, including an examina- 
tion of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Course may be 
repeated. P — Permission of instructor. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental techniques. 
Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, choral and instru- 
mental repertoire, marching band, and instrumental problems. Spring. P — Music 101 
or 102 or permission of instructor. 

293. Elementary School Curriculum: Theory and Practice. (3) General principles of 
curriculum construction and teaching methods. Introduction to the use of audiovisual 
materials and equipment. P — Permission of instructor. 

294. Methods and Materials for Teaching Language Arts. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching language arts in the elementary 
grades. P — Permission of instructor. 



109 

295. Methods and Materials for Teaching Social Studies. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching social studies in the elementary 
grades. P — Permission of instructor. 

296. Methods and Materials for Teaching Mathematics. (2) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching mathematics in the elementary 
grades. P — Permission of instructor. 

297. Trends and Issues in American Schools. (2) An exploration of contemporary 
trends and issues as they affect course content and teaching methods in the schools. 
The course is intended to help those not entering professional education evaluate their 
schools as informed citizens and decision-makers. 

298. Methods and Materials for Teaching Science. (2) A survey of the basic materials, 
methods, and techniques of teaching science in the elementary grades. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

301. Microcomputer and Audiovisual Literacy. (4) An introduction to microcom- 
puters for educators and other users, emphasizing familiarity with computers, use 
and evaluation of software, and elementary programming skills. Experience with 
audiovisual materials and techniques is included. 

302. Production of Instructional Methods. (4) Methods of producing instructional 
materials and other technological techniques. P — Education 301. 

303. History of Western Education. (4) Educational theory and practice from ancient 
times through the modern period, including American education. 

304. Theories of Education. (4) Contemporary proposals for educational theory and 
practice studied in the context of social issues. 

305. Sociology of Education. (4) A study of contemporary society and education, 
including goals and values, institutional culture, and the teaching/ learning process. 

306. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Education. (4) A study of selected 
historical eras, influential thinkers, or crucial problems in education. Topics an- 
nounced annually. 

311. Educational Psychology. (4) The theories, processes, and conditions of effective 
teaching/ learning. P — Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

313. Human Growth and Development. (4) A study of the intellectual, emotional, and 
physical components of growth from birth to adolescence, with special concern for the 
educational implications of this process. 

314. The School and Teaching. (4) Organization of the school system; bases of educa- 
tion; the curriculum; major problems of education and teaching; the role of the teacher; 
psychological aspects of teaching. P — Education 201 and permission of instructor. 

341. Principles of Counseling and Guidance. (4) Counseling history, philosophy, 
theory, procedure, and process. Therapeutic and developmental counseling approaches 
in guidance and personnel work in education, business, and community service 
agencies. 



110 

351. Adolescent Psychology. (4) An introduction to theories of adolescent psychology 
as related to teaching and counseling in various settings. The readings emphasize 
researchers' suggestions for parenting, teaching, and counseling adolescents between 
the ages of thirteen and nineteen. 

354. Methods and Materials. (4) Methods, materials, and techniques used in teaching 
the various subjects. P — Education 201 and permission of instructor. 

361. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foun- 
dations of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

362. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary 
classrooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass /fail only. 

362. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass / fail only. P — Education 
362. 

364. Field Experience Three: Secondary/Student Teaching. (6) Supervised teaching 
experience in grades 6-12. Pass /fail. P — Permission of instructor. 

383. Reading, Writing, and Computers in the Content Areas. (3) An introduction to 
using reading, writing, and computers to help students learn content-area informa- 
tion at all grade levels. Strategies for adjusting instruction and developing literacy for 
all students will be emphasized. 

387. Tutoring Writing. (2) Introduction to composition theory and rhetoric with a 
special emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own 
writing process and experiences, study modern composition theory, and practice 
tutoring techniques in keeping with these theories. (Strongly recommended for those 
interested in working in the Writing Center as peer tutors.) A student may not receive 
credit for both Education 387 and English 287. 

390. Methods and Materials for Teaching Foreign Languages (K-6). (4) A survey of 
the basic materials, methods, and techniques of teaching foreign languages in the 
elementary and middle grades. Emphasis is placed on issues and problems involved 
in planning and implementing effective second language programs in grades K-6. 

391. Teaching the Gifted. (4) An investigation of theory and practice pertinent to 
teachers of the gifted. 

392. The Psychology of the Gifted Child. (4) A discussion of gif tedness and creativity 
in children and the relationship of those characteristics to adult superior performance. 
Topics to be covered include a history of the study of precocity, methods and problems 
of identification, the relationship of giftedness and creativity, personality character- 
istics and social-emotional problems of gifted children, and the social implications of 
studying giftedness. 

393. Individual Study. (2,4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in the 
Department of Education. Permitted upon departmental approval of petition pre- 
sented by a qualified student. 



Ill 

394. Internship in Education of the Gifted. (4) An intensive period of observation and 
instruction of gifted students. Readings and directed reflection upon the classroom 
experience will be used to develop a richer understanding of such a special school 
setting. 

396. Education in Business and Industry. (4) Educational concepts applied to pro- 
grams in education and training in business /industrial settings. 

English 

Barry G. Maine, Chair 

Professors John A. Carter Jr., Nancy J. Cotton, Andrew V. Ettin, 

Doyle R. Fosso, James S. Hans, W. Dillon Johnston, 

Robert W. Lovett, Dolly A. McPherson, William M. Moss, 

Robert N. Shorter, Edwin Graves Wilson 

Associate Professors Mary K. DeShazer, Barry G. Maine, 

Gillian R. Overing 

Assistant Professors Anne Boyle, Bashir El-Beshti, Scott Klein, 

Philip Kuberski, Elizabeth Petrino, Gale Sigal, Claudia N. Thomas 

Visiting Assistant Professors David Cody, Helen Emmitt, 

Christopher Metress, Mary Anne Nunn, Ellen R. Rosenberg, Henry Russell 

Professor of Journalism Bynum G. Shaw 

Lecturers Linda C. Brinson, Patricia A. Johansson 

Poet-in-Residence Robert A. Hedin 

Instructor Thomas McGohey 

The major in English requires a minimum of forty credits, at least thirty-two of 
which must be in advanced language and literature courses numbered 300 to 399. 
These courses must include Shakespeare, two additional courses in British literature 
before 1800, one course in American literature, and a major seminar, which must be 
taken no later than the spring semester of the junior year. Majors and their advisers 
plan individual programs to meet these requirements and to include work in the maj or 
literary genres. 

A minor in English requires English 160 or 165 and English 170 or 175, plus five 
advanced language and literature courses. Each minor will be assigned an adviser in 
the English department who will plan a program of study with the student. 

The prerequisite for all 300-level courses in English is any one of the courses in 
British and American literature numbered 160, 165, 170, and 175, all of which are 
offered each semester. Additional courses in journalism and writing are offered by the 
department as related subjects but do not count toward an English major; they may be 
taken as electives regardless of the field of study in which a student majors. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply in the second 
semester of their junior year for admission to the honors program in English. To 
graduate with "Honors in English," students must have a minimum grade-point 
average of 3.5 in the major and 3.0 in all course work and must satisfy the requirements 
for English 388 during their senior year. Interested students may consult departmen- 
tal faculty members for further information. 



112 

Lower Division Courses 

11. Composition Review. (0) A tutorial in the essentials of standard usage and the 
basic principles of composition. 

105. English Fundamentals. (2) Training in the fundamentals of written English. 
Admission by placement only; does not satisfy the basic composition requirement. 

*110. English Composition. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent essays based 
upon readings. 

*112. English Composition and Literature. (4) Training in expository writing based 
on the reading of literature. P — Permission of department. 

160. Introduction to British Literature. (4) Eight to ten writers representing different 
periods and genres. 

165. Studies in British Literature. (4) Three to five writers representing different 
periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. P — 
Permission of department. 

170. Introduction to American Literature. (4) Emphasis on a minimum of seven 
writers, including both prose and poetry. 

175. Studies in American Literature. (4) Three to five writers representing different 
periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. P — 
Permission of department. 

210. Advanced Composition. (4) Study of prose models of exposition; frequent papers 
and individual conferences. Enrollment limited. P — Satisfaction of basic composition 
requirement. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. By 
prearrangement. 

Journalism Courses 

270. Introduction to Journalism. (4) Survey of the fundamental principles of news- 
gathering and newswriting; study of news and news values, with some attention to 
representative newspapers. 

272. Editing. (4) A laboratory course in copy-editing, headline-writing, typography, 
and make-up; practice on video display terminal. P — English 270. 

276. Advanced Journalism. (4) Intensive practice in writing various types of newspa- 
per stories, including the feature article. Limited to students planning careers in 
journalism. P — English 270. 

278. History of Journalism. (4) A study of the development of American journalism 
and its English origins; detailed investigations of representative world newspapers. 



*Either 110 or 112 is a prerequisite for all other courses in English unless the basic requirement 
is waived. Either course fulfills the basic requirement. 



113 

284. The Essay. (2) Primarily for those interested in writing for publication, with 
concentration on writing various types of essays. 

298. Internship. (2) A course designed to assist students in gaining practical experi- 
ence in news-related enterprises, under faculty supervision. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. By 
prearrangement. 

Writing Courses 

285. Poetry Workshop. (2) A laboratory course in the writing of verse. Study of poetic 
techniques and forms as well as works of contemporary poets. Frequent individual 
conferences. 

286. Short Story Workshop. (4) A study of the fundamental principles of short fiction 
writing; practice in writing; extensive study of short story form. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

287. Tutoring Writing. (2) Introduction to composition theory and rhetoric, with a 
special emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own 
writing process and experiences, study modern composition theory, and practice 
tutoring techniques in keeping with these theories. Strongly recommended for those 
interested in working in the Writing Center as peer tutors. A student may not receive 
credit for both Education 387 and English 287. 

383, 384. Theory and Practice of Verse Writing. (4,4) Emphasis on reading and dis- 
cussing student poems in terms of craftsmanship and general principles. 

Advanced Language and Literature Courses 

300. Seminar in the Major. (4) Selected topics in British and American literature. 
Intensive practice in critical discourse, including discussion, oral reports, and short 
essays. Introduction to literary scholarship and research methodology leading to a 
documented paper. Required for all majors. 

301. Individual Authors. (2) Study of selected work from an important American or 
British author. May be repeated. 

302. Ideas in Literature. (2) Study of a significant literary theme in selected works. 
May be repeated. 

304. History of the English Language. (4) A survey of the development of English 
syntax, morphology, and phonology from Old English to the present, with attention 
to vocabulary growth. 

305. Old English Language and Literature. (4) An introduction to the Old English 
language and a study of the historical and cultural background of Old English 
literature, including Anglo-Saxon and Viking art, runes, and Scandinavian mythol- 
ogy. Readings from Beowulf and selected poems and prose. 



114 

310. The Medieval World. (4) Through the reading of primary texts, this course will 
examine theological, philosophical, and cultural assumptions of the Middle Ages. 
Topics may include Christian providential history, drama, devotional literature, the 
Franciscan controversy, domestic life, and Arthurian romance. 

311. The Legend of Arthur. (4) The origin and development of the Arthurian legend 
in France and England, with emphasis on the works of Chretien de Troyes and Sir 
Thomas Malory. 

312. Medieval Poetry. (4) The origin and development of poetic genres and lyric forms 
of Middle English. 

315. Chaucer. (4) Emphasis on The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde, with some 
attention to minor poems. Consideration of literary, social, religious, and philosophi- 
cal background. 

320. British Drama to 1642. (4) British drama from its beginning to 1642, exclusive of 
Shakespeare. Representative cycle plays, moralities, Elizabethan and Jacobean trag- 
edies, comedies, and tragicomedies. 

323. Shakespeare. (4) Thirteen representative plays illustrating Shakespeare's devel- 
opment as a poet and dramatist. 

325. Sixteenth-Century British Literature. (4) Concentration on the poetry of Spenser, 
Sidney, Shakespeare, Wyatt, and Drayton, with particular attention to sonnets and The 
Faerie Queene. 

327. Milton. (4) The poetry and selected prose of John Milton, with emphasis on 
Paradise Lost. 

328. Seventeenth-Century British Literature. (4) Poetry of Donne, Herbert, Vaughan, 
Marvel, Crashaw; prose of Bacon, Burton, Browne, Walton. Consideration of reli- 
gious, political, and scientific backgrounds. 

330. British Literature of the Eighteenth Century. (4) Representative poetry and prose, 
exclusive of the novel, 1700-1800, drawn from Addison, Steele, Defoe, Swift, Pope, 
Johnson, and Boswell. Consideration of cultural backgrounds and significant literary 
trends. 

335. Eighteenth-Century British Fiction. (4) Primarily the fiction of Defoe, Richardson, 
Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, and Austen. 

336. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century British Drama. (4) British drama from 1660 
to 1780, including representative plays by Dryden, Etherege, Wycherley, Congreve, 
Goldsmith, and Sheridan. 

337. Studies in Eighteenth-Century British Literature. (4) Selected topics in eigh- 
teenth century literature. Consideration of texts and their cultural background. 

340. Studies in Women and Literature. (4) A. The woman writer in society. B. 
Feminist critical approaches to literature. 



115 

350. British Romantic Poets. (4) A review of the beginnings of Romanticism in British 
literature, followed by study of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, and Shelley; 
collateral reading in the prose of the period. 

353. Nineteenth-Century British Fiction. (4) Representative major works by Dickens, 
Eliot, Thackeray, Hardy, the Brontes, and others. 

354. Victorian Poetry. (4) A study of Tennyson, Browning, Hopkins, and Arnold or 
another Victorian poet. 

360. Studies in Victorian Literature. (4) Selected topics, such as development of 
genres, major authors and texts, and cultural influences. Readings in poetry, fiction, 
autobiography, and other prose. 

362. Blake, Yeats, and Thomas. (4) Reading and critical analysis of the poetry of Blake, 
Yeats, and Dylan Thomas; study of the plays of Yeats and his contemporaries in the 
Irish Renaissance, especially Synge and Lady Gregory. 

364. Studies in Literary Criticism. (4) Consideration of certain figures and schools of 
thought significant in the history of literary criticism. 

365. Twentieth-Century British Fiction. (4) A study of Conrad, Lawrence, Joyce, 
Forster, Woolf, and later British writers, with attention to their social and intellectual 
backgrounds. 

366. James Joyce. (4) The major works by James Joyce, with an emphasis on Ulysses. 

367. Twentieth-Century English Poetry. (4) A study of twentieth-century poets of the 
English language, exclusive of the U.S . Poets, will be read in relation to the literary and 
social history of the period. 

368. Studies in Irish Literature. (4) Critical readings of the works of major Irish writers 
within the context of the political, social, and literary history of Ireland. 

369. Modern Drama. (4) Main currents in modern drama from nineteenth-century 
realism and naturalism through symbolism and expressionism. After an introduction 
to European precursors, the course focuses on representative plays by Wilde, Shaw, 
Synge, Yeats, O'Neill, Eliot, Hellman, Wilder, Williams, Hansberry, and Miller. 

370. American Literature to 1820. (4) Origins and development of American literature 
and thought in representative writings of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal 
periods. 

372. American Romanticism. (4) Writers of the mid-nineteenth century, including 
Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, and Melville. 

375. American Drama. (4) A historical overview of drama in America, covering such 
playwrights as Boucicault, O'Neill, Hellman, Wilder, Williams, Inge, Miller, Hansberry, 
Albee, Shepard, Norman, Mamet, and Wilson. 

376. American Poetry before 1900. (4) Readings and critical analysis of American 
poetry from its beginnings to the end of the nineteenth century, including Bradstreet, 



116 

Emerson, Longfellow, Melville, and Poe, with particular emphasis on Whitman and 
Dickinson. 

377. American Jewish Literature. (4) A survey of writings on Jewish topics or expe- 
riences by American Jewish writers. The course explores cultural and generational 
conflicts, responses to social change, the impact of the Shoah (Holocaust) on American 
Jews, and the challenges of language and form posed by Jewish and non-Jewish 
artistic traditions. 

378. Literature of the American South. (4) A study of Southern literature from its 
beginnings to the present, with emphasis upon such major writers as Tate, Warren, 
Faulkner, O'Connor, Welty, and Styron. 

379. Literary Forms of the American Personal Narrative. (4) Reading and critical 
analysis of autobiographical texts in which the ideas, style, and point of view of the 
writer are examined to demonstrate how these works contribute to an understanding 
of pluralism in American culture. Representative authors may include Hurston, 
Wright, Kingston, Angelou, Wideman, Sarton, Chuang Hua, Crews, and Dillard. 

380. American Fiction from 1865 to 1915. (4) Such writers as Twain, James, Howells, 
Crane, Dreiser, Wharton, and Cather. 

381. Studies in Black American Literature. (4) Reading and critical analysis of se- 
lected fiction, poetry, drama, and other writing by representative black Americans. 

382. Modern American Fiction, 1915 to 1965. (4) To include such writers as Stein, 
Lewis, Anderson, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Wolfe, Wright, 
Ellison, Agee, Flannery O'Connor, and Pynchon. 

385. Twentieth-Century American Poetry. (4) Readings of modern American poetry 
in relation to the literary and social history of the period. 

386. Directed Reading. (2-4) A tutorial in an area of study not otherwise provided by 
the department; granted upon departmental approval of petition presented by a 
qualified student. 

388. Honors in English. (4) A conference course centering upon a special reading 
requirement and a thesis requirement. For senior students wishing to graduate with 
"Honors in English." 

390. The Structure of English. (4) An introduction to the principles and techniques of 
modern linguistics applied to contemporary American English. 

394. Contemporary Drama. (4) The course will consider experiments in form and 
substance in plays from Godot to the present. Readings will cover such playwrights as 
Beckett, Osborne, Pinter, Stoppard, Churchill, Wertenbaker, Albee, Shepard, Mamet, 
Wilson, Soyinka, and Fugard. 

395. Contemporary American Literature. (4) A study of post- World War II American 
poetry and fiction by such writers as Bellow, Gass, Barth, Pynchon, Lowell, Ashbery, 
Ammons, Bishop, and Rich. 



117 



German and Russian 

Timothy F. Sellner, Chair 

Professors Wilmer D. Sanders, Timothy F. Sellner, Larry E. West 

Associate Professor William S. Hamilton 

Assistant Professors Michael Gilbert, Kurt C. Shaw 

Lecturers Christa G. Carollo, Perry L. Patterson 

A major in German requires thirty-seven credits beyond German 112 or 113. These 
must include German 217 and should include 281 and 285. A minor in German 
requires five courses beyond German 153, one of which must be German 217. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in German. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
German," they must complete a senior research project and pass a comprehensive 
examination. For additional information, members of the departmental faculty should 
be consulted. 

Students of German are invited to apply for the exchange scholarship at the Free 
University of Berlin, the W. D. Sanders Scholarship and programs of study at Freiburg, 
Berlin, and Vienna, administered by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and 
minors are strongly encouraged to live at least one semester in the German House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary German. (4, 4) This course covers the principles of grammar and 
pronunciation and includes the reading of simple texts. Lab — one hour. 

113. Intensive Elementary German. (5) A one-semester course covering the material 
of German 111 and 112. For students whose preparation for German 153 is inadequate 
or who have demonstrated proficiency in another language. Not open to students who 
have had German 111 or 112. 

153. Intermediate German. (5) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab — one hour. P — German 112 or 113. 

153x. Intermediate German. (4) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab — one hour. P — Three years of high school German. 

160. German Language and Customs. (4) Students spend one month in four different 
regions of Germany and Austria in a program designed to provide constant exposure 
to the language, customs, geography, and art of these countries. Students attend daily 
language classes as well as lectures and cultural events. They are required to keep a 
journal in German. Pass /fail. Offered in summer. P — German 112 or 113. 

215, 216. Introduction to German Literature. (4,4) The object of this course is to 
acquaint students with masterpieces of German literature. Parallel reading and 
reports. P — German 153 or equivalent. 

217. Composition and Grammar Review. (4) A review of the fundamentals of German 
grammar with intensive practice in translation and composition. Required for majors. 
P — German 153 or equivalent. 



118 

218. Basic Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German, stressing correctness of 
structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and vocabulary for everyday situations. 
P — German 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German at a more advanced 
level, stressing discussion of various topics of current importance in the German- 
speaking countries. Considerable attention is devoted to achieving fluency. P — 
German 218 or permission of instructor. 

220. German Civilization I. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from 
prehistoric times to 1918. Conducted in German. P — 153 or equivalent. 

221. German Civilization II. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from the 
Weimar Republic to the present, with particular emphasis on contemporary Ger- 
many. Conducted in German. P — 153 or equivalent. 

231. Weimar Germany. (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 1919- 
33, in historical context. (Also listed as History 318.) 

240. Master-works in Translation. (2) Examination and interpretation of selected texts 
in English translation. Literary periods, genres, and authors will vary according to 
instructor. Does not count toward a major or minor in German. 

249. Old High German and Middle High German Literature. (4) The study of major 
writers and works from these two areas; emphasizes major writings of the chivalric 
period. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

250. Renaissance, Reformation, and Baroque German Literature. (4) A study of major 
writers and works from the post-chivalric period to approximately 1700. P — German 
215, 216, or equivalent. 

263. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century I. (4) Poetry, prose, drama, and 
critical works from approximately 1795 to 1848. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

264. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century II. (4) Readings from the begin- 
nings of Poetic Realism to the advent of Naturalism. P — German 215, 216, or equiva- 
lent. 

270. Individual Study. (1-4) Readings on selected topics in literature or current events 
not ordinarily covered in other courses. P — German 215, 216, and permission of 
instructor. 

281. Seminar: Twentieth Century German Literature. (4) Intensive study of repre- 
sentative works of major German writers, including literature of the post-war era. P — 
German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

285. Seminar in Goethe and Schiller. (4) Faust, Part I and other major dramas by 
Goethe and Schiller. Parallel readings in other works by these authors. P — German 
215, 216, or equivalent. 

287, 288. Honors in German. (3,3) A conference course in German literature. A major 
research paper is required. Designed for candidates for departmental honors. 



119 

Russian 

A major requires thirty-two credits beyond 153 and must include Russian 215, 216, 
221, and either 217 or 218. A minor in Russian requires twenty credits beyond 153, four 
of which must be earned in Russian 221. Students of Russian are invited to apply for 
study at Moscow State University and for programs of study in Moscow and Kiev, 
administered by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors are strongly 
encouraged to live at least one semester in the Russian House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary Russian. (4,4) The essentials of Russian grammar, conversation 
drill, and reading of elementary texts. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Russian. (5) Principles of Russian grammar are reviewed and 
expanded upon; reading of short prose pieces and materials from the Soviet press. Lab 
required. P — Russian 112 or equivalent. 

215. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the nine- 
teenth century. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

216. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the twentieth 
century. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

217. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

218. Seminar in Twentieth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

221. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Study of grammar at the ad- 
vanced level. Intensive practice in composition and conversation based on contempo- 
rary Soviet materials. 

230. The Structure of Russian. (4) The linguistic tools of phonetics, phonemics, and 
morphophonemics are explained and applied to modern Russian. Emphasis is given 
to the study of roots and word formation. P — Permission of instructor required. 

232. The History of the Russian Language. (4) The evolution of Russian from Com- 
mon Slavic to the modern language; theory of linguistic reconstruction and the Indo- 
European family; readings from selected Old East Slavic texts. P — Russian 221 and 
permission of instructor. 

240. Seminar in Translation. (4) Advanced work in English-to-Russian and Russian- 
to-English translation. P — Russian 221 and permission of instructor. 

242. Research on Language and Culture in Russia. (2) An investigation designed by 
the student is carried out in Russia during spring break. An evaluative paper follows 
the class trip. Credit given for the minor when the project is done in Russian. P — 
Russian 111 and permission of instructor. Limited enrollment. 

250. Russian Culture and Civilization. (4) Survey of Russian contributions to art, 
architecture, music, and religious thought from Russia's beginnings to the present. 
Taught in Russian. P — Russian 215 or 216. 



120 

270. Individual Study. (2-4) Study in language or literature beyond the 215-216 level. 
P — Russian 215 or higher. 

Health and Sport Science 

Paul M. Ribisl, Chair 

Professors William L. Hottinger, W. Jack Rejeski, Paul M. Ribisl 

Associate Professors Michael J. Berry, Leo Ellison, Stephen P. Messier 

Assistant Professor Barbee Myers Oakes 

Instructors Donald Bergey, Bobbi Goodnough, David Stroupe 

The purpose of the Department of Health and Sport Science is to organize, administer, 
and supervise (1) a health and sport science curriculum; (2) a required/ 'elective health and 
sport science program consisting of conditioning activities and lifetime sport activities; 

and (3) an intramural sports program. 

Health and Sport Science Requirement 

All students must complete Health and Sport Science 100 and 101. This requirement 
must be met before enrollment in additional health and sport science elective courses, 
and in any case by the end of the second year. 

Courses in Basic Instruction and Elective Health and Sport Science 

All the courses listed below are offered for one credit each. 

100. Lifestyle and Health. A lecture course that deals with the effect of lifestyle behav- 

iors on various health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and 
sexually-transmitted diseases. 

101. Exercise for Health. A laboratory course on physical fitness that covers weight 
control, cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility. 

112. Sports Proficiency (May be taken only one time.) 

113. Adaptive Physical Activity (May be repeated one time for credit.) 

114. Weight Control 

115. Physical Conditioning 

116. Weight Training 
119. Aerobic Dancing 

140. Beginning Swimming 

141. Intermediate/Advanced Swimming 

146. Water Safety Instructor's Course (P — Current emergency water safety or lifeguard 
training certification) 

150. Beginning Tennis 

151. Intermediate Tennis 

152. Advanced Tennis (P — Health and Sport Science 151 or equivalent) 
156. Beginning Racquetball 

157 Intermediate Racquetball 
160. Beginning Golf 



121 

161. Intermediate Golf 
163. Bowling 
170. Volleyball 

179. Beginning Horseback Riding (P/F grade only) 

180. Intermediate/Advanced Horseback Riding (P/F grade only. May be repeated once 

for credit.) 

181. Snow Skiing (P/F grade only) 

182. Beginning Ice Figure Skating 

183. Intermediate/Advanced Ice Figure Skating 
190. Karate 

Courses for the Major 

The department offers a program leading to the BS degree in health and sport 
science. A major requires forty-four credits and must include Health and Sport Science 
209, 212, 230, 350, 351, 352, 353, 355, 360, and 370. A maximum of five 100-level activity 
courses can be counted toward the major, excluding the University requirement. A 
minimum grade-point average of 2.0 is required for graduation in courses that 
comprise a major in the department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in health and sport science by the second semester of the junior year. 
To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Health and Sport Science," a student 
must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.3 in the major and 3.0 in all course 
work and complete an honors research project which includes a written and an oral 
report. For additional information, students should consult the departmental chair. 

Any student interested in majoring in health and sport science should consult the 
chair of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

205. Basic Skin and Scuba Diving and Open Water Certification. (2) A course in skin 
and SCUBA diving that offers international certification by the Professional Associa- 
tion of Diving Instructors (PADI). 

206. Lifeguard Training. (2) This course is designed to provide students with skills in 
first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and lifeguard training that will qualify them 
to serve as nonsurf lifeguards. 

207. Water Safety and Lifeguard Instructor. (2) This course is designed to certify 
students as water safety and lifeguard instructors. P — 206 or permission of instructor. 

208. Current Topics in Sports Psychology. (2) A survey of the field with an emphasis 
on current topics. Students may not receive credit for both 208 and 212. 

209. Introduction to Health and Sport Science. (2) A survey course which includes a 
historical review of the development of health and sport science and the subdisciplines 
of biomechanics, exercise physiology, health psychology, and nutrition. The influence 
of a healthful lifestyle on health, well-being, and fitness are explored in relationship 
to growth and development, chronic disease, and aging. 

212. Exercise and Health Psychology. (4) A survey of the psychological antecedents 
of exercise and selected topics in health psychology with particular attention to 



122 

wellness, stress, the biobehavioral basis of coronary heart disease, and the 
psychodynamics of rehabilitative medicine. P — Psychology 151 or permission of 
instructor. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Elementary Grades. (4) The development 
of physical education skills appropriate for the elementary grade teacher and an 
understanding of the personal and community health needs appropriate for the grade 
level. P — Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

230. Advanced First Aid. (2) A course in advanced first aid and cardiopulmonary 
resuscitation. Red Cross Advanced First Aid and Community CPR certification 
offered. 

241. Growth, Development, and Physical Activity. (2) An examination of the effect 
of physical activity on physical, intellectual, and social /psychological development. 

310. Applied Field Study. (2) A course involving application of theory and methods 
of solving problems in a specialized area according to the student's immediate career 
goals. (P/ F grade only, open only to majors and minors.) P — Permission of instructor. 

350. Human Physiology. (4) A lecture course which presents the basic principles and 
concepts of the function of selected systems of the human body, with emphasis on the 
muscular, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and nervous systems. P — Biology 112 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

351. Nutrition and Weight Control. (4) A lecture /laboratory course which presents 
the principles of proper nutrition including an understanding of the basic foodstuffs 
and nutrients as well as the influence of genetics, eating behavior, and activity patterns 
on energy balance and weight control. Laboratory experiences examine intervention 
in obesity and coronary heart disease through diet analysis, methods of diet prescrip- 
tion, and behavior modification. P — Health and Sport Science 353 or permission of 
instructor. 

352. Human Gross Anatomy. (4) A lecture /laboratory course in which the structure 
and function of the human body are studied. Laboratories are devoted to the dissec- 
tion and study of the human musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and vascular systems. 

353. Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which presents the concepts and 
applications of the physiological response of the human body to physical activity. The 
acute and chronic responses of the muscular and cardiorespiratory systems to exercise 
are examined. Other topics include exercise and coronary disease, nutrition and 
performance, strength and endurance training, somatotype and body composition, 
sex-related differences, and environmental influences. P — Health and Sport Science 
350 or permission of instructor. 

354. Laboratory Techniques in Exercise Science. (4) A laboratory course which 
demonstrates the concepts of the physiological response to exercise. Weekly experi- 
ments on a variety of topics give students hands-on experience with data collection 
methods. Experimental results are analyzed and presented in written lab reports. P — 
Health and Sport Science 353. 



123 

355. Exercise Prescription. (4) A lecture /laboratory course which presents the scien- 
tific principles of safe and effective assessment and prescription of fitness programs. 
This course will prepare the student for the ACSM Health Fitness Instructor Certifi- 
cation. 

362. Statistics in the Health Sciences. (4) Basic statistics with an emphasis on appli- 
cation to research in the health sciences. Students are introduced to graphics and 
statistical software for the Macintosh computer. (A student receiving credit for this 
course may not also receive credit for Anthropology 380, Biology 380, Business 201, or 
Sociology 380.) 

365. Development and Management of Health Promotion and Fitness Programs. (4) 

This course surveys the principles involved in the development and management of 
various health promotion and fitness programs. Special attention is given to facility 
planning, staffing, marketing, budgeting, and client motivation. 

370. Biomechanics of Human Movement. (4) Study of the mechanical principles 
which influence human movement, sport technique, and equipment design. P — 
Health and Sport Science 352 or permission of instructor. 

375. Advanced Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which provides an in- 
depth examination of the physiological mechanisms responsible for both the acute 
and chronic changes which occur with exercise. Included are cellular changes in 
response to exercise, the ventilatory response to exercise and metabolic consequences 
of exercise. P — Health and Sport Science 353 or permission of instructor. 

382. Individual Study. (1-4) Independent study directed by a faculty adviser. The 
student must consult the adviser before registering for this course. P — One of the 
following: 350, 352, 360, 365, 370. 




The Scales Fine Arts center contains classrooms, theaters, as well as art and music studios. 



124 



Sports Medicine 



201. Basic Athletic Training. (3) A study of the basic knowledge and skills in the 
prevention, treatment, and care of common athletic injuries. 

302. Advanced Athletic Training. (4) An in-depth analysis of preventive measures, 
therapeutic modalities, and rehabilitative procedures employed in sports medicine. 
P — Health and Sport Science 352. 

History* 

J. Howell Smith, Chair 

Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies James Ralph Scales 

Reynolds Professor of History Paul D. Escott 

Professors James P. Barefield, Richard C. Barnett, David W. Hadley, 

J. Edwin Hendricks, Thomas E. Mullen, Michael L. Sinclair, 

J. Howell Smith, Alan J. Williams, Richard L. Zuber 

Associate Professors Michael L. Hughes, Sarah L. Watts 

Assistant Professors Simone M. Caron, Kevin M. Doak, William K. Meyers, 

Anthony S. Parent Jr., Yuri Slezkine 

Visiting Assistant Professor Christopher H. Owen 

Lecturer Negley Boyd Harte (London) 
Adjunct Professor of History William T. Alderson 

The major in history consists of a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include 
History 310 or 288; seven to eight credits in European history; seven to eight credits 
chosen from among courses in Latin-American, Asian, or African history; and seven 
to eight credits in United States history. 

Majors may include within the required thirty-six credits up to eight credits of 
advanced placement or comparable work and up to four credits of any combination 
of independent study and directed reading other than the credits earned in History 
397. 

A minor in history requires twenty-four credits. Courses that the student elects to 
take pass /fail do not meet the requirements for the major or minor. 

Highly qualified majors should apply for admission to the honors program in 
history. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in History," the student must 
complete History 287, present an honors-quality research paper, successfully defend 
the paper in an oral examination, and earn an overall grade-point average of 3.0 with 
an average of 3.3 on work in history. For additional information, students should 
consult members of the department. 

Students contemplating graduate study should acquire a reading knowledge of one 
modern foreign language for the MA degree and two for the PhD degree. 

101. Western Civilization to 1700. (4) A survey of ancient, medieval, and early modern 
history to 1700. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 



125 

102. Europe and the World in the Modern Era. (4) A survey of modern Europe from 
1700 to the present. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

103. World Civilizations to 1500. (4) A survey of the ancient, classical and medieval 
civilizations of Eurasia with a brief look at American and sub-Saharan societies. 
(Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

104. World Civilizations Since 1500. (4) A survey of the major civilizations of the 
world in the modern and contemporary periods. (Credit cannot be received for both 
101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

131. European Historical Biography. (2) Study of biographies of men and women who 
have influenced the history and civilization of Europe. 

151, 152. The United States. (4,4) Political, social, economic, and intellectual aspects. 
151: Before 1865; 152: After 1865. Students who take History 153 may not take either 
of these courses for credit. 

153. The United States. (4) A topical survey combining 151 and 152. Not open to 
students who take either 151 or 152. 

160. Freud. (4) An investigation of Freud's basic ideas in the context of his time. 

162. History of Wake Forest University (2) A survey of the history of Wake Forest 
from its beginning, including its written and oral traditions. The course may include 
a visit to the town of Wake Forest. 

211. Colloquium. (1-4) 

215, 216. The Ancient World. (4,4) Critical focus on the Greeks in the fall and Romans 
in the spring. 

2260. History of London. (2,4) Topographical, social, economic, and political history 
of London from the earliest times. Lectures, student papers and reports, museum 
visits and lectures, and on-site inspections. Offered in London. 

2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and government 
in the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and Charles the 
Rash, 1384-1477. Offered in Dijon. 

2263. Venetian Society and Culture. (4) An examination of Venetian society, includ- 
ing the role within Venetian life of music, theatre, the church, and civic ritual. Offered 
in Venice. 

2280. Georgian and Victorian Society and Culture. (4) Social and economic trans- 
formation of England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with particular 
attention to the rise of professionalism and developments in the arts. Offered in London. 

232. European Historical Novels. (2) The role of the historical past in selected works 
of fiction. 

237, 2370. Churchill. (2,4) The life and times of Britain's World War II leader (1874- 
1965). HST2370 offered in London. 



126 

287, 288. Honors in History. (4,4) 287: Seminar on problems of historical synthesis and 
interpretation; 288: Writing of a major paper and examination on a special field. 

301. The Beginnings of the Modern World- View. (4) A study of the transition from 
ancient views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the 
works of the Presocratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also listed as Natural 
Sciences 301 and Philosophy 231.) 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance 
to this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 252, 
Natural Sciences 302 and Philosphy 242.) 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically 
new ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time 
in relativity theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, 
and continental drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or 
permission of instructor. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 253 and Natural 
Sciences 303.) 

305. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human 
values: biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for 
extraterrestrial life. (Also listed as Natural Sciences 352.) 

306. The Early Middle Ages. (4) European history from the end of the Ancient World 
to the mid-twelfth century, stressing social and cultural developments. 

307. The High Middle Ages Through the Renaissance. (4) European history from the 
mid-twelfth through the early sixteenth centuries, stressing social and cultural devel- 
opments. 

310. Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty on topics of their choice. A paper 
is required. 

313, 314. European Economic and Social History, 1300-1990. (4,4) Changes in 
Europe's economic structures and how they affected Europeans' lives. Emphasizes 
how economic forces interacted with social and institutional factors. 313: 1300-1750; 
314: 1750-1990. 

317. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Empire. (4) The revolution and wars 
that constitute one of the pivotal points in modern history. 

318. Weimar Germany. (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 1919- 
1933, in historical context. German or history credit determined at registration. 

319. Germany to 1871. (4) Social, economic, and political forces leading to the creation 
of a single German nation-state out of over 1,700 sovereign and semi-sovereign 
German states. 



127 

320. Germany: Unification to Unification, 1871-1990. (4) The Germans' search for 
stability and unity in a society riven by conflict and on a continent riven by national- 
ism. 

321. France. (4) A history of France to the Revolution of 1789. 

322. France. (4) A history of France from 1789 to present. 

323. 324. England. (4,4) A political and social survey, with some attention to Conti- 
nental movements. 323: To 1603; 324: 1603 to present. 

325. Tudor and Early Stuart England. (4) A constitutional and social study of England 
from 1485 to 1641. 

3260. The Industrial Revolution in England. (4) A study of the social, economic, and 
political causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution in England. Offered in London. 

328. History of the English Common Law. (4) A study of the origins and development 
of the English common law and its legacy to modern legal processes and principles. 

331. Russia: Origins to 1917. (4) A political, social, economic, and cultural history of 
Russia. 

332. History of the Soviet Union. (4) A political, social, economic, and cultural history 
of the Soviet Union since 1917. 

333. European Diplomacy, 1848-1914. (4) The diplomacy of the great powers, with 
some attention given to the role of publicity in international affairs. Topics include the 
unification of Italy and of Germany, the Bismarckian system, and the coming of World 
War I. 

334. Russia/USSR as Colonial Empire. (4) A history of the incorporation of various 
non-Russian peoples into the multinational entity that became the Soviet Union; an 
analysis of Russian and Soviet ethnic and colonial policies; and an examination of the 
collapse of the USSR in the 1990s. 

335. 336. Italy. (4,4) Cultural, social and political history of Italy. 335: Medieval and 
Renaissance Italy; 336: Nineteenth and twentieth-century Italy. 

339. India in the English Mind. (4) An exploration of the changing images of India, 
its people, and culture as reflected in English literature, especially Kipling, Forster, 
Kaye, and Paul Scott. The three major themes will be confrontation, accommodation, 
and nostalgia. 

340. African American History. (4) The role of African Americans in the development 
of the United States, with particular attention to African heritage, forced migration, 
Americanization, and influence. 

341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) A survey of the political, economic, and 
cultural experiences of women in China, Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam, India, Pakistan, and 
Bangladesh from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. 



128 

342. The Middle East from Suleiman the Magnificent to the Present. (4) Major 
subjects covered are the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arabs and Persians 
under Ottoman hegemony, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the emergence of the 
modern Arab states and their roles in the post- World War II era. 

343. Imperial China. (4) A study of traditional China to 1850, with emphasis on social, 
cultural, and political institutions. 

344. Modern China. (4) A study of China from 1644 to the present. 

345, 346. History and Civilization of South Asia. (4,4) An introduction to the history 
and civilization of South Asia. Emphasis on historical developments in the social, 
economic, and cultural life of the area. 

3461. Foreign Encounters with Japan. (4) A colloquium on intercultural relations 
between Japan and the West. Focuses on the writings of Westerners residing in Japan 
in the late nineteenth century. Offered in Hiratsuka, Japan (Tokai University). 

347. Japan Since World War II. (4) A survey of Japanese history since the American 
occupation, with emphasis on social and cultural developments. Topics include 
occupation reforms, re-industrialization, the rise of the LDP, "high growth econom- 
ics," and citizen protest movements. 

348. Modern Japan. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization and ur- 
banization; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the contempo- 
rary world. 

350. Global Economic History. (4) An overview of the growth and development of the 
world economy from precapitalist organizations to the present system of developed 
and underdeveloped states. 

351. American Society and Thought to 1830. (4) A non-political survey of American 
culture and lifestyles. Topics include religion, science, education, architecture, and 
immigration. 

352. American Social History since 1830. (4) A topical survey of American social 
history from 1830 to 1990. Topics include immigration, ethnicity, gender, race, 
sexuality, labor, reform, poverty, and urban growth. 

353. Colonial English America, 1582-1774. (4) Determinative episodes, figures, alle- 
giances, apperceptions, and results of the period, organically considered. 

354. Revolutionary and Early National America, 1763-1815. (4) The American 
Revolution, its causes and effects, the Confederation, the Constitution, and the new 
nation. 

355. The Westward Movement. (4) The role of the frontier in United States history, 
1763-1890. 

356. Jacksonian America, 1815-1850. (4) The United States in the age of Jackson, Clay, 
Calhoun, and Webster. A biographical approach. 



129 

357. The Civil War and Reconstruction. (4) The political and military events of the war 
and the economic, social, and political readjustments which followed. 

358. The United States from Reconstruction to World War I. (2,4) National progress 
and problems during an era of rapid industrialization. The course maybe divided into 
halves for two credits each: (a) the Gilded Age; (b) the Progressive Era. 

359. The United States from Versailles through World War II. (4) The transition of 
America from World War I to 1945, with special emphasis on the significance of the 
New Deal and World War II. 

360. The United States since World War II. (4) Trends and changes in the nation from 
World War II to the present. 

361. Economic History of the United States. (4) The economic development of the 
United States from colonial beginnings to the present. 

362. American Constitutional History. (4) Origins of the Constitution, the controver- 
sies involving the nature of the Union, and constitutional readjustments to meet the 
new American industrialism. 

363. 364. The South. (4,4) Geography, population elements, basic institutions, and 
selected events. 

365. Women in American History. (4) A survey of the role of women in America from 
the colonial period to the present. Possible topics include moral reform, the frontier, 
political and social activism, the labor movement, health reform, and peace move- 
ments. 

366. Studies in Historic Preservation. (4) An analysis of history museums and agen- 
cies and of the techniques of preserving and interpreting history through artifacts, 
restorations, and reconstructions. P — Permission of instructor. 

367, 368. North Carolina. (4,4) Selected phases of the development of North Carolina 
from the colonial period to the present. 367: To 1850; 368: Since 1850. 

369. The American Military Experience. (4) A survey of the military ideas and activi- 
ties of the American people and their armed forces, with emphasis on the relationship 
between war and society. 

372. Introduction to African History. (4) An introduction to African history from the 
perspective of the continent as a whole. The historical unity of the African continent 
and its relation to other continents will be stressed. 

373. History of Mexico. (4) An examination of the history of Mexico from the colonial 
period to the present. 

374. Protest and Rebellion in Latin America. (4) A study of the history of protest 
movements and rebellions in Latin America from primitive and agrarian revolts to 
mass working class and socialist organizations. 

375. Modern Latin America. (4) A survey of Latin American history since Indepen- 
dence, with emphasis on the twentieth century. The course will concentrate chiefly on 
economics, politics, and race. 



130 

376. Civil Rights and Black Consciousness Movements. (4) A social and religious 
history of the African-American struggle for citizenship rights and freedom from 
World War II to the present. (Also listed as Religion 341.) 

3760. Anglo-American Relations since 1940. (4) A study of the relations between the 
United States and Britain from 1940 to the present. Offered in London. 

377. American Diplomatic History. (4) An introduction to the history of American 
diplomacy since 1776, emphasizing the effects of public opinion on fundamental 
policies. 

381, 382. Preservation Practicum I, II. (4,4) Training in the techniques and skills of 
historical preservation. Emphasis will vary according to the specific site(s) involved. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

397. Historical Writing Tutorial. (2) Individual supervision of historical writing to 
improve a project initiated in History 288 or History 310. P — Permission of instructor. 
(Does not count toward major or minor requirements.) 

398. Individual Study. (1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in the 
department; permitted upon departmental approval of petition presented by a 
qualified student. 

399. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. P — Permission of instructor. 



Humanities 

Robert N. Shorter, Coordinator 

Reynolds Professor of American Studies Maya Angelou 

Kenan Professor of Humanities Allen Mandelbaum 

Associate Professor Robert L. Utley Jr. 

121. Introduction to Women's Studies. (4) An interdisciplinary course, taught by 
faculty representing at least two fields, that integrates materials from the humanities 
and the social sciences. Topics include methods and goals of women's studies, 
feminist critical theory, and the place of women in culture and society. 

Humanities courses 213-222 are designed to introduce students to works of litera- 
ture which would not be included in their normal course of study. Each course 
includes a reading in translation of ten to twelve representative authors. 

213. Studies in European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as 
Dante, Montaigne, Cervantes, Goethe, Dostoevsky, and Camus. Satisfies a Divi- 
sion I requirement. 

214. Contemporary Fiction. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Mann, Sartre, 
Unamuno, Fuentes, Moravia, and Voinovich. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 



131 

215. Germanic and Slavic Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as 
Hoffmann, Kafka, Dostoevsky, Dinesen, Ibsen, Pushkin, and Chekhov. Satisfies 
a Division I requirement. 

216. Romance Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Boccaccio, 
Calderon, Flaubert, Machado de Assis, Gide, and Lampedusa. Satisfies a Division 
I requirement. 

217. European Drama. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Moliere, Garcia 
Lorca, Pirandello, Schiller, Brecht, Ibsen, and Beckett. Satisfies a Division I 
requirement. 

218. Eastern European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Tolstoy, 
Solzhenitsyn, Gogol, Andric, Milosz, and Szabo. Satisfies a Division I require- 
ment. 

219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) Major works of poetry, drama and 
fiction from the classical and modern periods. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) Readings and discussions in fiction, 
drama and poetry from the traditional and modern periods. Satisfies a Division 
I requirement. 

222. African and Caribbean Literature. (4) An examination of the negritude 
movement and the negro-African novel. Texts studied are by such authors as 
Aime Cesaire, Leopold Senghor, Ousmane Sembene, and Mariama Ba. Satisfies 
a Division I requirement. 

242. Research on Culture in Russia. (2) An investigation designed by the student is 
carried out in Russia during spring break. An evaluative term paper follows the class 
trip. Students who have studied any Russian should enroll under Russian 242. 
Limited enrollment. P-Permission of instructor. 

260. Problems of Structure. (2-4) An investigation into structures arising in the natural 
world and into structures created by human effort. 

280. Reason and Revelation. (4) An investigation of the intellectual roots of Western 
civilization as they are found in the emergence of philosophical universalism and 
Biblical monotheism. These distinctive approaches will be considered through a 
reading of such authors as Plato, Hesiod, Aristophanes, and St. Thomas Aquinas, and 
of selections from the Bible. 

282. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of 
abiding public significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with 
each topic will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal 
arts tradition. The visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the class 
discussion. "Politics and the Arts" and "Theory and Practice in Public Life" are 
representative topics. 

283. Nature and History in Modern Moral and Social Life. (4) The subject as viewed 
through such representative writers as Spinoza, Flaubert, Pascal, Eckermann, Nietzsche, 



132 

and Conrad, each of whom in a different way participated in the rejection of the 
teachings of both the Socratic tradition and the Christian church. 

321. Seminar in Women's Studies. (4) Consideration of theoretical and method- 
ological questions and research on current topics in women's studies. 

339. King. (4) An in-depth investigation into the power of charismatic leadership as 
it affected the Civil Rights Movement, as well as a dramatic evaluation of the impact 
of music on the spirit of the Civil Rights Movement. 

340. Race in the Southern Experience before Emancipation: Four Voices. (1,2) Se- 
lected writings of David Walker, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and 
Harriet Beecher Stowe. Pass /fail only. (Credit not given for Humanities 340 if the 
student has completed Humanities 341.) 

341. Race, Politics, and Literature: Aspects of American Life from 1830 to 1930. (4) An 

examination of the evolution of significant ideas in American civilization. A careful 
reading of FrederickDouglass, Harriet Beecher Stowe, W. E. DuBois, Mark Twain, and 
others. 

343. The Philosophy of Liberation in Literature. (4) The concept of freedom as found 
in the works of such writers as Frederick Douglass, Kobo Abe, Wole Soyinka, 
Germaine Greer, Paule Marshall, Franz Fanon, Garcia Lorca, and James Baldwin. 

344. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (1 ) A condensed version of Humanities 

345. offered as a minicourse in the spring. Pass /fail only. (Credit not given for 
Humanities 344 if the student has completed Humanities 345.) 

345. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (4) The influence of African culture on 
American life will be studied in such areas as dance, music, political approaches, 
grammatical patterns, literature, and culinary preferences. The course will include an 
evaluation of American mores. 

347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) Critical analysis of classical, modern, 
and contemporary writings by Japanese women, with an exploration of the cultural 
setting in which they occurred. 

348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) The dark side of traditional society 
that sparked revolution and civil war; forces that led to dissent and student move- 
ments. 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature Since 1948. (2) The literary background of the 
democracy movement and the Tiananmen Square incident. 

350. Modern Chinese Literature. (4) A study of representative prose and poetry of 
mainland China from the May 4, 1919 movement to the present, in their cultural, 
historical, and political context. The course will concentrate upon major writers (e.g., 
Lu Xun, Shen Congwen, Ding Ling, Mao Dun, Ba Jin, Ai Qing, Wang Meng, Wang 
Anyi, Bei Dao, Shu Ting) with some attention to significant lesser writers. 

352. The Classical and Surreal Tradition. (4) A venture to define and differentiate 
classical and surreal modes of perception throughout history, their paradoxical 



133 

relationship to each other and to complementary styles, considered in philosophy, 
music, literature, and painting. 

353. African and Caribbean Women Writers. (4) Critical analysis of fiction by female 
authors whose works concern women in Africa and its Caribbean diaspora. 

355. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals of 
love in selected works of art. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 249.) 

356. Humanism, "Secular" and Religious. (4) Exploration of the nature of humanism 
through examination of similarities and differences among various forms. Types to be 
considered are: Classical (Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean); Christian; 
modern naturalistic; and Confucian. 

359. Fathers and Daughters. (4) The ways in which fathers influence their daughters' 
emotional, psychological, and intellectual development. Selected materials from 
psychology, mythology, film, and contemporary literature. 

360. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 
(Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 254.) 

361. Dante I. (2) A study of the Vita Nuova as apprenticeship to the Divina Commedia, 
and of the first half of the Divina Commedia as epic, prophecy, autobiography, and 
poetry, relating it to antiquity, Christianity, Dante's European present (the birth of 
modern languages and new intellectual and poetic forms), and Dante's own afterlife 
in the West. 

362. Dante II. (2) A study of the second half of the Divina Commedia as epic, prophecy, 
autobiography, and poetry, relating it to antiquity, Christianity, Dante's European 
present (the birth of modern languages and new intellectual and poetic forms), and 
Dante's own afterlife in the West. P — Humanities 361 or permission of instructor. 

380. Literature, Film, and Society. (4) A study of major selected works of literature, 
mainly American; of the films which have been based upon them; and of the social and 
political context in which they were read and seen. Texts will include novels, stories, 
and plays by such writers as Dreiser, Lewis, Warren, Steinbeck, Hellman, Harper Lee, 
Wright, and Walker. P — Junior standing. 

381. Solzhenitsyn: Witness, Survivor, and Critic. (4) A critical analysis of the political 
and literary development of Solzhenitsyn as seen in his major novels, poems, and 
plays. 

382. Italian Cinema and Society. (4) A survey of some of Italy's greatest postwar films 
with special attention to issues and problems in Italian society as treated by major 
directors such as Fellini, De Sica, Rossellini, Antonioni, and Olmi. 

383. Italian Fascism in Novels and Films. (4) An exploration of theories of fascism, 
with an emphasis on Italy between 1919 and 1944 as understood through novels and 
films. 



134 

384. Latin American Cinema. (4) Examination of major Latin American films as 
cinematographic art and as expressions of social and political issues. Directors include 
Luis Bufiuel, Tomas Gutierrez Alea, and Ruy Guerra. 

385. Legends of Troy. (4) An interdisciplinary investigation of translations and trans- 
formations of the Trojan legend from the Greeks through the Middle Ages and the 
Renaissance to the present. Texts, studied in English translation, are by such authors 
as Homer, Virgil, Ovid, Chaucer, Racine, and Giraudoux. 

396. Individual Study. (2-4) Individual projects in the humanities which continue 
study begun in regular courses. By prearrangement. 

397. Internships in Women's Studies. (2-4) Practicum opportunities for work and for 
research in conjunction with a local women's organization: Winston-Salem Family 
services, NOW, Council on the Status of Women, the North Carolina Center for Laws 
Affecting Women, etc. Pass/ fail only. 

Linguistics 

Courses in linguistics are attached to the program in humanities for administrative 
purposes. 

150. Introduction to Linguistics. (4) The social phenomenon of language: how it 
originated and developed, how it is learned and used, its relationship to other kinds 
of behavior; types of language (oral, written, signed) and language families; analysis 
of linguistic data; social issues of language use. 

Interdisciplinary Honors 

James P. Barefield, Coordinator 

A series of seminar courses of an interdisciplinary nature is open to qualified 
undergraduates. Students interested in admission to any one of these seminars, 
supervised by the Committee on Honors, should consult the coordinator or a member 
of the committee. 

Students who choose to participate in as many as four interdisciplinary seminars 
and who have a superior record may elect Honors 281, directed study culminating in 
an honors paper and an oral examination. Those whose work has been superior in this 
course and who have achieved an overall grade-point average of at least 3.0 in all 
college work may be graduated with the distinction "Honors in the Arts and Sci- 
ences." Students who choose to be candidates for departmental honors may not also 
be candidates for "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." 

Able students are normally encouraged to choose a departmental honors program 
rather than "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." As a result, most students elect to 
participate in only one or two interdisciplinary seminars in which they are particularly 
interested. The faculty participants for these seminars represent diverse academic 
disciplines. 



135 

131, 132. Approaches to Human Experience I. (4,4) An inquiry into the nature and 
interrelationships of several approaches to man's experience, represented by the work 
of three such minds as Leonardo da Vinci, Dante, KLee, Lorenz, Confucius, Dostoe vsky, 
Descartes, Goya, Mozart, Jefferson, and Bohr. Seminar discussion based on primary 
and secondary sources, including musical works and paintings. Written reports and 
a term paper required. Offered in alternate years. 

133, 134. Approaches to Human Experience II. (4,4) A parallel course to Honors 131, 
132, concentrating on the work of a different set of figures such as Einstein, Galileo, 
Keynes, Pascal, Camus, Picasso, Ibsen, Stravinsky, Sophocles, and Bach. Offered in 
alternate years. 

*233. Darwinism and the Modern World. (4) A study of the Darwinian theory of 
evolution and the impact of evolution and evolutionary thought on fields such as 
economics, politics, psychology, literature and the other arts, and philosophy. 

*235. The Ideal Society. (4) Man's effort to establish or imagine the ideal community, 
state, or society; principles of political and social organization; changing goals and 
values. 

*236. The Force of Impressionism. (4) Impressionism and its impact on modern 
painting and literature, with attention to origins and theories of style. Painters to 
include Manet, Monet, Renoir, Degas, and Cezanne. Writers to include Baudelaire, 
Flaubert, Mallarme, James, Pound, Joyce, and Woolf . 

*237. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of the 
scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and social 
sciences and the humanities. (Also listed as Natural Sciences 351.) 

*238. Romanticism. (4) Romanticism as a recurrent characteristic of mind and art and 
as a specific historical movement in Europe and America in the late eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. Emphasis on primary materials in philosophy, literature, music, 
and painting. 

*239. Man and the Irrational. (4) The phenomenon of the irrational, with emphasis on 
its twentieth century manifestations but with attention also to its presence in other 
centuries and cultures. Philosophy, religion, literature, psychology, politics, and the 
arts are explored. 

*240. Adventures in Self-Understanding. (4) Examination and discussion of signifi- 
cant accounts of the quest for understanding of the self, in differing historical periods, 
cultural contexts, and genres. Among figures who may be discussed are Augustine, 
Dante, Gandhi, Montaigne, Descartes, Pascal, and selected modern writers. 

*241. The Tragic View. (4) The theory of tragedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the tragic in literature, art, music, theater, and film. 

*242. The Comic View. (4) The theory of comedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the comic in literature, art, music, theater, and film. 

*244. Man and the Structure of the Universe. (4) An investigation of various con- 
ceptions of the universe and their implications for man. Study not necessarily limited 



136 

to the cosmologies of Ptolemy, Copernicus, and their modern successors, but may also 
include theories such as the Babylonian, Mayan, and Taoist. 

*246. Man and the Environment. (4) An interdisciplinary examination of man and 
society in relation to the environment. 

*247. The Mythic View. (4) The nature of myth through creation and hero myths; the 
uses to which myths have been put in different historical periods; various modern 
explanations of myth (literary, religious, anthropological, psychoanalytic, social, and 
historical). 

*248. The Ironic View. (4) An investigation of the ironic view of life in literature, art, 
history, theater, and film. 

*249. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals of 
love in selected works of art. (Also listed as Humanities 355.) 

*250. Ethical Dilemmas in the Arts and Sciences. (4) An exploration of contemporary 
issues and controversies in the sciences and art, particularly those involved with 
ethical questions resulting from new concepts and discoveries. 

*252. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance 
to this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also listed as History 302, Natural Sciences 
302, and Philosophy 242.) 

*253. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically 
new ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time 
in relativity theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, 
and continental drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or 
permission of instructor. (Also listed as History 303 and Natural Sciences 303.) 

*254. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 
(Also listed as Humanities 360.) 

*256. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human 
values: biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for 
extraterrestrial life. (Also listed as Natural Sciences 352.) 

281. Directed Study. (4) Readings on an interdisciplinary topic approved by the 
Committee on Honors; presentation of a major research or interpretive paper based on 
these readings, under the direction of a faculty member; an oral examination on the 
topic, administered by the faculty supervisor and the Committee on Honors. Eligible 
students who wish to take this course must submit a written request to the Committee 
on Honors by the end of the junior year. Not open to candidates for departmental 
honors. 



*One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors. 



137 



Mathematics and Computer Science 

Richard D. Carmichael, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Robert J. Plemmons 

Professors John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, Elmer K. Hayashi, 

Frederic T. Howard, Ellen E. Kirkman, James Kuzmanovich, J. Gaylord May, 

W. Graham May, Wesley E. Snyder, Marcellus E. Waddill 

Associate Professors Daniel Canas, David J. John, Stan J. Thomas 

Assistant Professors Edward E. Allen, James L. Norris III, 

Stephen B. Robinson, Todd C. Torgersen 

Lecturer Gene T. Lucas 

Instructors Eva M. Allen, Jule M. Connolly, David C. Wilson 

A major in mathematics requires a minimum of forty credits. A student must 
include courses 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, one of the courses 311, 317, 352, 357, and at least 
two additional 300-level courses of at least four credits each. Lower division students 
are urged to consult a member of the departmental faculty before enrolling in courses 
other than those satisfying Division II requirements. 

A major in computer science requires thirty-six credits in computer science and 
three courses in mathematics. The courses in computer science must include 173, 271, 
275, 277, and 279. The required courses in mathematics are 117 plus two additional 
courses of at least four credits each numbered 108 or higher. Students considering 
graduate work in computer science should consult a major adviser in the department 
for assistance in planning an appropriate course of study. 

A minor in computer science requires four courses (sixteen credits) in computer 
science numbered higher than 171, Mathematics 117, and an additional four credits in 
mathematics other than Mathematics 105. 

A minor in mathematics requires Mathematics 111, 112, either 113 or 121, and three 
other courses of at least four credits each numbered higher than Mathematics 108, two 
of which must be numbered above 200. Neither Mathematics 301, 302, 303, or 304 can 
count as a course for this minor, but any pair may be so counted. Credit is not allowed 
for both Mathematics 121 and Mathematics 302 or for both Mathematics 303 and 
Mathematics 317. 

A minimum GPA of 2.0 in courses which comprise a major or minor in the 
department is required for graduation with any major or minor which the department 
offers. 

A regularly scheduled activity in mathematics is an informal seminar of students 
and faculty on topics not discussed in regular courses (for example, finite differences, 
game theory, Monte Carlo method, divergent series). 

The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and the Department of 
Economics offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six 
credits, offers the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the 
development of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major has 
the following course requirements: Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 251; Economics 
150, 205, 207, 208, 215, 218; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of 



138 

the program advisers. Recommended courses are Mathematics 253, 311, 312, 348, 353, 
357, 358 and Economics 206, 212, 223, 231, 232, 235, 251, 252. Students selecting the joint 
major must receive permission from both the Department of Mathematics and 
Computer Science and the Department of Economics. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in mathematics, computer science, or the joint major. To be graduated 
with the designation "Honors in Mathematics," "Honors in Computer Science," or 
"Honors in Mathematical Economics," they must complete satisfactorily a senior 
research paper. To graduate with "Honors in Mathematics" or "Honors in Computer 
Science," majors must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.5 in the major and 3.0 
in all college course work. For additional information, members of the departmental 
faculty should be consulted. 

Students who are enrolled at Wake Forest may not take courses in mathematics 
and /or computer science at other institutions to satisfy divisional requirements. 

Computer Science* 

171. Introduction to Computer Programming. (2) Lecture and laboratory. A first 
course in computer programming. Does not count toward computer science major or 
minor. Not available on pass /fail basis. 

173. Fundamentals of Computer Science. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A course in 
structured programming, problem solving, and coding in a high level programming 
language. P — Computer Science 171 or equivalent. 

175. File Processing Techniques with COBOL. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of 
file access and organization techniques for processing direct and sequential files using 
the COBOL language. P — Computer Science 171 or Computer Science 173. 

271. Computer Software Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the 
ways information is stored and handled in a computer; an introduction to machine 
and assembly language. P — Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

272. Computer Hardware Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Basic computer 
architecture. Study and design of combinational logic circuits, arithmetic units, and 
memory devices. P — Computer Science 271. 

275. Data Structures. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Data representation and manipula- 
tion. Includes the data types of list, string, tree, set, and graph. P — Computer Science 
173 and Mathematics 117. 

277. Programming Languages. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the properties 
of programming languages including syntax, semantics, control structures, and run- 
time representations. P — Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

279. Algorithm Design. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Techniques for designing and 
analyzing algorithms. Topics include sorting and searching, graph algorithms, geo- 



*Other courses in which computing is used or taught extensively are Mathematics 355, Physics 
130, and Physics 330. 



139 



metric algorithms, pattern matching, and data compression techniques. P — Com- 
puter Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

301. Software Engineering. (4) The principles and methods for the specification, 
design, and validation of large software systems. Topics may include formal specifi- 
cation techniques, design techniques, programming methodology, program testing, 
proofs of program correctness, software reliability, and software management. P — 
Computer Science 275. 

302. Operating Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. The study of algorithms for 
sequencing, controlling, scheduling, and allocating computer resources. P — Com- 
puter Science 271 and Computer Science 275. 

310. Design of Central Processing Units. (4) Use of register-transfer notation, hard- 
ware programming languages, control sequencing, and microprogramming. P — 
Computer Science 272. 

312. Fundamentals of Logic Systems. (4) A study of algebraic structures as related to 
logic systems, models for switching circuit behavior and the relation to hardware 
implementation. Topics include Boolean algebras, sequential machines, races, and 
hazards. P — Mathematics 117. 

319. Digital Systems Architecture. (4) The unification of hardware, firmware, and 
software. Architectural descriptions, storage systems, paging and associative memo- 
ries, I/O systems, stack machines, and parallelism. P — Computer Science 271. 

323. Computer Graphics. (4) A study of software and hardware techniques in com- 
puter graphics. Topics include line and polygon drawing, hidden line and surface 
techniques, transformations, and ray tracing. P — Computer Science 275 and Math- 
ematics 121. 

330. Computer Communications. (4) A study of the operation, design, and analytic 
modeling of computer communication and networking systems. P — Computer Sci- 
ence 271. 

355. Introduction to Numerical Methods. (4) Numerical computations on modern 
computer architectures; floating point arithmetic and round-off error. Programming 
in a scientific/ engineering language (C or FORTRAN). Algorithms and computer 
techniques for the solution of problems such as roots of functions, approximation, 
integration, systems of linear equations and least squares methods. Credit not allowed 
for both Mathematics 355 and Computer Science 355. P — Mathematics 112, Math- 
ematics 121, and Computer Science 171. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in computer science which are not studied in 
regular courses or which further examine topics begun in regular courses. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

372. Compilers. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of techniques for compiling 
computer languages including scanning, parsing, translating, and generating code. 
P — Computer Science 271 and Computer Science 275. 



140 

374. Database Management Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. An introduction to 
large-scale database management systems. Topics include data independence, data- 
base models, query languages, security, integrity, and concurrency. P — Computer 
Science 275. 

379. Artificial Intelligence. (4) An introduction to problems in artificial intelligence. 
Techniques of representation and heuristic search in areas such as problem solving, 
pattern recognition, theorem proving, and information processing. P — Computer 
Science 279. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. Not to be counted toward the minor in computer science. 

391, 392. Senior Research. (2,2) A two-semester directed course of study. By prear- 
rangement. 

Mathematics 

105. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry. (2,3, or 4) A review of the essentials 
of algebra and trigonometry. Admission by permission only (generally, a student 
must have taken fewer than three years of high school mathematics to be eligible for 
admission). Not to be counted toward the major or minor in mathematics. 

108. Essential Calculus. (5 or 4) A one-semester course in differential and integral 
calculus with application to business and the social sciences. No student allowed 
credit for both 108 and 111. A student who might take additional calculus should not 
take Mathematics 108. Lab — two hours. 

109. Elementary Probability and Statistics. (5 or 4) Probability and distribution 
functions, means and variances, and sampling distributions. Lab — two hours. 

Ill, 112. Calculus with Analytic Geometry I, II. (5 or 4; 5 or 4) Calculus of functions 
of one variable; infinite series. Computer lab using BASIC. No student allowed credit 
for both 108 and 111. 

113. Multivariable Calculus. (4) Vector and space curves. Differentiable functions; 
surfaces and max-min problems. Multiple integrals and Green's theorem. P — Math- 
ematics 112. 

117. Discrete Mathematics. (4) An introduction to various topics in discrete math- 
ematics applicable to computer science including sets, relations, Boolean algebra, 
propositional logic, functions, computability, proof techniques, graph theory, and 
elementary combinatorics. 

121. Linear Algebra I. (4) Vectors and vector spaces, linear transformations and 
matrices, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors. Credit not allowed for both 
121 and 302. 

165. Problem Solving Seminar. (1 or 2) A weekly seminar designed for students who 
wish to participate in mathematical competition such as the annual Putnam examina- 
tion. Not to be counted toward any major or minor offered by the department. May be 
repeated for credit. 






141 

221. Modern Algebra I. (4) An introduction to modern abstract algebra through the 
study of groups, rings, integral domains, and fields. P — Mathematics 121. 

251. Ordinary Differential Equations. (4) Linear equations with constant coefficients, 
linear equations with variable coefficients, and existence and uniqueness theorems for 
first order equations. P — Mathematics 112. 

253. Operations Research. (4) Mathematical models and optimization techniques. 
Studies in allocation, simulation, queuing, scheduling, and network analysis. P — 
Mathematics 111. 

256. Statistical Methods. (4) A study of statistical methods that have proved useful in 
many different disciplines. These methods include tests of model assumptions, 
regression, general linear models, nonparametric alternatives, and analysis of data 
collected over time. Knowledge of matrix algebra is desirable but not necessary. 

301. Vector Analysis. (2) Vector functions, partial derivatives, line and multiple 
integrals, Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, divergence theorem. Not to be counted 
toward any major offered by the department. P — Mathematics 112. 

302. Matrix Algebra. (2) Matrices, determinants, solutions of linear equations, special 
matrices, eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices. Not to be counted toward any 
major offered by the department. Credit not allowed for both 121 and 302. 

303. Complex Variables. (2) Topics in analytic function theory, Cauchy's theorem, 
Taylor and Laurent series, residues. Not to be counted toward any major offered by 
the department. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. P — Mathematics 112. 

304. Applied Partial Differential Equations. (2) The separation of variables technique 
for the solution of the wave, heat, Laplace, and other partial differential equations with 
the related study of special functions and Fourier series. Not to be counted toward any 
major offered by the department. P — Mathematics 251. 

311, 312. Advanced Calculus I, II. (4,4) Limits and continuity in metric spaces, differ- 
entiation and Riemann-Stieltjes integration, sequences and series, uniform conver- 
gence, power series and Fourier series, partial differentiation and functions of n real 
variables, implicit and inverse function theorems. P — Mathematics 113. 

317. Complex Analysis I. (4) Analytic functions, Cauchy's theorem and its conse- 
quences, power series, and residue calculus. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. 
P — Mathematics 113. 

322. Modern Algebra II. (4) A continuation of modern abstract algebra through the 
study of additional properties of groups, rings, and fields. P — Mathematics 221. 

324. Linear Algebra II. (4) A thorough treatment of vector spaces and linear transfor- 
mations over an arbitrary field, canonical forms, inner product spaces, and linear 
groups. P — Mathematics 121 and Mathematics 221. 

326. Numerical Linear Algebra. (4) Numerical methods for solving matrix and related 
problems in science and engineering. Topics will include systems of linear equations, 



142 

least squares methods, and eigenvalue computations. Special emphasis given to 
parallel matrix computations. Beginning knowledge of a programming language, 
such as Pascal, FORTRAN, or C, is required. P — Mathematics 112 and Mathematics 
121. 

331. Geometry. (4) An introduction to axiomatic geometry including a comparison of 
Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. 

334. Differential Geometry. (4) Introduction to the theory of curves and surfaces in 
two and three dimensional space, including such topics as curvature, geodesies, and 
minimal surfaces. P — Mathematics 113. 

345, 346. Elementary Theory of Numbers I, II. (4,4) Properties of integers, congruences, 
arithmetic functions, primitive roots, sums of squares, magic squares, applications to 
elementary mathematics, quadratic residues, arithmetic theory of continued frac- 
tions. 

348. Combinatorial Analysis. (4) Enumeration techniques, including generating 
functions, recurrence formulas, the principle of inclusion and exclusion, and Polya's 
theorem. 

349. Constructive Combinatorics. (4) Algorithms for basic combinatorial structures 
such as permutations, integer partitions, product spaces, partially ordered sets, the 
Boolean algebra, extremal set theory, bijections, the Schensted correspondence, and 
involutions. P — Mathematics 348. 

352. Partial Differential Equations. (4) A detailed study of partial differential equa- 
tions, including the heat, wave, and Laplace equations, using methods such as 
separation of variables, characteristics, Green's functions, and the maximum prin- 
ciple. P — Mathematics 113 and Mathematics 251. 

353. Mathematical Models. (4) Development and application of probabilistic and 
deterministic models. Emphasis given to constructing models which represent sys- 
tems in the social, behavioral, and management sciences. P — Mathematics 253. 

355. Introduction to Numerical Methods. (4) Numerical computations on modern 
computer architectures; floating point arithmetic and round-off error. Programming 
in a scientific /engineering language (C or FORTRAN). Algorithms and computer 
techniques for the solution of problems such as roots of functions, approximation, 
integration, systems of linear equations and least squares methods. Credit not allowed 
for both Mathematics 355 and Computer Science 355. P — Mathematics 112, Math- 
ematics 121, and Computer Science 171. 

357, 358. Mathematical Statistics I, II. (4,4) Probability distributions, mathematical 
expectation, sampling distributions, estimation and testing of hypotheses, regression, 
correlation, and analysis of variance. C — Mathematics 113, or P — Permission of 
instructor. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in mathematics which are not considered in 
regular courses or which continue study begun in regular courses. Content varies. 



143 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. 

Military Science 

Lieutenant Colonel John P. Modica, Professor 
Assistant Professors: Captain David P. Bumgarner, Captain Thomas B. 

Dalton III, Captain Charles Hands, Captain Frank M. Williamson 

Instructors: Major Stephen J. Huebner, Sergeant Major Lewis L. Green, 

Master Sergeant Clifton Lowery 

Completion of Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) requirements and 
recommendation for appointment by the professor of military science may result in 
commissioning as a second lieutenant in the active or reserve forces components of the 
Army of the United States, as determined by the Secretary of the Army. The AROTC 
program is composed of the Basic Course and the Advanced Course. The Basic Course 
is composed of four core courses (121, 122, 123, and 124), sometimes with either 117 
or 118 taken each semester as a co-requisite. No military obligation is incurred by 
enrollment in the Basic Course, except by Army ROTC Scholarship cadets, and then 
only when beginning their sophomore year. The Basic Course may be completed, 
partially or fully, by various alternative methods (i.e., through credit for specific types 
of Junior ROTC or other military training, as determined by the professor of military 
science, or through completion of a six-week summer Basic Camp). The Advanced 
Course is composed of four core courses (225, 226, 227, and 228), with either 117 or 118 
taken each semester as a co-requisite, and a six-week Advanced Camp, usually 
attended during the summer between the junior and senior years. Army ROTC 
scholarships are available to qualified applicants (both those already enrolled in the 
AROTC program and those not yet enrolled) through annual competition. 

112. Operations in Special Environments. (2) Planning and preparation for military 
operations in mountain, desert, jungle, and arctic environments; fundamentals of 
survival; mountaineering techniques. 

116. Orienteering. (2) A study of navigational aids, linear time/ distance relation- 
ships, and mapping techniques. Includes navigating in unfamiliar terrain. 

117, 118. Leadership Laboratory. (0,0) Basic military skills instruction designed to 
technically and tactically qualify the student for assumption of an officer leadership 
position at the small-unit level. Either 117 (fall) or 118 (spring) is required each 
semester for contracted AROTC cadets (including those conditionally contracted), 
advance designee scholarship winners, and non-contracted AROTC cadets taking 
their third and fourth military science core courses. Pass /fail only. C — Any other 
military science core course. P — Permission of the professor of military science, except 
when required as explained above. 



144 

121. Introduction to Army ROTC and the US Army. (2) An introduction to the Army 
Reserve Officers' Training Corps and to the United States Army, exploring roles, 
organization, customs and traditions. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as appropriate. 

122. War and the Military Profession. (2) An examination of the arguments for and 
against a moral basis for war, and a critical discussion of the military as a profession, 
its ethical requirements and dilemmas. Concludes with an examination of the funda- 
mentals contributing to the development of a personal leadership style. P — Military 
Science 121 or permission of the professor of military science. C — Military Science 117 
or 118, as appropriate. 

123. Land Navigation and Terrain Analysis. (2) A study of the methods of land 
navigation and terrain analysis for military operations. P — Military Science 121 and 
122 or permission of the professor of military science. C — Military Science 117 or 118, 
as appropriate. 

124. Introduction to Tactics. (2) An introduction to planning, organizing and con- 
ducting military ground operations. Consideration of the principles of war and a 
comparative study of military power. P — Military Science 121, 122, and 123, or 
permission of the professor of military science. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as 
appropriate. 

225. Military Operations. (2) An in-depth study of the principles of combined arms 
operations. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit as determined 
by the professor of military science). C — Military Science 117. 

226. Advanced Military Operations. (2) A continuation of Military Science 225 with 
an emphasis on the leadership aspect of combined arms operations. Specific prepara- 
tion for the AROTC Advanced Camp. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or 
equivalent credit as determined by the professor of military science) and Military 
Science 225. C — Military Science 118. 

227. Leadership and Management in the US Army I. (2) The theory and practice of 
military leadership. Emphasis on the Uniform Code of Military Justice, the Manual for 
Courts-Martial, the Law of Land Warfare and the Army's personnel, training, and 
logistical management systems. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent 
credit as determined by the professor of military science) and Military Science 225 and 
226. C— Military Science 117. 

228. Leadership and Management in the US Army II. (2) A continuation of Military 
Science 227 with emphasis on the transition from cadet to officer. P — Military Science 
121 through 124 (or equivalent credit as determined by the professor of military 
science) and Military Science 225 through 227. C — Military Science 118. 

229. American Military History. (4) The American military experience with emphasis 
on the ideas and activities contributing to the development of the United States' 
unique military establishment. Particular emphasis on civilian control of the military. 
P — Permission of the professor of military science. Credit not allowed for this course 
if credit has been earned for History 369. 



145 



Music 

Susan Harden Borwick, Chair 

Professor Susan Harden Borwick 

Associate Professors Stewart Carter, Louis Goldstein, 

David B. Levy, Dan Locklair 

Assistant Professors Peter Kairoff, Teresa Radomski 

Part-time Assistant Professor Pamela Howland 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles George Trautwein 

Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles Martin Province 

Director of Choral Ensembles Brian Gorelick 

Part-time Instructors Patricia Dixon, Kathryn Levy 

A major in music requires forty-eight credits. This includes a basic curriculum of 
thirty-six credits (Music Theory 171, 172, 173, and 174, sixteen credits; Music History 
181, 182, six credits; ten credits of applied music; and four credits of ensemble, taken 
in four semesters) plus six semesters of Music Recitals 100 and twelve credits of 
elective courses in music, excluding ensembles. In addition to the course work, music 
majors are required to present a senior recital, lecture-recital, or project. 

Students anticipating a major in music are urged to begin their studies during the 
freshman year and are required to audition during the second semester of their 
sophomore year before officially being admitted to the program. 

Highly qualified majors maybe invited by the music faculty to apply for admission 
to the honors program in music. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Music," a candidate must have a 3.0 overall GPA and a 3.5 GPA in courses in the major. 
In addition, the candidate must be nominated for this honor by a music faculty 
member and must complete one of the following requirements: (1) an honors-level 
research paper, (2) an analysis project, (3) an original composition, (4) a lecture-recital, 
(5) a solo recital, (6) a chamber-music recital, (7) a solo concert with ensemble, or (8) 
a conducting project. More complete information is available from the Department of 
Music. 

A minor in music requires twenty-four credits: Music 171, 172; 181, 182; two credits 
of ensemble, taken in two semesters; two semesters of applied music (performance 
level in applied music must be equal to the level expected of majors at the time of the 
sophomore audition); six credits of music electives (excluding ensemble); and four 
semesters of Music Recitals 100. Each minor will be assigned an adviser in the music 
department and is encouraged to begin private lessons, Music 171, and Music 100 as 
early as possible. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in music should consult the chair 
of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

General Music 

100. Recitals. (0) Recitals, concerts, and guest lectures sponsored by the Department 
of Music and the Secrest Artists Series. (Specific attendance requirements will be 



146 

established at the beginning of each semester.) Six semesters are required of music 
majors; four semesters are required of music minors. (P/F only) 

101. Introduction to the Language of Music. (3,4) Basic theoretical concepts and musical 
terminology. Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected works from the 
Middle Ages through the twentieth century. Satisfies the Division I requirement. For 
students not majoring in music. 

102. Language of Music I. (3,4) Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected 
works from the Middle Ages through the twentieth century. For students who can 
read music. Not open to music majors. Satisfies the Division I requirement. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

202. Language of Music II. (2) An in-depth study of selected major works. Not open 
to music majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

Music Theory 

104. Basic Music Reading and Skills. (2) A study of the fundamentals of music theory 
including key signatures, scales, intervals, chords, and basic sight-singing and ear- 
training skills. Designed for students wishing to participate in University ensembles 
and those wishing to pursue vocal, instrumental, and compositional instruction. 

105. Music Theory for Non-Majors. (4) A study and application of music fundamen- 
tals and music theory for the non-music major; analytical and compositional tech- 
niques. P — Music 104 or permission of instructor. 

171. Music Theory I. (4) Music fundamentals: key signatures, scales, modes, intervals, 
triads, elements of music. Ear training, sight-singing, and rhythm skills. Fall. 

172. Music Theory II. (4) Seventh chords, beginning part- writing, basic counterpoint, 
ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. Spring.. P — Music 171. 

173. Music Theory III. (4) Altered chords, continuation of part-writing, eighteenth 
and nineteenth century forms, ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard 
harmony. Fall. P — Music 172. 

174. Music Theory IV. (4) Expanded harmonic system of Impressionism and the 
twentieth century. New concepts of style and form. Ear training, sight-singing, 
rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. Spring. P — Music 173. 

270. Sixteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of sixteenth century contrapuntal 
music, in particular that of Palestrina. Examination of Renaissance writings on 
counterpoint. Composition of canon and motet. P — Music 174. 

271. Eighteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of eighteenth century contra- 
puntal styles, with concentration on the Well-Tempered Clavier and Art of the Fugue of 
J. S. Bach. Composition of invention, canon, and fugue. P — Music 174. 

272. Analysis Seminar. (2) A study of analytical writings of theorists and composers 
and the development of practical skills as they can be used in research and perfor- 
mance preparation. P — Music 174. 



147 

273. Composition. (1 or 2) Individual instruction in the craft of musical composition. 
May be repeated for credit. P — Permission of instructor. 

276. Current Practices. (2) A survey of twentieth century compositional techniques, 
notation, and performance problems involving the study of music and theoretical 
writings associated with major trends from 1900 to the present. P — Music 174. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestral and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical 
scoring and manuscript skills. (Also offered by the Department of Education as 
Education 280.) P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

Music History 

181. Music History I. (3) History of music from the Greeks to 1750. Satisfies the 
Division I requirement. P — Permission of instructor. 

182. Music History II. (3) History of music from 1750 to the present. Satisfies the 
Division I requirement. P — Permission of instructor. 

203. History of Jazz. (4) A survey of American jazz from its origin to the present. Open 
to majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

204. Survey of Choral Music. (4) A historical overview of important genera (i.e., 
anthem, cantata, motet, mass, oratorio) with an emphasis on church music and 
liturgical function. Open to majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission 
of instructor. 

205. Survey of Orchestral Music. (4) A historical overview of important orchestral 
repertoire (i.e., symphony, concerto, overture, symphonic poem). Open to majors and 
non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

206. Survey of Opera. (4) A study of the development of opera from 1600 to the 
present. Selected operas by European and American composers will be examined in 
class via record, score, and film. Class will attend opera performances when possible. 
Open to majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

207. Music in America. (4) A study of the music and musical trends in America from 
1650 to the present. The course will survey sacred and secular music from the Pilgrims 
to the current trends of American composers. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of 
instructor. 

208. Women and Music. (4) A historical overview of women musicians in society. P — 
Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

212. Music in the Church. (4) Function of church musicians and the relationship of 
their work to the church program. Offered fall semester of odd years. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

215. Philosophy of Music. (2) A survey of philosophical writings about music. Musi- 
cal aesthetics; social, religious, and political concerns. P — Music 174, 182, or permis- 
sion of instructor. 



148 

220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) A study of music before 1600, 
its theory, notation, and performance practices. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of 
instructor. 

221. Seminar in Baroque Music. (3,4) Musical activity from about 1600 to Bach and 
Handel. Special emphasis on the development of national styles and their resolutions 
toward the end of the era. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

222. Seminar in Eighteenth Century Music. (3,4) Musical developments from the 
sons of Bach through the Viennese Classicism of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. P — 
Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

223. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Music. (3,4) Music from the latter part of 
Beethoven's career through Wagner and Brahms. Special emphasis on the post- 
Beethoven schism and its ramifications. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instruc- 
tor. 

224. Seminar in Twentieth Century Music. (3,4) A study of the major musical styles, 
techniques, and media of contemporary music from Debussy to the present. P — Music 
174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) A survey of repertoire, including an examination 
of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Also offered by the 
Department of Education as Education 284. Course may be repeated. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

Music Education 

Music 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354 also appear as Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354. 
These courses may be taken as Music or Education but not both. 

186. String Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all instruments of 
the string family. Offered spring semester of odd years. 

187. Woodwind Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all principal 
instruments of the woodwind family. Offered fall semester of even years. 

188. Brass and Percussion Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching 
brass and percussion. Offered spring semester of even years. 

280. Orchestration. (4) See page 147 for a course description. 

282. Conducting. (4) See page 151 for a course description. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) See above for a course description. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental training 
techniques. Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, and 
choral and instrumental problems. Also offered by the Department of Education as 
Education 289. Fall. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 






149 

354. Methods and Materials of Teaching Music. (4) Methods, materials, and tech- 
niques used in the teaching and supervision of choral and instrumental music in the 
public schools, all grades. Also offered by the Department of Education as Education 
354. Spring. P— Music 174, 182. 

Honors and Individual Study 

297. Senior Project. (1,2,3, or 4) A major project varying in format according to the 
student's area of concentration. By pre-arrangement. 

298. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available 
in the department. By pre-arrangement. 

299. Honors in Music. (1,2,3, or 4) Individual study for honors candidates who have 
fulfilled the specific requirements. 

Ensemble 

Departmental ensembles are open to all students. Credit is earned on the basis of one 
credit per semester of participation in each ensemble. 

111. Opera Workshop. Study, staging, and performance of standard and contempo- 
rary operatic works. P — Permission of instructor. 

112. Collegium Musicum. An ensemble stressing the performance practices and the 
performance of music of the medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque eras. 

113. Orchestra. Study and performance of orchestral works from the classical and 
contemporary repertoire. P — Audition. 

114. Madrigal Singers. A vocal chamber ensemble which specializes in the perfor- 
mance of secular repertoire. P — Audition. 

115. Concert Choir. A select touring choir of forty-five voices which performs a 
variety of choral literature from all periods. Regular performances on and off campus, 
including an annual tour. P — Audition. 

116. Choral Union. A large oratorio chorus which concentrates on the performance of 
major choral works. P — Audition. 

117. Marching Deacons Band. Performs for most football games. Meets twice weekly. 
Regular performances on and off campus. Fall. P — Permission of instructor. 

119. Symphonic Band. Study and performance of music for symphonic band. Regu- 
lar performances on and off campus. Spring. P — Permission of instructor. 

120. Chamber Ensemble. Study and performance of music composed specifically for 
small ensemble. Performers are strongly urged to participate in a larger ensemble as 
well. P — Permission of instructor. 

a. percussion c. string 

b. wind/brass d. mixed 



150 

121. Jazz Ensemble. Study and performance of written and improvised jazz for a 
twenty-member ensemble. P — Audition. 

Applied Music 

Applied music courses are open to all students with the permission of the instructor. 
Credit is earned on the basis of lesson duration and weekly preparation. One credit per 
semester implies a half-hour of instruction weekly and a minimum of one hour of daily 
practice. Two credits per semester imply an hour of instruction weekly and a 
minimum of two hours daily practice. With the permission of the music faculty and 
with a proportional increase in practice, a student may earn three or four credits per 
semester. Students in applied music who do not have basic knowledge of notation and 
rhythm are advised to enroll in Music 101 or 104 either prior to or in conjunction with 
applied study. An applied music fee is charged for all individual instruction. (See page 
38 of this bulletin for specific information regarding the fee.) 

161. Individual Instruction. (1) May be repeated for credit. Technical studies and 
repertoire of progressive difficulty selected to meet the needs and abilities of the 
student. 



a. violin 


g. clarinet 


m. baritone 


v. voice 


b. viola 


h. bassoon 


n. tuba 


w. recorder 


c. cello 


i. saxophone 


o. organ 


x. viola da gamba 


d. bass 


j. trumpet 


p. piano 


y. harpsichord 


e. flute 


k. French horn 


q. percussion 




f. oboe 


I. trombone 


r. guitar 





261. Individual Instruction. (2,3, or 4) May be repeated for credit. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

165p. Class Piano. (1) Scales, chords, inversions, and appropriate repertoire, with 
emphasis on sight-reading, harmonization, and simple transposition. Designed for 
the beginning piano student. 

165r. Class Guitar I. (1) Introduction to guitar techniques: strumming, plucking, 
arpeggios, and damping. Reading and playing from musical notation and guitar 
tablature. For beginning students. 

166r. Class Guitar II. (1) Continuation of guitar techniques. Emphasis on chordal 
progressions, scales, accompanying patterns, and sight-reading. P — Music 165r. 

165v. Class Voice I. (1) Introduction to the fundamental principles of singing, con- 
cepts of breath control, tone, and resonance. Fall. 

166v. Class Voice II. (1) Continuation of fundamental vocal techniques. P — Music 
165v or permission of instructor. 

165w. Class Recorder. (1) Introduction to recorder techniques: breath control, articu- 
lation, F and C fingering systems. Emphasis on ensemble playing. Designed for 
beginning and intermediate recorder players. This course is intended to prepare 
students for Music 112, but is not a prerequisite. 



151 

167v. Theatrical Singing I: Class Voice. (1) Basic techniques of singing, breath control, 
phonation, and resonance, with emphasis on theatrical projection. Study and perfor- 
mance of musical theatre repertoire. (One hour per week.) Fall. 

168v. Theatrical Singing II: Class Voice. (1) Continuation of theatrical singing tech- 
niques with increased study and performance of musical theatre repertoire. P — Music 
167v or permission of instructor. (One hour per week.) 

175v. Advanced Voice Class I. (1) Development of advanced vocal technique and 
repertoire. Limited to eight students. (Two hours per week.) P — Music 166v or 
permission of instructor. 

176v. Advanced Voice Class II. (1) Further development of advanced vocal technique 
and repertoire. Limited to eight students. (Two hours per week; maybe repeated.) P — 
Music 175v or permission of instructor. 

177v. Advanced Theatrical Singing I. (1) Development of advanced theatrical singing 
technique and performance of musical theatre repertoire. Limited to eight students. 
(Two hours per week.) P — Music 168v or permission of instructor. 

178v. Advanced Theatrical Singing II. (1) Further development of advanced theatri- 
cal singing technique and performance of musical theatre repertoire. Limited to eight 
students. (Two hours per week; may be repeated.) P — Music 177v or permission of 
instructor. 

190. Diction for Singers. (2) Study of articulation in singing, with emphasis on 
modification of English; pronunciation of Italian, German, and French. Development 
of articulatory and aural skills with use of the international phonetic alphabet. 
Individual performance and coaching in class. (Two hours per week.) 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of conducting techniques; practical experience with 
ensembles. Offered spring semester of odd years. (Also offered by the Department of 
Education as Education 282.) P — Music 174 or permission of instructor. 

Natural Sciences 

Dudley Shapere, Reynolds Professor of Philosophy 
and History of Science 

301. The Beginnings of the Modern World- View. (4) A study of the transition from 
ancient views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the 
works of the Presocratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also listed as Flistory 301 
and Philosophy 231.) 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance 
to this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also listed as History 302, Interdisciplinary 
Honors 252, and Philosophy 242.) 



152 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically 
new ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time 
in relativity theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, 
and continental drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or 
permission of instructor. (Also listed as History 303 and Interdisciplinary Honors 
253.) 

320. The Universe of Modern Science. (4) A survey of the contemporary scientific 
picture of the universe and its evolution, and of the major evidence for that picture. 

351. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of the 
scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and social 
sciences and the humanities. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 237.) 

352. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human 
values: biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for 
extraterrestrial life. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 256.) 

396. Individual Study. (1-4) Individual projects in the philosophy and history of 
science. By invitation only. 

Philosophy 

Gregory D. Pritchard, Chair 

Worrell Professor Robert M. Helm 

Professors Thomas K. Hearn Jr., Marcus B. Hester, 

Charles M. Lewis, Gregory D. Pritchard 

Associate Professors Ralph C. Kennedy HI, Win-chiat Lee 

Instructor Charles J. Kinlaw 

Lecturer Hanna M. Hardgrave 

The objective of the program in philosophy is to lead the student to an understand- 
ing of philosophical thinking — past and present — about such fundamental questions 
as what it is to exist, to know, to be good, right, true, beautiful, or sacred. In examining 
such matters, philosophy may be said to investigate the presuppositions that inform 
all human action and inquiry and thus to be an essentially interdisciplinary kind of 
subject. The study of philosophy can, therefore, play a useful role in preparing the 
student for a career in almost any field, including law, politics, religion, medicine., 
business, the arts, and the natural and social sciences. 

The thirty-six credits in philosophy required for graduation with a major in the 
subject must include a general introduction to philosophy (Philosophy 111), one 
course in logic (selected from Group II), three courses in the history of philosophy (one 
from each of Groups III, rV and V) and two 200-level or higher topics courses (Group 
VI), the total to include at least three courses at the 300-level. 

A minor in philosophy requires 20 credits in philosophy, which must include at 
least two 200-level or higher courses and one 300-level course. Philosophy being an 
intrinsically interdisciplinary subject, a minor in philosophy can be designed to 



153 

complement any major subject. Students interested in minoring in philosophy should 
consult with the department about choosing an appropriate sequence of courses. 

Highly qualified majors are invited to apply in the spring semester of their junior 
year to the honors program in philosophy. Candidates must have an overall grade- 
point average of at least 3.0 and a grade-point average in philosophy courses of at least 
3.3. Graduation with honors in philosophy requires successful completion of Honors 
I and II in the fall and spring semesters, respectively, of their senior year. The credits 
earned in these two courses do not count toward the thirty-six credits required of all 
majors. 

Group I - Introduction to Philosophy 

111. Basic Problems of Philosophy. (4) An examination of the basic concepts of 
several representative philosophers, including their accounts of the nature of 
knowledge, persons, God, mind, and matter. 

Group II - Logic 

121. Logic. (4) An elementary study of the laws of valid inference, recognition of 
fallacies, and logical analysis. 

221. Symbolic Logic. (4) Basic concepts and techniques of first-order logic; applica- 
tions of first-order logic to arguments expressed in English; some discussion of such 
topics as the unsolvability of the decision problem for first-order logic, the completeness 
of first-order logic, and Godel's incompleteness theorem. 

Group III - Classical Ancient Philosophy 

231. Beginnings of the Modern World- View. (4) A study of the transition from an- 
cient views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the works 
of the Presocratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also offered as History 301 and 
Natural Sciences 301.) 

232. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) A study of philosophical problems such 
as the nature of faith, reason, universals, and God in the thought of Plato, Aristotle, 
Augustine, Abelard, Anselm, Aquinas, and Ockham. P — Philosophy 111. 

331. Plato. (4) A detailed analysis of selected dialogues, covering Plato's most impor- 
tant contributions to moral and political philosophy, theory of knowledge, metaphys- 
ics, and theology. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

332. Aristotle. (4) A study of the major texts, with emphasis on metaphysics, ethics, 
and theory of knowledge. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

Group IV - Classical Modern Philosophy 

241. Modern Philosophy. (4) A survey of major philosophers from Descartes to 
Nietzsche. P — Philosophy 111. 



154 

242. The Mechanistic View of Nature.(4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance 
to this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also offered as History 302, Interdisciplinary 
Honors 252, and Natural Sciences 302.) 

341. Kant. (4) A detailed study of selected works covering Kant's most important 
contributions to theory of knowledge, metaphysics, ethics, religion, and aesthetics. 
P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

Group V - Other History 

251. American Philosophy. (4) A study exploring the philosophies of Jonathan Edwards, 
Ralph Waldo Emerson, C.S. Peirce, William James, John Dewey, and others, examin- 
ing their views on logic, experience, science, reality, nature, art, education, and God. 
P— Philosophy 111. 

252. Contemporary Philosophy. (4) A study of the principal works of several repre- 
sentative twentieth-century philosophers. P — Philosophy 111. 

253. Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy. (4) An introduction to the most important 
traditions in Chinese philosophy and religion: Confucianism, Daoism (Taoism), and 
Chinese Buddhism or Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism. (Also offered as Religion 380.) 

351. Early German Idealism. (4) An examination of the development of post-Kantian 
idealism through the works of Fichte, Schelling, and Schleiermacher, with particular 
emphasis on their efforts to address the challenge of critical philosophy. P — One 200- 
level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

352. Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. (4) An examination of selected sources 
embodying the basic concepts of Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, especially as 
they relate to each other in terms of influence, development, and opposition. P — One 
200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

353. Heidegger. (4) An examination of the structure and development of Heidegger's 
philosophy from the ontological analysis in Being and Time to his later work in the 
philosophy of language and poetry. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or 
permission of instructor. 

354. Wittgenstein. (4) The work of Ludwig Wittgenstein on several central philo- 
sophical problems studied and compared with that of Frege, James, and Russell. 
Topics include the picture theory of meaning, truth, skepticism, private languages, 
thinking, feeling, the mystical, and the ethical. P — One 200-level course in philosophy 
or permission of instructor. 

Group VI - Topics in Philosophy 

161. Medical Ethics. (4) A study of moral problems in the practice of medicine, 
including informed consent, experimentation on human subjects, truthtelling, confi- 
dentiality, abortion, and the allocation of scarce medical resources. 



155 

162. Applied Ethics. (4) A critical analysis of contemporary moral issues, including 
capital punishment, minority rights and their protection, civil disobedience, euthana- 
sia, family relationships, and sexual conduct. 

261. Ethics. (4) A critical study of selected problems and representative works in 
ethical theory. P — Philosophy 111. 

262. Philosophy of Law. (4) A philosophical inquiry into the nature of law and its 
relation to morality. Classroom discussions of readings from the works of classical and 
modern authors focus on issues of contemporary concern involving questions of legal 
principle, personal liberty, human rights, responsibility, justice, and punishment. P — 
Philosophy 111. 

361. Topics in Ethics. (4) P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

362. Social and Political Philosophy. (4) A systematic examination of selected social 
and political philosophers of different traditions, with concentration on Plato, Marx, 
Rawls, and Nozick. Topics include rights, justice, equality, private property, the state, 
the common good, and the relation of individuals to society. P — One 200-level course 
in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

171. Space and Time in Fact and Fiction. (4) Are space and time fundamentally dif- 
ferent? Are they properties of the physical world or of minds only? Are they finite or 
infinite in extension and duration? Other questions cover problems and paradoxes in 
the concept of space and in the concept of time travel. 

371. Philosophy of Art. (4) A critical examination of several philosophies of art, with 
emphasis upon the application of these theories to particular works of art. P — One 200- 
level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

372. Philosophy of Religion. (4) An analysis of the logic of religious language and 
belief, including an examination of religious experience, mysticism, revelation, and 
arguments for the nature and existence of God. P — One 200-level course in philosophy 
or permission of instructor. 

373. Philosophy of Science. (4) A systematic and critical examination of major views 
concerning the methods of scientific inquiry, and the bases, goals, and implications of 
the scientific conclusions which result from such inquiry. P — One 200-level course in 
philosophy or permission of instructor. 

374. Philosophy of Mind. (4) A selection from the following topics: the mind-body 
problem; personal identity; the unity of consciousness; minds and machines; the 
nature of experience; action, intention, and the will. Readings from classical and 
contemporary sources. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

381. Topics in Epistemology. (4) The sources, scope and structure of human knowl- 
edge. Topics include: skepticism; perception, memory, and reason; the definition of 
knowledge; the nature of justification; theories of truth. P — One 200-level course in 
philosophy or permission of instructor. 



156 

382. Topics in Metaphysics. (4) P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission 
of instructor. 

Group VII - Honors and Independent Study 

391. Honors I. (2) Directed study and research in preparation for writing a major 
paper. Must be taken in the fall semester of the senior year. P — Admission to the 
honors program in philosophy. 

392. Honors II. (2) Completion of the project begun in Philosophy 391. Requires 
defense of the paper in an oral examination conducted by at least two members of the 
department. Taken in the spring semester of the senior year. P — Philosophy 391. 

395. Independent Study. (2-4) 

Physics 

Howard W. Shields, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Richard T. Williams 

Professors Robert W. Brehme, George M. Holzwarth, William C. Kerr, 

George Eric Matthews, Howard W. Shields, George P. Williams Jr. 

Associate Professor Natalie A. W. Holzwarth 

Assistant Professor Paul R. Anderson 

Adjunct Professor George B. Cvijanovich 

Adjunct Associate Professor C. Anne Wallen 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Peter Santago 

The program for each student majoring in physics is developed through consulta- 
tion with the student's major adviser and may lead to either a bachelor of arts or a 
bachelor of science degree. The BA degree requires a minimum of basic physics 
courses and allows a wide selection of electives related to the student's interests in 
other disciplines. The BS degree is designed to prepare students for careers in physics, 
perhaps beginning with graduate study. 

The bachelor of arts degree in physics requires thirty-seven credits in physics and 
must include courses 141, 161, 164, 341, 343, and 345, and two from 230, 351, 352, and 
354. The bachelor of science degree in physics requires forty-six credits in physics and 
must include courses 311, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, and 346. In special cases the 
department may allow substitutions. For either degree, two courses in chemistry or 
the equivalent and Mathematics 251 are required; Mathematics 301, 302, 303, and 304 
are recommended. 

A typical schedule for the first two years: 

Freshman Sophomore 

Basic and divisional requirements Basic and divisional requirements 

Physics 113, 114 Physics 141, 161, 164 

Mathematics 111,112 Mathematics 251, 301, 302 
Foreign Language 



157 

If this sequence is followed, the physics major maybe completed with considerable 
flexibility in exercising various options, such as the five year BA/MS program. This 
saves time, and the outstanding student may qualify for a tuition scholarship in the 
senior year of the five-year program. A candidate for the 3-2 engineering program 
would also complete three years of the physics major BS program prior to transfer. 
(Consult the chair for additional information on these five-year programs.) 

A minor in physics requires twenty-four credits including Physics 113, 114, 161, 164, 
341, and 230. Students interested in the minor should so advise the instructor of the 
second-year course. 

If physics is not taken in the freshman year, the degree requirements in physics may 
still be completed by the end of the senior year if a beginning course is taken in the 
sophomore year. No student may be a candidate for a degree with a major in physics 
with a grade less than C in general physics without special permission of the 
department. 

Physics courses satisfying Division II requirements must be taken at Wake Forest. 

Satisfactory completion of the laboratory work is required for a passing grade in all 
courses with a laboratory. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in physics through the major adviser. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Physics," students must complete satisfactorily Physics 381 
and pass a comprehensive written examination. 

105. Descriptive Astronomy. (4) An introductory study of the universe, from the solar 
system to the galaxies. No lab. Does not satisfy Division II requirements. 

109. Astronomy. (5) An introductory study of the universe consisting of descriptive 
astronomy, the historical development of astronomical theories, and astrophysics. 
Knowledge of basic algebra and trigonometry is required. Lab — two hours. 

110. Introductory Physics. (5) A conceptual, non-calculus one-semester survey of the 
essentials of physics, including mechanics, wave motion, heat, sound, electricity, 
magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Not recommended for pre-medical, math- 
ematics or science students. Credit not allowed for both 110 and 113. Lab — two hours. 

113, 114. General Physics. (5,5) Essentials of mechanics, wave motion, heat, sound, 
electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics treated with some use of calculus. 
Recommended for science, mathematics, and pre-medical students. C — Mathematics 
111 or equivalent. P — 113 is prerequisite for 114. Lab — two hours. 

141. Elementary Modern Physics. (4) The development of twentieth century physics 
and an introduction to quantum ideas. P — Physics 113 and Mathematics 111. 

161. Applied Mechanics. (5) The fundamental principles of mechanics. Lab — three 
hours. P — Physics 113 and Mathematics 111 or equivalent. 

164. Introductory Electricity. (1) Introduction to electronics instrumentation, DC and 
AC circuits, operational amplifiers, and transistors. A two-hour laboratory. 

230. Electronics. (4) Introduction to the theory and application of transistors and 
electronic circuits. Lab — three hours. P — Physics 164 or equivalent. 



158 

301, 302. Physics Seminar. (0,0) Discussion of contemporary research, usually with 
visiting scientists. Attendance required of junior and senior physics majors. 

311. Mechanics. (4) A junior/ senior level treatment of analytic classical mechanics. 
P — Physics 161 and Mathematics 251. 

320. The Physics of Macromolecules. (4) The physics of polymers, especially proteins 
and nucleic acids, including the molecular basis for their secondary and tertiary 
structure. P — Physics 351 or Chemistry 341 or Biology 371. 

330. Data Acquisition and Analysis. (4) Advanced treatment of computer interfacing, 
signal processing methods, non-ideal integrated circuit behavior, and data reduction 
and fitting procedures. P — Physics 130, 230. 

341, 342. Electricity and Magnetism. (4,4) First semester: electrostatics, magnetostatics, 
dielectric and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations. Second semester: applica- 
tions of Maxwell's equations to radiation, reflection, refraction, dispersion, polarization, 
transmission lines, plasmas, relativistic 4- vector formalism. P — Physics 114, Math- 
ematics 251; 341 is prerequisite to 342. 

343, 344. Quantum Physics. (4,4) Application of the elementary principles of quantum 
mechanics to atomic, molecular, solid state, and nuclear physics. P — Physics 141 and 
Mathematics 251. 




The Olin Physical Laboratory contains an enlarged laser physics lab. 



159 

345, 346. Advanced Physics Laboratory. (1,1) The laboratory associated with Physics 
343, 344. Lai) — three hours. 

351. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. (4) Introduction to classical and 
statistical thermodynamics and distribution functions. 

352. Physical Optics and Optical Design. (5) Interaction of light with materials; dif- 
fraction and coherent optics; ray trace methods of optical design. Lab — three hours. 

354. Introduction to Solid State Physics. (4) A survey of the structure, composition, 
physical properties, and technological applications of condensed matter. P — Physics 
343. 

381, 382. Research. (2-4, 2-4) Library, conference, computation and laboratory work 
performed on an individual basis. 

Politics 

Jack D. Fleer, Chair 

Professors David B. Broyles, Jack D. Fleer, 

Donald O. Schoonmaker, Richard D. Sears 

Associate Professors Katy J. Harriger, Charles H. Kennedy, Kathleen B. Smith 

Assistant Professors Brian F. Crisp, Wei-chin Lee, David P. Weinstein 

Visiting Professor Jerry Pubantz 

Visiting Assistant Professor James Willson-Quayle 

In its broadest conception, the aim of the study of politics is to understand the way 
in which policy for a society is formulated and executed and to understand the moral 
standards by which policy is or ought to be set. This center of interest is often described 
alternatively as the study of power, of government, of the state, or of human relations 
in their political context. For teaching purposes, the study of politics has been divided 
by the department into the following fields: (1) American politics, (2) comparative 
politics, (3) political philosophy, and (4) international politics. Introductory courses in 
these fields provide broad and flexible approaches to studying political life. 

The major in politics consists of thirty-six credits, at least half of which must be 
completed at Wake Forest University. The courses must include the following: (a) a 
first course selected from Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116; (b) any non-seminar course in 
each of the four fields of the discipline except Politics 284, 285, 287, 288, 289; (c) one 
seminar in politics (usually a student takes no more than one seminar in each field and 
no more than three seminars overall). No more than four credits for any one or any 
combination of the following courses may be counted toward the thirty-six credits 
required for the major: Politics 287, 288, and 289. A minimum grade average of C on 
all courses attempted in politics is required for graduation. Majors should consult 
with their advisers concerning additional regulations. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in politics. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Poli- 
tics," one must successfully complete Politics 284 and 285. Politics 284 and 285 must 



160 

be taken as additional courses beyond the thirty-six credits ordinarily required. For 
additional information members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

The minor in politics consists of twenty credits, including Politics 1 13 but excluding 
individual study and seminar courses. No more than eight credits maybe from among 
the following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. Sixteen of the credits must be taken 
at Wake Forest and any transfer courses must be approved by the chair. None of the 
courses may be taken pass /fail. 

A student who selects politics to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one 
of the following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. Students who are not majors in 
politics may take upper level courses as electives without having had lower-level 
courses, unless a prerequisite is specified. 

American Politics 

113. American Government and Politics. (4) The nature of politics, political prin- 
ciples, and political institutions, with emphasis on their application to the United 
States. 

210. Major Topics in Public Policy. (2,3, or 4) A study of major policies on the current 
public agenda in the United States, including consideration of alternative policy 
responses and the politics which surround them. Possible topics include the politics 
of poverty and welfare, medical care, education, crime, and energy. Credit varies with 
the number of topics studied. 

211. Political Parties and Voting Behavior. (4) An examination of party competition, 
party organizations, the electorate and electoral activities of parties, and the respon- 
sibilities of parties for governing. 

213. Public Administration. (4) Introduction to the study of public administration 
emphasizing policymaking in government agencies. 

215. Democracy and Public Policymaking. (4) An examination of the role and re- 
sponsibilities of citizens in democratic policymaking. Includes discussion of demo- 
cratic theory, emphasis on a policy issue of national importance (i.e. poverty, crime, 
environment), and involvement of students in projects that examine the dimension of 
the issue in their community. P — Permission of instructor. 

217. Politics and the Mass Media. (4) Exploration of the relationship between the 
political system and the mass media. Two broad concerns will be the regulation of the 
mass media and the impact of media on political processes and events. 

218. Congress and Policymaking. (4) An examination of the composition, authority 
structures, external influences, and procedures of Congress with emphasis on their 
implications for policymaking in the United States. 

219. Fundamentals of Public Policy Analysis. (4) Fundamentals of public policy 
analysis with emphasis on techniques of decision-making such as cost benefit analysis 
and utility analysis. Each student will participate in a major collective research project 
centered on a local issue. 



161 

220. The American Presidency. (4) Emphasis on the office and the role; contributions 
by contemporary presidents considered in perspective. 

222. Urban Problems and Politics. (4) Political structures and processes in American 
cities and suburbs as they relate to the social, economic, and political problems of the 
metropolis. 

223. Blacks in American Politics. (4) A survey of selected topics, including black 
political participation, political organizations, political leadership, and political is- 
sues. It will also show the relationship of these phenomena to American political 
institutions and processes as a whole. 

225. American Constitutional Law: Separation of Powers and the Federal System. 

(4) An analysis of Supreme Court decisions affecting the three branches of the national 
government and federal/ state relations. Not open to freshmen. 

226. American Constitutional Law: Civil Liberties. (4) Judicial interpretations of First 
Amendment freedoms, racial equality, and the rights of the criminally accused. Not 
open to freshmen. 

227. Politics, Law, and Courts. (4) Analysis of the nature and role of law in American 
society and the structure and procedure of American courts. Questions of judicial 
organization, personnel, and decision-making, as well as the impact of law and court 
decisions on the social order, are explored at local, state, and national levels. 

229. Women and Politics. (4) The course will examine classical and contemporary 
arguments regarding the participation of women in politics as well as current policy 
issues and changes in women's political participation. 

Comparative Politics 

114. Comparative Government and Politics. (4) A survey of political processes and 
principles as applied to traditional, developing, and mature states. 

231. Western European Politics. (4) Analysis of the political systems of Great Britain, 
France, and Italy, focusing primarily on the problems of stable democracy. 

232. Government and Politics in the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the 
Transitional Period. (4) Analysis of the political, economic, and social trends of the 
region with an emphasis on state building and economic development. 

233. The Politics of Modern Germany. (4) A study of the historical legacy, the political 
behavior, and governmental institutions of contemporary Germany (newly unified 
Germany). 

236. Government and Politics in Latin America. (4) Comparative analysis of the in- 
stitutions and processes of politics in the Latin American region. 

237. Comparative Public Policy in Selected Industrialized Democracies. (4) An in- 
vestigation of the public policy choices involving such matters as health, education, 
and income maintenance plans in selected Western European countries. The origins, 



162 

development, trends of the "welfare state" will be examined in Great Britain, West 
Germany, and Sweden. 

238. Comparative Economic Development and Political Change. (4) An overview of 
the relationship between economic development, socio-structural change, and poli- 
tics since the creation of the international capitalist system in the sixteenth century. 
The course is organized around case studies of what we now recognize as industrial- 
ized democracies, evolving Communist systems and command economies, and 
"Third World" countries. 

242. Problems in Comparative Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems in contemporary comparative politics. 

244. Politics and Literature. (2,3, or 4) An examination of how literature can extend 
our knowledge of politics and political systems. The course considers the insights of 
selected novelists, such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Heinrich Boll, Robert Penn War- 
ren, George Orwell, and Gabriel Garcia Marquez. 

246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) A survey of major issues relevant to 
politics and policy in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. 

247. Islam and Politics. (4) The course explores the interrelationship of Islam and 
politics in the contemporary world. The course has two main foci. The first deals with 
Islam as a political ideology which shapes the structure of political institutions and 
behavior. The second looks at Islam in practice by examining the interaction between 
Islam and the political systems of Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and others. 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in China (People's Republic of China and Republic of China). Emphasis on 
group conflict, elites, ideology, as well as current policy changes in the process of 
modernization. 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in Japan. Attention also is given to the relationship between politics and 
economics. 

International Politics 

116. International Politics. (4) A survey of the forces which shape relations among 
states and some of the major problems of contemporary international politics. 

250. Global Crises. (4) An introductory survey of the major current issues in interna- 
tional affairs. Students learn how to effectively read and criticize materials and present 
critiques in oral and written fashion. 

252. Problems in International Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems of contemporary international politics. 

253. The Politics of International Economic Relations. (4) A study of the emergence 
of international economic transactions, including trade, monetary affairs, investment, 
and multinational corporations, as a central aspect of world politics. 



163 

254. American Foreign Policy: Contemporary Problems. (4) A critical examination of 
different methods of studying American foreign policy and of selected policies 
followed by the United States since the early 1960s. 

256. Nuclear Weapons and National Security. (2 or 4) An analysis of the strategic, 
political, and moral implications of nuclear weapons as instruments of national 
policy. Both American and Soviet perspectives will be considered and special atten- 
tion will be given to contemporary debates over the possession and control of nuclear 
weapons. 

258. U.S. National Security Policymaking. (4) A critical analysis of how U.S. national 
security policy is made with particular emphasis on the period 1960 to present. 

259. The Arab-Israeli Confrontation. (4) An analysis of factors influencing the rela- 
tionship between Israel and its neighbors relative to fundamental aspects of United 
States, Israeli, Palestinian, and Arab states policies. 

260. East Asian International Relations. (4) An analytical survey of the bilateral and 
multilateral political relations of the East Asian states, with particular emphasis on the 
security relations and economic interactions. 

267. America in Vietnam: Myth and Reality. (4) An analysis of American policy 
towards Vietnam with special emphasis on the period of 1954-75. The focus will be on 
the relationship between American policies and the problems posed by Vietnamese 
and American cultures. 

Political Philosophy 

115. Political Philosophy. (4) A survey of major systematic statements of the rules and 
principles of political life. Representative writers are Tocqueville, Dahl, and Aristotle. 

270. Topics in Political Theory. (4) An intensive study of one or more major topics in 
political theory. 

271. Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy. (4) An examination of the 
nature and goals of the classical position, with attention to its origins in ancient Athens 
and its diffusion through Rome. Representative writers are Plato, Aristotle, and 
Cicero. 

273. Radical Critiques of Political Society. (4) Anarchist, socialist, and communist 
criticisms of and alternatives to existing political societies, with special attention to 
such problems as utopianism and alienation. Representative writers are Marx and 
Nietzsche. 

274. Noble Greeks and Romans. (4) The good man and the good citizen as compre- 
hended in classical political philosophy. Representative writers are Aristotle, Plutarch, 
Aquinas, Shakespeare. 

275. American Political Philosophy. (4) Critical examination of the nature of the 
American polity as expressed by its founders and leading statesmen. Representative 
writers are the Federalists, Lincoln, modern political scientists, and radical critics. 



164 

278. Modern Political Philosophy. (4) Political thought in the period from Machiavelli 
to the present, including such topics as democracy, equality, liberty, radical theories, 
and /or the rise of "scientific" political theory. Representative writers include Hobbes, 
Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Marx and Heidegger. 

279. Contemporary Political Theory. (4) An examination of representative twentieth 
century political thinkers such as Arendt, Dewey, Foucault, Rawls, and Weber. 

Honors and Individual Study 

284. Honors Study. (3) Directed study and research in preparation for a major paper 
on a subject of special interest to the student. Taken in the fall semester of the senior 
year by all candidates for departmental honors. 

285. Honors Study. (2) Directed study toward completion of the project begun in 
Politics 284 and to the writing and defense of an honors paper. Taken in the spring 
semester of the senior year by all candidates for departmental honors. P — Politics 284. 

287. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) Intensive research leading to the completion of an 
analytical paper conducted under the direction of a faculty member. Students are 
responsible for initiating the project and securing the permission of an appropriate 
instructor. P — Permission of instructor. 

288. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. Students are responsible for initiating the project and securing the permis- 
sion of an appropriate instructor. P — Permission of instructor. 

289. Internship in Politics. (2,3, or 4) Field work in a public or private setting with 
related readings and an analytical paper under the direction of a faculty member. 
Students are responsible for initiating the project and securing the permission of an 
appropriate instructor. Normally one course in an appropriate sub field will have been 
taken prior to the internship. P — Permission of instructor. 

Seminars 

291. Seminar in American Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

293. Seminar in International Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

294. Seminar in Political Philosophy. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 



165 



Psychology 

John E. Williams, Chair 
Professors Robert C. Beck, Deborah L. Best, Robert H. Dufort, 

Mark R. Leary, Charles L. Richman, John E. Williams 

Associate Professors David W. Catron, Philippe R. Falkenberg, 

David Allen Hills, Cecilia H. Solano 

Assistant Professors Terry D. Blumenthal, Dale Dagenbach 

Visiting Assistant Professors Sarah S. Catron, Kelly B. Kyes, Catherine E. Seta 

Adjunct Professor W. Jack Rejeski Jr. 

Adjunct Associate Professors C. Drew Edwards, Jay R. Kaplan, Frank B. Wood 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Phillip G. Batten, Marianne A. Schubert, 

Carol A. Shively 
Adjunct Instructor Randall C. Kyes 

Psychology 151 is prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. Courses numbered 
below 151 do not count toward Division IV requirements or toward the major in 
psychology. Psychology 21 1, or special permission of the instructor, is prerequisite for 
all 300-level courses except 313, 335, 344, 357, 358, and 367. 

It is recommended that students who are considering psychology as a major take 
Psychology 151 in their freshman year and Psychology 21 1 no later than the fall of their 
junior year. An average of C or higher in psychology courses is required at the time 
the major is elected. The major in psychology requires the completion of a minimum 
of forty credits in psychology, including 151, 211, 212, and 313. In addition, the major 
student must complete at least one course from each of the following groups: 320, 326, 
329, 331, and 333; 341, 351, 355, and 362. No more than 48 psychology credits may be 
counted toward the graduation requirements of 144 credits. 

The minor in psychology requires twenty credits in psychology, distributed as 
follows: 151 (4 credits); 211 (5 credits); at least one of the following courses: 320, 326, 
329, 331, 333 (4 credits each); and seven additional credits in courses numbered 200 or 
above. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to participate in the honors 
program in psychology. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Psychology," 
the student must complete satisfactorily a special sequence of courses (381, 383) and 
pass an oral or written examination. In addition, the honors student normally has a 
non-credit research apprenticeship with a faculty member. For more detailed infor- 
mation, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

100. Learning to Learn. (2,3, or 4) A workshop designed primarily for first and second- 
year students who wish to improve their academic skills through the application of 
basic principles of learning, memory, organization, etc. Third and fourth-year stu- 
dents by permission of the instructor only. No prerequisites. Pass /fail only. 

102. Exploration of Career Planning. (2,3, or 4) Examination of educational /voca- 
tional planning as a personal process, based on knowledge of self and the work world. 
No prerequisite. 



166 

151. Introductory Psychology. (4) A systematic survey of psychology as the scientific 
study of behavior. Prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. 

211, 212. Research Methods in Psychology. (5, 5) Introduction to the design and 
statistical analysis of psychological research. Lab — twice weekly. P — Psychology 151 
and permission of instructor. 

239. Altered States of Consciousness. (4) Examination of altered states of conscious- 
ness with special reference to sleep and dreams, meditation, hypnosis, and drugs. P — 
Psychology 151. 

241. Developmental Psychology. (4) Survey of physical, emotional, cognitive, and 
social development in humans from conception to death. P — Psychology 151. 

245. Survey of Abnormal Behavior. (4) Study of problem behaviors such as depres- 
sion, alcoholism, antisocial personality, the schizophrenias, and pathogenic personal- 
ity patterns, with emphasis on causes, prevention, and the relationships of these 
disorders to normal lifestyles. P — Psychology 151. 

250. Psychology Abroad. (4) The study of psychology in foreign countries. Content 
and travel plans vary from year to year depending upon interests of faculty and 
students. Usually offered in summer. P — Psychology 151. 

255. Personality. (4) Survey of theory and research on the structure and function of 
human personality, with attention to the relationship to cognition, emotion, motiva- 
tion, and behavior. P — Psychology 151. 

260. Social Psychology. (4) A survey of the field, including theories of social behavior, 
interpersonal attraction, attitudes and attitude change, and group behavior. P — 
Psychology 151. 

265. Human Sexuality. (4) An exploration of the psychological and physiological 
aspects of human sexuality, with attention to sexual mores, sexual deviances, sexual 
dysfunction, and sex-related roles. P — Psychology 151. 

268. Psychology of Business and Industry. (4) Psychological principles and methods 
applied to problems commonly encountered in business and industry. P — Psychol- 
ogy 151. 

270. Topics in Psychology. (1,2, or 3) The student selects from among a group of short 
one-credit courses dealing with topics of special interest. The courses meet sequen- 
tially, not concurrently, and options are offered in each portion of the semester. P — 
Psychology 151. 

270R The Human Factor: Designing 

Your Own World 
270S Primate Cognition 
27 0T Psychological Impact of Racism 
270U The Self and Social Behavior 
270W Problem Solving and Decision Making 
27 OX Psychobiology 



270E 


Emotion 


270H 


Intelligence 


270} 


Memory 


270N 


Liking and Loving Relationships 


270P 


Animal Flying Behavior 


270Q 


Psychopha rmacology 



167 

280. Directed Study. (1-4) Student research performed under faculty supervision. P — 
Psychology 151 and approval of faculty member prior to registration. 

313. History and Systems of Psychology. (4) The development of psychological thought 
and research from ancient Greece to present trends, with emphasis on intensive 
examination of original sources. P — Two psychology courses beyond 151 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

320. Physiological Psychology. (4) Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical expla- 
nations of behavior. P — Psychology 211 or permission of instructor. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal 
behavior. This course may count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to be 
made at registration. P — Psychology or biology major or permission of instructor. 

326. Learning Theory and Research. (4) Survey of concepts and research in learning, 
with particular emphasis on recent developments. P — Psychology 211. 

329. Perception. (4) Survey of theory and research findings on various sensory 
systems (vision, hearing, touch, taste). P — Psychology 211. 

331. Cognition. (4) Current theory and research in cognitive processes. Emphasis on 
memory, attention, visual and auditory information processing, concept identifica- 
tion/formation, and language. P — Psychology 211. 

333. Motivation of Behavior. (4) Survey of basic motivational concepts and related 
evidence. P — Psychology 211. 

335. Fundamentals of Human Motivation. (4) Description and analysis of some fun- 
damental motivational phenomena, with special reference to human problems; in- 
cludes reward and punishment, conflict anxiety, affection, needs for achievement and 
power, aggression, creativity, and curiosity. P — Psychology 151. 

341. Research in Child Development. (4) Methodological issues and selected research 
in child development. Research projects required. P — Psychology 211. 

344. Abnormal Psychology. (4) Descriptive analysis of the major types of abnormal 
behavior with attention to organic, psychological, and cultural causes and major 
modes of therapy. Offered in the summer. P — Psychology 151. 

346. Psychological Disorders of Childhood. (4) Survey of problems including con- 
duct disorders, attention deficits disorders, depression, and autism. Emphasis on 
causes, prevention, treatment, and the relationships of disorders to normal child 
development and family life. P — Psychology 245 or 344 or permission of instructor. 

351. Personality Research. (4) The application of a variety of research procedures to 
the study of human personality. Research projects required. P — Psychology 211. 

355. Research in Social Psychology. (4) Methodological issues and selected research 
in the study of the human as a social animal. Research projects required. P — 
Psychology 211. 



168 

357. Cross-Cultural Psychology. (4) An examination of differences in psychological 
processes (e.g., attitudes, perception, mental health, organizational behavior) associ- 
ated with cultural variation. P — Psychology 151. 

358. Psychology of Woman. (4) Intensive study of the behavior of women and its 
personal application, including consideration of biological, social, and motivational 
factors. P — Psychology 151. 

362. Psychological Tests and Measurements. (4) Theory and application of psycho- 
logical assessment procedures in the areas of intelligence, aptitude, vocational inter- 
est, and personality. P — Psychology 211. 

363. Survey of Clinical Psychology. (4) An overview of the field of clinical psychol- 
ogy. P — Psychology 245 and senior standing or permission of instructor. 

367. Effectiveness in Parent/Child Relations. (4) A survey of popular approaches to 
child-rearing, with examination of the research literature on parent/child interaction 
and actual training in parental skills. P — Psychology 151. 

381. Honors Seminar. (3) Seminar on selected problems in psychology. Intended 
primarily for students in the departmental honors program. P — Psychology 211 and 
permission of instructor. 

383. Honors Research. (3) Seminar in selected issues in research design, followed by 
independent empirical research under the supervision of a member of the departmen- 
tal faculty. P — Psychology 211 and permission of instructor. 

392. Contemporary Problems in Psychology. (4) Seminar treatment of current theory 
and research in several "frontier" areas of psychology. Principally for senior majors 
planning to attend graduate school. P — Psychology 211 and senior standing. 




169 

Religion 

Fred L. Horton Jr., Chair and Albritton Professor 

Easley Professor Ralph C. Wood Jr. 

University Professor James A. Martin 

Wake Forest Professor Charles H. Talbert 

Professor John E. Collins 

Associate Professor Stephen B. Boyd 

Adjunct Associate Professor Thomas E. Dougherty Jr. 

Assistant Professors Kenneth G. Hoglund, Judith W. Kay, 

Alton B. Pollard III, Ulrike Wiethaus 

Visiting Assistant Professor Philip LeMasters 

Visiting Lecturer Thomas P. Liebschutz 

The department offers courses designed to give every student an opportunity to 
acquire at least an introduction to the field of religion. 

A course in religion is required for all degrees. Any four credits at the 100-level 
offered by the department is accepted to meet the Division III requirement. 

A major in religion requires a minimum of thirty-two credits, at least half of which 
must be in courses above the 100-level. 

A minor in religion requires twenty credits, eight of which must be above the 100- 
level. The required courses may include one pass /fail course if the course is offered 
on the pass / fail basis only. The department will provide advisers for students electing 
the minor in religion. 

Pre-seminary students are advised to include in their program of study, in addition 
to courses in religion, courses in psychology, history, public speaking, and at least two 
languages (Hebrew, Greek, Latin, German, or French). 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in religion. To graduate with the designation," Honors in Religion," 
a student must apply to the department chair for admission to the honors program, 
normally by February of the junior year. Upon completion of all the requirements, the 
candidate may graduate with "Honors in Religion." For additional information, 
consult any member of the departmental faculty. 

111. Introduction to the Old Testament. (4) A survey of the Old Testament designed 
to introduce the student to the history, literature, and religion of the ancient Hebrews. 

112. Introduction to the New Testament. (4) A survey of the literature of the New 
Testament in the context of early Christian history. 

120. Introduction to the Bible. (4) A consideration of prominent themes found in the 
Old and New Testaments. 

131. Basic Christian Ethics. (4) A study of prominent themes, figures, and issues in 
Christian ethics, with attention to selected contemporary problems. 

151. Religion and Society. (4) A study of religion as a social phenomenon and its 
relationship to the structures of society — political, economic, and others, with special 
focus on the contemporary United States. (Same as Sociology 301.) 



170 

161. World Religions. (2,2,2,2) An introductory study of major religious traditions 
with an emphasis on the fundamental teachings of selected sacred texts. 

262 (a) Buddhism 

161 (b) Primal Religion (Taoism and Native American) 

161 (c) Hinduism 

161 (d) Islam 

164. The Formation of the Christian Tradition. (4) A survey of the history of the 
Christian church from its origins to the Reformation. 

165. History of Christianity in Modern Times. (4) A survey of the history of the 
Christian church from the Reformation to the present. 

166. American Religious Life. (4) A study of the history, organization, worship and 
beliefs of American religious bodies, with particular attention to cultural factors. 

171, 172. Meaning and Value in Western Thought. (4,4) A critical survey of religion 
and philosophy in the Western world from antiquity to modern times. Either Religion 
171 or 172 satisfies the philosophy or religion requirement; both 171 and 172 satisfy 
both the philosophy and religion requirements; choice made at registration. 

173. Basic Christian Beliefs. (4) An introduction to the language of Christian faith, its 
central images and doctrines, its root narratives and practices, and its essential terms 
and truths. 

177. Faith and Imagination. (4) A study of modern writers, including C.S. Lewis and 
J.R.R. Tolkien, who seek to retell the Christian story in imaginative terms. 

209. The Pre-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteristics, 
function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Samuel through 
Jeremiah. 

210. The Post-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteristics, 
function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Ezekiel to the 
end of the Old Testament era. 

212. The Wisdom Literature. (2) An introduction to the Wisdom Literature of the Old 
Testament, with special attention to Proverbs. 

217. Old Testament Apocrypha. (2) Reading of the books of the Apocrypha, with 
special attention to their origin and significance, and with a consideration of the 
ambivalence of Judaism and Christianity toward this literature. 

218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World. (4) Travel and study in such countries as 
Greece, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. 

235. Passion, Mind, and Power. (4) An examination of the relation between emotion, 
reason, and will in Christian ethical theory, ancient to modern, including feminist. 

261. Judaism in the First Three Centuries of the Common Era. (4) A study of the 
development of Rabbinic Judaism out of the sects and movements of first century 
Judaism. 



171 

262. Contemporary Judaism. (2) A survey of Judaism today, including a study of some 
major religious, political, and literary figures. 

263. Contemporary Catholicism. (2) An introduction to recent thought and practice 
in the Roman Catholic Church. 

266. Religious Sects and Cults. (4) An examination of certain religious sects in 
America, including such groups as Jehovah's Witnesses, communal groups, and 
contemporary movements. 

267. The Baptists. (2) A survey of Baptist history, thought, and polity, including an 
examination of various Baptist groups and a study of important controversies. 

270. Theology and Modern Literature. (4) An introduction to such modern theolo- 
gians as Karl Barth and Reinhold Niebuhr, and to literary figures who share their 
concerns, including Flannery O'Connor and Walker Percy. 

273. Studies in Ecumenical Theology. (4) A study of various images and models of the 
church, their interrelationships and implication for ecumenism. 

277. Christian Literary Classics. (4) A study of Christian texts which are masterpieces 
of literature as well as faith, including works by Augustine, Dante, Pascal, Bunyan, 
Milton, and Newman. 

282. Honors in Religion. (4) A conference course including directed reading and the 
writing of a research project. 

286, 287. Directed Reading. (1-4, 1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise 
available in the department. P — Permission of instructor. 

292. Teaching Religion. (4) A study of the teaching of religion in church, school, and 
community. 

300. Meaning of Religion. (4) A phenomenological study of different ways of defining 
religion, including the views of representative philosophers, psychologists, sociolo- 
gists, anthropologists, theologians, and historians of religion. 

301. Myth. (4) A study of the approaches to the interpretation of myth, with a focus on 
the meaning and values implicit in the myths of contemporary culture. 

302. Mysticism. (4) A study of mysticism from a multi-religious perspective, with 
emphasis on the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon. 

303. Religion and Science. (4) An examination of the ways in which religion and 
science have conflicted with, criticized, and complemented one another in the history 
of Western thought from Galileo to the present. 

310. The Prophetic Literature. (4) An examination of the development and theological 
contents of the literary products of Israel's prophetic movement. 

311. Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible. (2,4) A study of Hebrew poetry in English 
translation with special attention to its types, its literary and rhetorical characteristics, 



172 

and its importance for our understanding of the religion and culture of ancient Israel. 
(The first half of the course may be taken for two credits and is a prerequisite for the 
second half.) 

312. The Critical Study of the Pentateuch. (4) A study of the five traditional books of 
Moses (the Torah) and the various lines of analysis that modern Biblical critics have 
used to interpret their composition and role in the development of Israelite theological 
thought. 

313. Near Eastern Archeology. (4) A survey of twentieth century archeology in the 
Near East with attention to its importance for Biblical studies. 

314. Ancient Israel and Her Neighbors. (2) A study of ancient Near Eastern archeol- 
ogy with special emphasis on Israel's relationships with surrounding peoples. 

315. 316. Field Research in Biblical Archeology. (4,4) A study of the religion and 
culture of the ancient Near East through the excavation and interpretation of an 
ancient site. 

319. Visions of the End: Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. (4) Reading and study of 
Daniel. Revelation and certain non-Biblical apocalyptic texts. 

320. Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels. (4) A study of Jesus' proclamation and activity 
in light of modern critical research on the Gospels. 

321. The Quest for the Historical Jesus. (4) An investigation of the possibility and 
relevance of historical knowledge about Jesus through a consideration of the seminal 
"Lives of Jesus" since the eighteenth century. 

322. The General Epistles. (4) An exegetical study of two or more of the general 
Epistles, with emphasis on the setting of the Epistles in the life of the Early Church. 

326. Early Christian Theologians: Paul. (4) An introduction to the Pauline interpre- 
tation of Christianity and its place in the life of the Early Church. 

327. Early Christian Theologians: The Fourth Evangelist. (4) An examination of the 
Johannine interpretation of Jesus and the Christian faith. 

328. The New Testament and Ethics. (4) A study of selected ethical issues in the New 
Testament within the context of Mediterranean culture. 

332. Christian Ethics and Leadership. (2) A study of the moral practice of leadership 
from Christian and secular perspectives, with particular attention to the use of power 
and authority. 

333. Christian Ethics and the Professions. (2) A study of the nature of the professions 
in contemporary society, their foundational ethical suppositions, and the significance 
of being Christian for professional conduct. 

334. Christian Approaches to Bio-Medical Ethics. (4) An examination of Catholic and 
Protestant understandings of life and death, with analysis of ethical issues in the 
context of the U.S. health-care system. 



173 

336. Roman Catholic and Protestant Ethics. (4) A study and comparison of Catholic 
natural law ethics and Protestant responsibility ethics. 

338. Ethics in Feminist Perspective. (4) A study of the implications of feminist the- 
ologies, social theories, and views of human nature for ethical theory and practice. 

341. Civil Rights and Black Consciousness Movements. (4) A social and religious 
history of the African-American struggle for citizenship rights and freedom from 
World War II to the present. (Same as History 376.) 

342. Religion, Culture, and Modernity. (4) An inquiry into the origins and develop- 
ment of modernity as idea and ideology, with special emphasis on its significance for 
non- Western social and religious movements. 

343. The City as Symbol. (4) A study of the city, past and present, as a unique 
repository and symbol of human values and aspirations. 

345. The African- American Religious Experience. (4) An exploration of the religious 
dimensions of African-American life from its African antecedents to contemporary 
figures and movements. 

346. Theological Foundations of Religious Education. (4) A study of theological 
methodology, theories of learning, and philosophies of education in terms of their 
implications for religious education. 

347. The Emerging Church in the Two-Thirds World. (4) An investigation of con- 
temporary Christian communities in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America 
with special attention to theological, political, and economic activities. 

350. Psychology of Religion. (4) An examination of the psychological elements in the 
origin, development, and expression of religious experience. 

354. Religious Development of the Individual. (4) A study of growth and develop- 
ment through childhood and adolescence to adulthood, with emphasis on the role of 
the home and the church in religious education. 

355. Theology of Pastoral Care and Counseling. (4) A study of the relationship be- 
tween theology and the purpose, theories, and methods of pastoral care. 

360. Hinduism. (4) An advanced study of the Hindu tradition. Permission of instructor. 

361. Buddhism. (4) An advanced study of the Buddhist tradition and its impact on the 
culture of Asia. Permission of instructor required. 

362. Zen Buddhism. (4) The history and teaching of Zen. 

363. Hellenistic Religions. (4) Consideration of available source materials, questions 
of method, and bibliography related to such Hellenistic religions as the mysteries, 
Hellenistic Judaism, and Gnosticism. 

364. Islam. (4) An advanced study of Islamic thought and the historical context of its 
development. Both ancient and contemporary impact of the teachings of Islam 
considered. Permission of instructor required. 



174 

365. History of Religions in America. (4) A study of American religions from colonial 
times until the present. 

366. Gender and Religion. (4) An examination of the historical and contemporary 
interaction between religion and sex roles, sexism, and sexuality. 

367. The Mystics of the Church. (4) A historical study of the lives and thought of 
selected Christian mystics with special attention to their religious experience. 

368. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations. (4) A study of the origin and devel- 
opment of Reformation theology and ecclesiology. 

369. Radical Christian Movements. (4) A study of selected radical movements in the 
Christian tradition and their relation to contemporary issues. 

372. History of Christian Thought. (2,4) A study of the history of Christian thought, 
beginning with its Hebraic and Greek backgrounds and tracing its rise and develop- 
ment to modern times. The course may be divided into halves for two credits each. 

372 (a) Patristic Thought 

372 (b) Medieval and Reformation Thought 

374. Contemporary Christian Thought. (4) An examination of the major issues and 
personalities in modern theology. 

375. Major Themes in Catholic Theology. (4) A detailed examination of the central 
themes of Christian theology through the study of major Roman Catholic theologians. 

376. The Origins of Existentialism. (4) A study of the principal nineteenth century 
figures who form the background for twentieth century existentialism: Goethe, 
Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy. 

377. The Problem of Evil from Job to Shakespeare. (4) A comparative analysis of the 
source and remedy of evil in Job, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Plato, Dante, and Shakespeare. 

378. Aesthetics and Religion. (4) An examination of aesthetic and religious theories 
of selected thinkers, noting what the arts and religion have in common as modes of 
perception and expression. 

380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) An introduction to 
the most important traditions in Chinese philosophy and religion: Confucianism, 
Daoism (Taoism), and Chinese Buddhism or Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism. (Same as 
Philosophy 226.) 

Hebrew 

111, 112. Elementary Hebrew. (4,4) A course for beginners in the classical Hebrew of 
the Bible, with emphasis on the principles of Hebrew grammar and the reading of 
Biblical texts. Both semesters must be completed. 

153. Intermediate Hebrew. (4) Intensive work in Hebrew grammar and syntax based 
upon the readings of selected texts. Readings emphasize post-Biblical Hebrew. P — 
Hebrew 111, 112, or the equivalent. 



175 

211. Hebrew Literature. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical Hebrew 
texts. P — Hebrew 153. 

212. Hebrew Literature II. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical and 
post-Biblical texts. Offered on demand. P — Hebrew 153. 

301. Introduction to Semitic Languages. (4) A study of the history and structure of 
four languages from the Hamito-Semitic family. 

302. Akkadian 1.(4) An analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax of the East 
Semitic languages of the ancient Near East as they relate to the larger family of Semitic 
languages. On demand. 

303. Akkadian 11.(4) A continuation of Akkadian 302 with further emphasis on 
building expertise in vocabulary and syntax through the reading of texts from the 
Middle Babylonian period. On demand. 

Romance Languages 

Byron R. Wells, Chair 

Professors Kathleen M. Glenn, Milorad Margitic, Candelas M. Newton 

Associate Professors Mary L. Friedman, Antonio Vitti, 

Byron R. Wells, M. Stanley Whitley 

Assistant Professors Jane W. Albrecht, Gunnar Anderson, Sarah E. Barbour, 

Debra Boyd-Buggs, Constance Dickey, Ramiro Fernandez, Judy K. Kem, 

Linda S. Maier, Stephen Murphy, Juan Orbe, Kari Weil 

Lecturer Eva Marie Rodtwitt 

Instructors Guy M. Arcuri, David M. Glass, Anna Krauth, Bill B. Raines, 

Jennifer Sault, Walter W. Shaw, Alison T. Smith, 

Anna- Vera Sullam (Venice), Florence Toy 

The major in French literature requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above 
French 213. French 216, 217, 219, and 221 or their equivalents are required, as are four 
additional literature courses. The major in French language and culture requires a 
minimum of thirty-six credits above French 213. French 216, 217, 219, 221, 223, 224, 228 
or their equivalents are required. History 321 and 322 are recommended. An average 
of at least C must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in French language and culture requires twenty credits in French above 
French 213. It includes French 219, 221, 224, or their equivalents. The minor in French 
literature requires twenty credits in French literature above French 213. 

The major in Spanish requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above Spanish 214. 
Spanish 217, 218, 219, 221, 223, 224, or their equivalents, plus one additional advanced 
course in Spanish literature and one in Spanish-American literature are required. 
Spanish 181, 1829, and 187 may not count toward the major. An average of at least C 
must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in Spanish language and culture requires twenty credits in Spanish 
above Spanish 214. It includes 217 or 218, plus 219, 221, 223, and 224. The minor in 



176 

Hispanic literature requires twenty credits in Spanish above Spanish 214. It includes 
217 and 218, plus three additional advanced courses in Spanish and Spanish-Ameri- 
can literature. For both Spanish minors, with departmental approval, equivalent 
courses may be selected from the programs in Salamanca or Bogota, and certain other 
substitutions may be made. 

The minor in Italian language and culture requires twenty credits in Italian above 
Italian 153. It includes Italian 215, 216, 219, 221, and 224 or their equivalents. An 
average of at least C must be earned in all courses taken in the minor. 

All majors are strongly urged to take advantage of the department's study abroad 
programs. (French majors are urged to live for at least a semester at the French House, 
a foreign language theme house for students of French.) 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in French or Spanish. To be graduated with the designation "Honors 
in Romance Languages," a candidate must complete French or Spanish 280 and 281 
and pass a comprehensive written and oral examination. The oral examination may 
be conducted, at least in part, in the major language. For additional information, 
members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

French 

111, 112. Elementary French. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering the principles of 
French grammar and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary 
texts. Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary French. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements 
of grammar and skills presented in French 111, 112. Intended for students whose 
preparation for French 153 is inadequate. Not open to students who have received 
credit for French 112. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate French. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice in 
conversation. Reading of selected texts. Lab required. P — French 112, 113, or two 
years of high school French and placement. 

153x. Intermediate French. (4) Open to students by placement or permission. Lab 
required. 

164. A Classic in Comedy. (2 or 4) Participants plan and present a production of a 
French comedy. The play is rehearsed and performed in French; students are involved 
in all aspects of production. For four credits, students also read and discuss other 
dramatic works. Course may be repeated for credit, but only four credits may be 
counted toward the major. P — Permission of instructor. 

1 81 . Swiss French Civilization. (4) The course is designed to acquaint the student with 
the Swiss people and their civilization by living for a few weeks with families. Visits 
are made to points of cultural, historical, literary, and artistic interest. A journal and 
a paper describing in detail some aspect of Swiss French civilization, both in French, 
are required. Usually offered in the summer. 



177 

185. Paris, Cultural Center of France. (4) A study of Paris monuments on location to 
explore the development of the city as capital and cultural center of France. No 
prerequisites. Usually offered in the summer. 

199. French Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of the department. 

213. Introduction to French Literature. (4) Reading of selected texts in French. Par- 
ticular periods, genres, and authors may vary from section to section. Parallel reading 
and reports. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P — French 153 or 
equivalent. 

216. Survey of French Literature from the Middle Ages through the Eighteenth 
Century. (4) Study of selected texts, parallel reading, and study of trends and 
movements. P — French 153 or permission of instructor. 

217. Survey of French Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. (4) Study 
of selected texts, parallel reading, and study of trends and movements. P — French 153 
or permission of instructor. 

219. Composition and Review of Grammar. (4) A systematic review of the funda- 
mental principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing idiom- 
atic French. Required for major. P — French 153 or equivalent. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing French, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary for everyday situations. Required for major. Lab required. P — French 153 
or equivalent. 

222. History and Structure of the Language. (4) Study of the historical development 
of French in a cultural and linguistic context from its earliest stages to the present and 
analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax of modern French. P — French 219 
and 221. 

223. French Phonetics. (2) A study of the principles of standard French pronunciation, 
with emphasis on their practical application as well as on their theoretical basis. 

224. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development. Emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life of 
France. P — French 221 or permission of instructor. 

228. Contemporary France. (4) A study of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French life 
today. P — French 221 or permission of instructor. 

229. Business French. (4) A study of French used in business procedures, emphasizing 
specialized vocabulary pertaining to business correspondence, corporate organiza- 
tion, banking, and governmental relations, with practice in translation and interpre- 
tations, oral and written. P — French 219 and 221 or permission of instructor. 

231. Medieval French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the Middle 
Ages with cultural and political backgrounds. Selected masterpieces in original form 
and modern transcription. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 



178 

233. Sixteenth Century French Literature. (4) The literature and thought of the Re- 
naissance in France, with particular emphasis on the works of Rabelais, Montaigne, 
and the major poets of the age. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

241. Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of the outstanding writers 
of the Classical Age. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

242. Seminar in Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics may vary from year to year. P — French 216 or 217 or permission 
of instructor. 

251. Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the 
eighteenth century with cultural and political backgrounds. P — French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

252. Seminar in Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) Study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

261. Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of French literature of the 
nineteenth century with cultural and political backgrounds. P — French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

262. Seminar in Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

263. Trends in French Poetry. (4) A study of the development of the poetic genre with 
analysis and interpretation of works from each period. P — French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

264. French Novel. (4) A broad survey of French prose fiction, with critical study of 
several masterpieces in the field. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

265. French Drama. (4) A study of the chief trends in French dramatic art, with reading 
and discussion of representative plays. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

271. Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) A study of general trends and repre- 
sentative works of the foremost prose writers, dramatists, and poets. P — French 216 
or 217 or permission of instructor. 

272. Seminar in Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics of 
the period. Topics vary from year to year. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

274. African and Caribbean Literatures in French. (4) An introduction to the litera- 
ture and culture of the French-speaking countries of Africa and the Caribbean. 
Emphasis will be placed upon the contemporary negro-African novel along with 
highlights of culture and civilization. 



179 

275. Special Topics in French Literature. (2,4) Selected themes or approaches to French 
literature that transcend boundaries of time and genre. P — French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in French. 

281. Directed Study. (3,4) Extensive reading and /or research to meet individual 
needs. Required for departmental honors. P — Permission of the department. 

Semester in France 

The department sponsors a semester in France in Dijon, the site of a well-established 
French university. Students go as a group in the fall semester, accompanied by a 
departmental faculty member. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, a student (1) should be of 
junior standing and (2) should have taken as prerequisite French 221 or its equivalent 
or at least one French course beyond the intermediate level. At least one semester's 
residence in the French House is strongly recommended. 

Students are placed in language courses according to their level of ability in French, 
as ascertained by a test given at Dijon. Courses are taught by native French professors. 
The resident director supervises academic, residential, and extracurricular affairs and 
has general oversight of independent study projects. 

2192. Advanced Oral and Written French. (4) Study of grammar, composition, pro- 
nunciation, and phonetics, with extensive practice in oral and written French. 

2242. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development. Field trips to museums and to points of historical and cultural signifi- 
cance in Paris and the French provinces. 

2282. Contemporary France. (4) A study of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French life 
today. 

2402. Independent Study. (2-4) One of several fields; scholar's journal and research 
paper. Supervision by the director of the semester in France. Work may be supple- 
mented by lectures on the subject given at the Universite de Bourgogne Faculte des 
Lettres et Sciences Humaines. 

2742. Special Topics in French Literature. (2) Selected topics in French literature; 
topics vary from year to year. 

2752. French Literature. (2) Topics in the novel, theatre, and poetry of France, largely 
of the period since 1850. 

Art 2712. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculp- 
ture, and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 



180 



Spanish 



111, 112. Elementary Spanish. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essen- 
tials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab 
required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Spanish. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements 
of grammar and skills presented in Spanish 111, 112. Intended for students whose 
preparation for Spanish 153 is inadequate or who have demonstrated proficiency in 
another language. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 112. Lab 
required. 

153. Intermediate Spanish. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice 
in conversation. Reading of selected texts. P — Spanish 112 or 113 or two years of high 
school Spanish and placement. Lab required. 

153x. Intermediate Spanish. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

162. A Panorama of Drama. (2-4) A brief sampling of Spanish drama from its early 
period to the contemporary theatre, studying in Spanish representative works from 
each major period. Approximately six plays. The class selects one play to present in 
Spanish, with students having directing and acting responsibilities. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of the department. 

214. Introduction to Hispanic Literature. (4) Selected readings in Spanish and Span- 
ish American literature. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P — Spanish 153 
or equivalent. 

217. Masterpieces of Spanish Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, and 
movements. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the basic 
requirement. P — Spanish 214 or permission of instructor. 

218. Masterpieces of Spanish American Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, 
and movements. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the 
basic requirement. P — Spanish 214 or permission of instructor. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A systematic review of the funda- 
mental principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing idiom- 
atic Spanish. Lab required. P — Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing Spanish, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary of everyday situations. Lab required. P — Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

222. Spanish Phonology. (4) An introduction to Spanish linguistics through a system- 
atic analysis of the phonemes and allophones of spoken Spanish. Standard pronuncia- 
tion as well as dialectal variations will be stressed. P — Spanish 219 and 221 or 
permission of instructor. 

223. Latin American Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; 
emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P — Spanish 217 
or 218. 



181 

224. Spanish Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; emphasis on 
intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P — Spanish 217 or 218. 

229. Commercial, Official, and Social Correspondence. (4) Instruction in the special 
vocabularies, formats, and styles required in written and telegraphic communica- 
tions. Students write in Spanish communications appropriate to each type of corre- 
spondence. P — Spanish 219 and 221 or permission of instructor. 

230. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from the 
colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

231. Medieval and Pre-Renaissance Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major liter- 
ary works of the Middle Ages and pre-Renaissance. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

232. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major 
literary works of the Golden Age. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

233. Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of a repre- 
sentative selection of poetry, drama, essays, and novels of these two centuries. P — 
Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

241. Golden Age Drama. (4) A study of the major dramatic works of Lope de Vega, 
Calderon de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Ruiz de Alarcon, and others. P — Spanish 217 
or 218 or permission of instructor. 

243. Cervantes. (4) Intensive study of the life and works of Cervantes, with special 
attention on the Quixote and the novelas ejemplares. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

252. Spanish Poetry. (2-4) A study of selected topics, such as gongorismo, the Romancero, 
and the Generation of 1927. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

262. Spanish-American Poetry. (4) Intensive study and textual analysis of Spanish- 
American poetry with special emphasis on representative poets and major trends: 
Culteranismo, epic poetry, gaucho poetry, Modernismo, avant garde poetry, and anti- 
poetry. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

263. Contemporary Spanish- American Theatre. (4) A study of the Spanish- American 
dramatic production from the end of the 19th century to the present. The course 
focuses on the development of some of the main dramatic movements of the 20th 
century: realism, absurdism, avant garde, and collective theatre. P — Spanish 217 or 
218 or permission of instructor. 

264. Spanish-American Short Story. (4) Intensive study of the twentieth century 
Spanish-American short story with emphasis on major trends and representative 
authors, such as Quiroga, Rulfo, Borges, Cortazar, Donoso, Garcia Marquez. P — 
Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

265. Spanish- American Novel. (4) A study of the novel in Spanish- America from its 
beginning through the contemporary period. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of 
instructor. 



182 

266. Seminar in Spanish-American Novel. (2-4) A study of one or more categories of 
Spanish- American novels, such as romantic, indianista, realistic, gauchesca, and social 
protest. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

273. Modern Spanish Novel. (4) A study of representative Spanish novels from the 
Generation of 1898 through the contemporary period. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

274. Modern Spanish Literature. (2 or 4) An analysis of selected contemporary works 
representative of the novel, poetry, theatre, and essay. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

275. Special Topics. (2-4) Selected special topics in Spanish literature. P — Spanish 217 
or permission of instructor. 

287. Special Topics. (2-4) Selected special topics in Spanish-American literature. P — 
Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in Spanish. 

281. Directed Study. (3-4) Extensive reading and/or research, to meet individual 
needs. Required for departmental honors. P — Permission of the department. 

Semester in Spain 

The department offers a semester in Spain at Salamanca, the site of a well- 
established Spanish university. Students go as a group in the spring semester, 
accompanied by a professor from the College. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, students (1) should be of 
junior standing, (2) should have completed Spanish 221, and (3) should be approved 
by both their major department and the Department of Romance Languages. 

1829. Introduction to Spain. (2-4) Familiarization with the Spanish people, Spanish 
culture, and daily life in Spain. Classes in conversational and idiomatic Spanish, 
excursions to points of historical and artistic interest, and lectures on selected topics. 

2019. Intensive Spanish. (2) Intensive study and practice of the oral and written 
language. P — Permission of instructor. 

2049. Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. (4) Theory and practical application of the 
elements involved in speaking correct Spanish. 

2059. History of the Spanish Language. (4) Evolution and historical development of 
the Spanish language, including regional dialects and present-day variations in the 
spoken and written form. 

2199. Advanced Spanish. (4) Study of grammar, composition, and pronunciation, 
with extensive practice of the written and oral language. P — Permission of instructor. 

2259. Survey of Spanish Literature from the Middle Ages through the Seventeenth 
Century. (4) Extensive reading and study of trends and influences. 



183 

2279. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from 
the colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries. 

2419. Spanish Literature of the Golden Age. (4) A survey of the most important 
authors and genres of the Golden Age, with particular emphasis on the novel and the 
drama. 

2759. Contemporary Spanish Literature. (4) A study of general trends and represen- 
tative works of selected prose writers, dramatists, and poets from the modern period. 

Sociology 2029. Social-Political Structures of Present-Day Spain. (4) A study of the 
various social and political elements which affect the modern Spanish state. 

History 2019. General History of Spain. (4) History of Spain from the pre-Roman 
period to the present day. 

Art 2029. Spanish Art and Architecture. (4) A study of the development and unique- 
ness of Spanish art and architecture within the framework of Mediterranean and 
Western art in general. 

Italian 

111, 112. Elementary Italian. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essen- 
tials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab 
required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Italian. (5) Intensive course for beginners, emphasizing the 
structure of the language and oral practice. Recommended for students in the Venice 
program and for language majors. Lab required. Lecture — five hours. Offered every 
semester. 

127. Basic Conversation. (2) Brief review of grammar; emphasis on vocabulary build- 
ing and conversation for everyday survival while discovering Italy and Italian culture 
through film, TV, documentaries and literature. P — Italian 1 13 or equivalent. Does not 
satisfy requirements for minor or certification in Italian studies. 

153. Intermediate Italian. (5) Continuation of 113, with emphasis on reading and 
speaking. Lab required. Lecture — five hours. P — Italian 113 or two years of high 
school Italian. Also offered in Venice. 

153x. Intermediate Italian. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in Italian. Sat- 
isfies basic requirement in foreign language. Offered in the spring. P — Italian 153 or 
equivalent. Also offered in Venice. 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) May alternate with 215. Satisfies basic 
requirement in foreign language. P — Italian 153 or equivalent. 



184 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A thorough review of the basics of 
structure and vocabulary featuring a more detailed examination of complex syntax 
and idiomatic expressions; practice in translation of texts of diverse styles and from 
varied sources, and free composition. P — Italian 215 or equivalent. 

221. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing 
Italian, stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, 
and vocabulary for everyday situations. P — Italian 219 or 275. 

224. Italian Civilization I. (4) The culture and its historical development from 
Charlemagne to the Risorgimento; emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, 
and economic life. P — Italian 215 or 216. 

225. Italian Civilization II. (4) The historical development of modern Italian culture 
from the Risorgimento to the present. Use of newspapers, magazines, TV broadcasts, 
films, and literary readings to stimulate oral and written responses to the problems of 
contemporary Italy. P — Italian 215 or 216. 

275. Special Topics. (4) Selected special topics in Italian literature. P — Italian 215 or 
216. 

Semester in Venice 

153. Intermediate Italian. (5) 

215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) 

See the course listings under Italian (page 181) for descriptions and prerequisites. 

Sociology 

Philip J. Perricone, Chairman 

Wake Forest Professor Charles F. Longino 

Professors John R. Earle, Catherine T. Harris, 

Willie Pearson Jr., Philip J. Perricone 

Associate Professors H. Kenneth Bechtel, Beverly Wright 

Assistant Professor Ian M. Taplin 

Visiting Assistant Professors Cynthia Gentry, Vicky M. MacLean 

A major in sociology requires thirty-seven credits and must include Sociology 371 
and 372. A minimum average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the 
major is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all sociology courses is 
required for graduation. 

A minor in sociology requires twenty credits and must include Sociology 371. A 
minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the 
minor is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is 
required for certification as a minor. Students who intend to pursue a sociology minor 
are encouraged to notify the department early in their junior year, and they are invited 
to participate in all departmental functions. 



185 

The program in sociology provides majors with several options. In addition to 
pursuing a regular major in sociology, students may choose to specialize in any of four 
concentrations: 1) family studies, 2) crime, law, and social control, 3) health and 
society, and 4) business and society. These concentrations are described in detail in the 
Handbook for Sociology Students, a copy of which may be obtained from the sociology 
office or any member of the departmental faculty. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Sociology," highly qualified 
majors are invited to apply to the department for admission to the honors program. 
They must complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfac- 
torily defend their work in an oral examination. For additional information members 
of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

A student who selects sociology to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one 
of the following courses: Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. No introductory-level course 
is required for students taking a sociology course as an elective unless such a 
prerequisite is specified in the course description. 

151. Principles of Sociology. (4) General introduction to the field; social organization 
and disorganization, socialization, culture, social change, and other aspects. 

152. Social Problems. (4) Survey of contemporary American social problems. 

153. Marriage and the Family. (4) The social basis of the family, emphasizing the 
problems growing out of modern conditions and social change. 

154. The Sociology of Deviant Behavior. (4) A sociological analysis of the nature and 
causes of and societal reaction to deviant behavior patterns such as mental illness, 
suicide, drug and alcohol addiction, sexual deviation, and criminal behavior. 

205. Photography in the Social Sciences. (4) Explores the use of photography as a 
research technique for the social sciences; camera and darkroom instruction included. 
Not open to students who have had Art 119. P — Permission of instructor. 

301. Religion and Society. (4) Study of religion as a social phenomenon and its 
relationship to the other structures of society — political, economic and others, with 
special focus on the contemporary United States. (Also offered as Religion 151.) 

302. Bureaucracy and Society. (4) The sociological analysis of complex organizations 
focusing on bureaucracy, power, authority, decision making, and change. Attention 
will be given to business as well as government and other non-profit organizations. 

303. Business and Society. (4) Flistorical development, organization, and current 
problems of business enterprises in American society. 

305. Male and Female Roles in Society. (4) Changing male and female roles in the 
context of societal institutions and sociological theories that explain such changes. 
Consideration of feminism as a social movement and of consequences of changing 
roles for human interaction. 

308. Sociology of Art. (2) Art as an institution, its functions, organization, relationship 
to social change and to the communication of meanings. 



186 

309. Sexuality and Society. (4) Study of the societal forces that impinge on human 
sexual behavior, emphasizing the effects of social change, the implications of chang- 
ing gender roles, cross-cultural and subcultural variations, and the influence of the 
mass media. 

310. Death and Dying. (2) Study of some of the basic issues and problems of modern 
man in accepting and facing death. 

311. Women in Professions. (4) Emphasis on the status of women in professional 
occupations (e.g., law, medicine, science, business, etc.) in socio-historical perspec- 
tive. 

325. Self and Society: An Interactionist Perspective. (4) An analysis of the effects of 
social relationships upon self-development, self-preservation, and the learning of 
social roles and norms, with special emphasis on language and symbolic interaction. 

334. Society and Higher Education. (4) An analysis of the social forces that shape 
educational policies in the US. Assessment of significant contemporary writings on 
the manifest and latent functions of education. 

335. Sociology of Health and Illness. (4) Analysis of the social variables associated 
with health and illness. 

336. Sociology of Health Care. (4) An analysis of health care systems, including the 
social organization of medical practice, health care payment, the education of medical 
practitioners, and the division of the labor in health care. 

337. Aging in Modern Society. (4) Basic social problems and processes of aging. Social 
and psychological issues discussed. Course requirements will include field placement 
in a nursing home or similar institution. P — Permission of instructor. 

338. Sociological Issues in Criminal Justice. (4) Introduction to the structure, orga- 
nization and operation of the various components of the criminal justice system with 
emphasis on the police and correctional institutions. 

339. Sociology of Violence. (4) A survey of the societal factors associated with indi- 
vidual and collective violence. Discussion will focus on the contemporary and 
historical conditions which have contributed to various patterns of violence in 
American society. 

340. Sociological Issues in Human Development. (4) Socialization through the life 
span in the light of contemporary behavioral science, emphasizing the significance of 
changes in contemporary society. 

341. Criminology. (4) Crime, its nature, causes, consequences, methods of treatment, 
and prevention. 

342. Juvenile Delinquency. (4) The nature and extent of juvenile delinquency; an 
examination of prevention, control, and treatment problems. 

343. Sociology of Law. (4) Consideration will be given to a variety of special issues: 
conditions under which laws develop and change, relationships between the legal and 
political system, the impact of social class and stratification upon the legal order. 



187 

344. Women and Crime. (4) Course will focus on four major areas related to women 
and crime: women as offenders, the processing of women by the criminal justice 
system, women as victims, and women as criminal justice professionals. P — 341 and 
permission of instructor. 

345. Advanced Topics Seminar in Criminology. (4) Emphasis on current topics in the 
field of criminology and criminal justice such as measurement issues, ethical issues, 
history, crime and mass media, and theoretical debates. P — 341 and permission of 
instructor. 

347. Society, Culture, and Sport. (4) An examination of the interrelationship of sport 
and other social institutions. Emphasis on the study of both the structure of sport and 
the functions of sport for society. 

348. Sociology of the Family. (4) The family as a field of sociological study. Assess- 
ment of significant historical and contemporary writings. An analysis of the structure, 
organization, and function of the family in America. 

349. Sociology of Science. (4) Emphasis on the origins and growth of science in socio- 
historical perspective, reciprocal relations between science and society in the twenti- 
eth century, science as a social system. 

350. Mass Communications and Public Opinion. (4) The study of the increasing 
importance of collective behavior, emphasizing the relationship between the media 
and a changing society. 

351. Management and Organizations. (4) A study of macro organizational processes 
and changes in contemporary industrial societies and their effects upon managerial 
systems, managerial ideologies and managers in firms. 

352. White-Collar Crime. (4) Study of criminal activity committed in the course of 
legitimate occupations including workplace crime, graft, and business crime. P — 341. 

358. Population and Society. (4) Techniques used in the study of population data. 
Reciprocal relationship of social and demographic variables. 

359. Race and Ethnic Relations. (4) Racial and ethnic group prejudice and discrimi- 
nation and their effect on social relationships. Emphasis on psychological and socio- 
logical theories of prejudice. 

360. Social Stratification. (4) The study of structured social inequality with particular 
emphasis on economic class, social status, and political power. 

361. Sociology of the Black Experience. (4) A survey and an analysis of contemporary 
writings on the status of black Americans in various American social institutions (e.g., 
education, sports, entertainment, science, politics, etc.). 

362. Sociology of Work. (4) Changing trends in the U.S. labor force. The individual's 
view of work and the effect of large organizations on white and blue collar workers. 
Use of some cross-cultural data. 



188 

363. Markets and Industry. (4) An analysis of industrial organization, including 
discussion of market relations and the behavior of firms, the structure of industrial 
development, and labor relations and the growth of trade unions. 

364. Political Sociology. (4) Examination of the structure and organization of power 
in society with emphasis on political socialization, political ideology, and the growth 
of the welfare state. 

371, 372. The Sociological Perspective. (4,5) A two-semester course dealing with the 
development and application of major theories and research methods in sociology. A 
continuing effort is made to enable the student to deal with current theoretically 
oriented research. Regularly scheduled computer labs will be arranged during the 
Sociology 372 portion of the course. P — Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. 

380. Social Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in survey research. 
(A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive credit for Biology 
380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Anthropology 380. A sociology major may take 
Anthropology 380 in lieu of Sociology 380 to meet major requirements.) 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline which concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P — Permission of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1-4, 1-4) Reading, research, or internship courses de- 
signed to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under the 
supervision of a departmental faculty member. 

Speech Communication 

Michael David Hazen, Chair 

Professors Julian C. Burroughs Jr., Michael David Hazen 

Adjunct Professor Jo Whitten May 

Associate Professors Allan D. Louden, Jill Jordan McMillan 

Assistant Professor John T. Llewellyn 

Visiting Assistant Professor Randall G. Rogan 

Instructors Mary M. Dalton, Margaret D. Zulick 

Adjunct Instructors Susan L. Faust, Melanie H. Louden, Karen L. Oxendine 

Debate Coach Ross K. Smith 

A major in speech communication requires forty credits, at least twelve of which 
must be at the 300-level. All majors are required to take courses 151, 250, and 255 or 
256 and should begin their study of speech communication with these courses. In 
addition, at least twelve credits must be taken from among the following courses: 153, 
155, 158, 241, 245, 251, 354, and 372. An overall minimum grade-point average of 2.0 
in all speech communication courses attempted is required for graduation. 

A minor in speech communication requires twenty-four credits, at least four of 
which must be at the 300-level, and shall include courses 151, 250, and 255 or 256. 



189 

Remaining coursework must include at least four credits from among the following 
courses: 153, 155, 158, 241, 251, 354, and 372. An overall minimum grade-point average 
of 2.0 in all speech communication courses attempted is required for graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in speech communication. To be graduated with the designation 
"Honors in Speech Communication," students must pass the departmental honors 
course, complete a senior research project, and satisfactorily defend their work in an 
oral examination. For more details, consult faculty members in the department. 

141. Radio-TV Speech. (4) An introduction to announcing and performing on radio 
and television. 

142. Writing for Radio-TV-Film. (4) An introduction to writing for radio, television, 
and film. Emphasis will be on informational and persuasive writing (news, features, 
public service announcements, commercials, political announcements, news analy- 
ses, commentaries, and editorials). 

151. Public Speaking I. (4) A study of the nature and fundamentals of speech commu- 
nication. Practice in the preparation and delivery of short speeches. 

152. Public Speaking II. (4) The preparation and presentation of short speeches to 
inform, convince, actuate, and entertain. P — Speech Communication 151. 

153. Interpersonal Communication. (4) The course is divided into three parts: com- 
munication theory, person-to-person communication, and small group interaction. 

155. Group Communication. (4) An introduction to the principles of discussion and 
deliberation in small groups, with practice in group problem-solving and discussion 
leadership. 

156. Oral Interpretation of Literature. (4) Fundamentals of reading aloud, with em- 
phasis on selection, analysis, and performance. 

158. Debate and Advocacy. (4) The use of argumentative techniques in oral advocacy: 
research, speeches, and debate. 

161. Voice Production and Development. (4) A study of the principles of voice 
production with emphasis on breath control, tone production, vocal variety, and 
articulation. 

241. Introduction to Mass Communication. (4) A historical survey of mass media and 
an examination of major contemporary media issues. 

242. Media Production: Studio. (4) An introduction to the production of audio and 
video media projects. Multiple camera studio production emphasized. Lecture/ 
laboratory. 

243. Media Production: Field. (4) An introduction to the production of audio and 
video media projects. Single camera field production and post-production empha- 
sized. Lecture /laboratory. 



190 

245. Introduction to Film. (4) An introduction to the aesthetics of motion pictures 
through a study of the basic elements of film such as cinematography, editing, sound, 
lighting, color, etc. 

246. Film Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of motion picture production. 

250. Introduction to Communication and Rhetoric. (4) An introduction to the theo- 
ries, research, and analysis of verbal and nonverbal processes by which human beings 
share meanings and influence one another. 

251. Persuasion. (4) A study of the variables and contexts of persuasion in contempo- 
rary society. 

255. Historical/Critical Research in Communication. (4) An introduction to the 
theory and practice of rhetorical criticism with emphasis on contemporary rhetorical 
acts. 

256. Empirical Research in Communication. (4) An introduction to the design and 
statistical analysis of communication research. 

261. Clinical Management of Speech and Language Disorders. (4) Methods used to 
correct speech disorders of voice, rhythm, language, and articulation; observation of 
methods used with selected cases in clinical or public school settings. Offered in al- 
ternate fall semesters. 

262. Communication Disorders of the Hearing-Impaired. (4) The etiology and effect 
of hearing impairment on communication. The fundamentals of auditory training, 
speech reading, and other resources for the rehabilitation of the hearing-impaired 
individual. 

263. Speech and Language Disorders I. (4) Study of the disorders of language, ar- 
ticulation, and rhythm, with special emphasis on functional disorders; focus is on the 
role the therapist plays in assisting the speech-handicapped child. Offered in alternate 

fall semesters. 

264. Speech and Language Disorders II. (4) Consideration of etiology and symptoms 
of speech and language problems due to organic disorders of voice, articulation, 
language, and hearing. Offered in alternate spring semesters. 

280. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in communication. 
Topics may be drawn from any theory or concept area of communication, such as 
persuasion, organizational communication, or film. 

281. Honors in Speech Communication. (4) A conference course involving intensive 
work in the area of special interest for selected seniors who wish to graduate with 
departmental honors. P — Permission of instructor. 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) Special research and readings in a choice of interest to be 
approved and supervised by a faculty adviser. P — Permission of instructor. 

283. 284. Debate, Radio/Television/Film, or Communication Practicum. (2,2) Indi- 
vidual projects in the student's choice of debate, radio /television /film, or communi- 
cation; includes organizational meetings, faculty supervision, and faculty evaluation. 



191 

No student may register for more than two credits of practicum in any semester. No 
student is allowed to take more than a total of eight credit units in practicum, only four 
credits of which may be counted toward a major in speech communication. Pass /fail 
only. P — Permission of instructor. 

342. Seminar in Radio/Television. (4) Extensive readings in and discussion of funda- 
mental theory and current issues in radio and television. P — Speech Communication 
241 or permission of instructor. 

345. Advanced TV Production. (4) Individual production of complex forms of televi- 
sion such as documentary and drama. P — Speech Communication 243 or permission 
of instructor. 

346. Film Criticism. (3 or 4) A study of film aesthetics through an analysis of the work 
of selected filmmakers and film critics. P — Speech Communication 245 or permission 
of instructor. 

347. Film History to 1945. (4) A survey of the developments of motion pictures to 1945. 
Includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 

348. Advanced Film Production. (4) Individual production of complex films such as 
drama, animation, and documentary. P — Speech Communication 246 or permission 
of instructor. 

349. Film History Since 1945. (4) A survey of the development of motion pictures from 
1946 to the present day. Includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 

354. American Rhetorical Movements. (4) Critical analysis of major rhetorical move- 
ments in American history; examines the relationship between rhetoric, ideology, and 
the development of American culture. 

355S. Directing the Forensic Program. (2,4) A pragmatic study of the methods of 
directing high school and college forensics with work in the High School Debate 
Workshop. Offered in the summer. 

356. The Rhetoric of Race Relations. (4) A study of race relations in America as 
reflected in the rhetoric of selected black and white speakers. Students apply the 
historical/ critical method in exploring the effects of discourse on attempts at interra- 
cial communication. 

357. The Rhetoric of the Women's Rights Movement. (4) A rhetorical study of the 
documents, speeches, and protests of American feminists. The course traces the 
evolution of women's rights movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries 
and draws contrasts and parallels between them. 

358. Argumentation Theory. (4) An examination of argumentation theory and criti- 
cism; examines both theoretical issues and social practices. 

371. Comparative Communication. (2,4) A comparison of communicative and rhe- 
torical processes in the United States with one or more other national cultures with an 
emphasis on both historical and contemporary phenomena. A. Japan; B. Russia; C. 
Great Britain; D. Multiple countries. 



192 

372. A Survey of Organizational Communication. (4) An introduction to the role of 
communication in organizations, with emphasis on field applications. 

373. Intercultural Communication. (4) An introduction to the study of communica- 
tion phenomena between individuals and groups with different cultural backgrounds. 

374. Mass Communication Theory. (4) Theoretical approaches to the role of commu- 
nication in reaching mass audiences and its relationship to other levels of communi- 
cation. Offered in alternate years. 

375. Communication and Conflict. (4) A study of communication in conflict situa- 
tions on the interpersonal and societal levels. Offered in alternate years. P — Speech 
Communication 153 or permission of instructor. 

377. Political Communication. (4) Study of electoral communication, including can- 
didate and media influences on campaign speeches, debates, and advertising. Offered 
in alternate years. 

378. Semantics and Language Behavior. (4) A study of the syntactic and semantic 
aspects of communicative messages. 

380. Special Seminar. (1-4) The intensive study of selected topics in communication. 
Topics will be drawn from theory or concept areas of communication, such as 
persuasion, organizational communication, or film. 

Theater 

Donald H. Wolfe, Chair 

Professors Harold C. Tedford, Donald H. Wolfe 

Adjunct Professor Darwin R. Payne 

Adjunct Instructor Mary Lucy Bivins 

Lecturers Zanna Beswick (London), Jonathan H. Christman, 

John E. R. Friedenberg, Patricia W. Toole, Mary R. Wayne 

Visiting Lecturer James H. Dodding 

A major in theater consists of a minimum of forty credits, at least eight of which must 
be at the 300-level. This includes a required core of 36 credits: Theater 110 or 112, 140, 
150, 250, 251 or 252, 260, 261, 340, 381 and 385. (Students interested in a theater major 
should elect Theater 112.) Four semesters of Theater 100 (0 credits) also are required. 
Majors may choose their remaining courses from the offerings listed under the 
Department of Theater. A minimum grade of 2.0 in all theater courses attempted is 
required for graduation. Majors should consult with their advisers about additional 
regulations. Theater majors are required to take two courses in dramatic literature 
from the Departments of English or Classical Languages or from Humanities. 

Those who plan to be theater majors are urged to begin their studies during their 
first year. 

Highly qualified majors (departmental GPA of 3.3, overall GPA of 3.0) are invited 
by the department to apply for admission to the honors program in theater. To be 
graduated with the designation "Honors in Theater," a student must successfully 



193 

complete Theater 292 (4). Honors projects may consist of a) a research paper of 
exceptional quality; b) a creative project in playwriting or design; or c) a directing or 
acting project. The theater honors project must be presented and defended before the 
departmental Honors Committee. The department can furnish honors candidates 
complete information on preparation and completion of projects. 

A minor in theater requires 24 credits: Theater 110 or 112, 140, 150, 260 or 261, two 
theater electives and two semesters of Theater 100 participation. Theater minors are 
required to take one course in dramatic literature from the Departments of English or 
Classical Languages or from Humanities. 

Any person who is interested in a theater major or minor should contact the chair 
of the department soon after arrival on the campus. 

100. Participation. (0) Attendance /participation in Mainstage and Studio perfor- 
mances; and other events as established by the department. (Specific attendance/ 
participation requirements will be established at the beginning of each semester.) Four 
semesters, or a minimum of eight University Theater productions, are required of 
theater majors. Participation in at least two of the eight productions must be in 
technical production. Two semesters, or a minimum of four University Theater 
productions, are required of theater minors. Participation in one of the four produc- 
tions must be in technical production. Assignments for technical production are made 
through consultation with the technical and design faculty. 

110. Introduction to the Theater. (4) For the theater novice. A survey of the theory and 
practice of the major disciplines of theater art: acting, directing, playwriting, and 
design. Participation in Studio and Mainstage productions. Students planning to 
major in theater are encouraged to take THE 112. Credit will not be given for both THE 
110 and 112. May be used to satisfy a requirement in Division I. 

112. Introduction to the Theater. (4) For the experienced theater student. A survey of 
the theory and practice of the major disciplines of theater art: acting, directing, 
playwriting, and design. Students planning to major in theater are encouraged to take 
THE 112. Credit will not be given for both THE 110 and 112. Experience in Studio and 
Mainstage productions. May be used to satisfy a requirement in Division I. 

140. Acting I. (4) Fundamental acting theory and techniques including exercises, 
monologues and scene work. 

143. Speech for Stage and Workplace. (4) Vocal resonance, articulation, awareness of 
regional dialects, ear training, phonetics and body tensions are explored in conjunc- 
tion with text. Exercises, readings and performances. 

144. Mime. (4) An introductory study of basic mime forms. The student will gain skills 
and understanding of this theatrical form through practical exercises, readings, 
rehearsals, and performances. 

146. Performance Techniques. (4) A course focusing on acting styles appropriate to 
various modes of theatrical production. Specialized techniques such as dance, stage 
combat, etc., may also be included. (Suitable for non-majors.) 



194 

150. Introduction to Design & Production. (4) An introduction to the architecture and 
technology of the theater, including the essentials of the operation of the scene shop, 
stage equipment, occupational health and safety. The course stresses the collaborative 
art of the theater through an introduction to theater design including script analysis, 
visual research, communication of the design, drafting, and color. 

155. Stagecraft. (4) This introductory course focuses on contemporary materials, 
construction methods, and rigging practices employed in the planning, fabrication 
and installation of stage scenery. Emphasis on using current technologies for problem 
solving. 

188. The Contemporary English Theater. (2) An exploration of the English theater 
through theater attendance in London and other English theater centers. Readings, 
lectures. Participants submit reviews of the plays and complete a journal of informal 
reactions to the plays, the sites and the variety of cultural differences observed. Two 
weeks. Offered in London before spring term. P — Permission of instructor. 

244. Advanced Mime. (4) This course enlarges upon skills and techniques acquired in 
THE 144 {Mime), with the addition of other mime forms. The course includes exercises, 
rehearsals, and performances. P — THE 144. 

245. Acting II. (4) Advanced study and practice of the skills introduced in Acting I. P — 
THE 140, 143. 

246. Period and Style. (4) A study of social customs, movement, dances, and theatrical 
styles relating to the performance of drama in historical settings as well as in period 
plays. The course includes performances in class. P — THE 140, 143. 

250. Theatrical Scene Design. (4) A study of the fundamental principles and tech- 
niques of stage design. Drafting, model building, perspective rendering, historical 
research, and scene painting will be emphasized. P — THE 150. 

251. Costume and Makeup Design. (4) A study of the fundamental principles and 
techniques of costume and makeup design with an emphasis on historical research. 
The basics of costume rendering, costume construction and stage makeup will be 
explored. P— THE 150. 

252. Lighting and Sound Design. (4) An exploration of the lighting and sound 
designer's process from script to production. A variety of staging situations will be 
studied, including proscenium, thrust and arena production. P — THE 150. 

260. History of Western Theater I (Beginnings to 1642). (4) A survey of the develop- 
ment of Western theater and drama through the Greek, Roman, medieval, and 
Renaissance theaters to 1642; includes lectures, readings and reports. (Suitable for 
non-majors.) 

261. History of Western Theater II [1642 to the Present]. (4) A survey of Western 
theater and drama from the French Neoclassic theater through the English Restora- 
tion, the eighteenth century, Romanticism, Realism, the revolts against Realism and 
the post-modern theater; includes lectures, readings and reports. (Suitable for non- 
majors.) 



195 

281. Acting Workshop. (2) Scene work with student directors utilizing realistic texts. 
Offered pass /fail only. P-THE 140 or permission of instructor. 

283. Practicum. (1-2) Projects under faculty supervision. May be repeated for no more 
than 4 credits. P — Permission of the department. 

290. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in theater. May be 
repeated. 

292. Theater Honors. (4) A tutorial involving intensive work in the area of special 
interest for qualified seniors who wish to graduate with departmental honors. P — 
Permission of department. 

294. Individual Study. (1-4) Special research and readings in an area of interest to be 
approved and supervised by a faculty adviser. Maybe taken for no more than 4 credits. 
P — Permission of department. 

2650. The English Theater, 1660-1940. (4) A study of the major developments in the 
English theater from the Restoration to World War II, including the plays, play- 
wrights, actors, audiences, theater architecture, theater management, costumes and 
sets. Field trips include visits to theaters, museums, and performances. Offered in 
London. 

340. Directing. (4) An introduction to the theory and practice of play directing. P — 
THE 110/112,140 and 150; C— THE 381. 

344. Acting Shakespeare. (4) A practical study of varying styles in interpreting and 
acting Shakespeare's plays from the time of the Elizabethans to the present day. P — 
THE 140, 143. 

381. Directing Workshop. (2) The practical application of directing techniques in 
realistic scene study utilizing student actors. This course is a co-requisite of THE 340. 

385. Studio Production. (2) The organization, techniques and problems encountered 
in the production of a play for the public. P — THE 340 and permission of department. 

Dance 
Rebecca Myers, Instructor and Director of Dance 

A dance minor requires twenty-four credits and must include Health and Sport 
Science 104, 120, 121, 122, 123, 126, 127, 128 and 201; Music 101; Theater 110 or 112. The 
remaining credits may be selected from Health and Sport Science 191, 370; Music 161, 
165p, 165r, 168v, 190, 261; and Theater 144, 150, 251 and 252. 

119. Aerobic Dance (1) 

120. Beginning Dance Technique (1) 

121. Intermediate Dance Technique. (1) P — Dance 120 or permission of instructor. 

122. Advanced Dance Technique. (1) P — Dance 121 or permission of instructor. 



196 

123. Dance Composition (1) P — Dance 121. 

124. Social Dance. (1) 

125. Folk and Social Dance. (1) 

126. Jazz Dance. (1) 

127. Beginner Classical Ballet Techniques. (1) 

128. Dance Theater. (1) May be repeated for a maximum of three credits. P — Permis- 
sion of instructor. 

129. Intermediate Classical Ballet. (1) 
131. Advanced Classical Ballet. (1) 

201. Senior Dance Project (2) A course involving the creative process of developing 
a dance. 

202. History of American Dance. (4) A survey of American dance from the 1600s to 
the present with emphasis on scope, style, and function. 




Members of the Wake Forest University Dance Company perform in concert. 



197 



Overseas Courses 



WFU courses taught on overseas campuses during the last five school years 
Fall 19 87 -Spring 1992 



BEIJING, China 

CHI 1131. Elementary Chinese (10) 

CHI 1521. Communism in China. Contemporary 

Issues in Historical Perspective. (4) 
CHI 1551. Pre-Advanced Intermediate Chinese 

Perspective (10) 

HMN 2431 . China in Perspective (2) 
HMN 3641. Issues in Contemporary China (4) 
HMN 3641. Communism in China. Contemporary 
Issues in Historical Perspective (4) 

BREISGAU, Germany 

GER 2707. Individual Study (18) 

DIJON, France 

ART 2712. Studies in French Art (2) 

FRH 2232. Advanced Oral & Written French (4) 

FRH 2282. Contemporary France (4) 

FRH 2292. French Civilization (4) 

FRH 2402. Independent Study (2) 

FRH 2742. Special Topics in French Literature (2) 

FRH 2752. French Literature (2) 

FREIBURG, Germany 

GER 2707. Individual Study (18) 

HIRATSUKA, Japan (Tokai University) 

HMN 3421 . Japan in Perspective (2) 

JAP 2191. Advanced Japanese (10) 

SCT 3711. Comparative Communication (4) 



Semesters Taught 



Fall: 


1990, 1991 


Fall: 


1991 


Fall: 


1990, 1991 


Fall: 


1990, 1991 


Fall: 


1990 


Fall: 


1991 



Spring: 


1992 


Fall: 


1991, 1990, 1989, 




1988, 1987 


Fall: 


1991, 1990, 1989, 




1988, 1987 


Fall: 


1991, 1990, 1989, 




1988, 1987 


Fall: 


1991, 1990, 1989, 




1988, 1987 


Fall: 


1991 


Fall: 


1990 


Fall: 


1991, 1990, 1989, 




1988, 1987 


Fall: 


1991 


Spring: 


1992 


Fall: 


1991 


Fall: 


1991 


Fall: 


1991 



198 



KIEV, Russia 






RUS 2708. 


Independent Study (18) 


Fall: 


1991 






Spring: 


1992 


LONDON 


, England 






ART 2320. 


English Art, Hogarth to Present (2,4) 


Spring: 


1991, 1990, 1989 
1988 






Fall: 


1991, 1990, 1989, 
1987 


ECN 1500. 


Introduction to Economics (4) 


Fall: 


1988 


ECN 2230. 


Financial Markets (4) 


Fall: 


1988 


ECN 2650. 


Economic Philosophers (4) 


Spring: 


1992 


ECN 2710. 


Selected Areas in Economics (2,4) 


Fall: 


1988 






Spring: 


1992 


ECN 2900. 


Individual Study (2,4) 


Spring: 


1992 


ENG 3300. 


British Literature of the 
Eighteenth Century (4) 


Fall: 


1991, 1990 


ENG 3800. 


Henry James in England (4) 


Fall: 


1990 


HST 2260. 


History of London (2,4) 


Spring: 


1992, 1991, 1990, 
1988, 1987 






Fall: 


1991, 1990, 1989, 
1988 


HST 2270. 


The History of the English 
Aristocracy (2,4) 


Fall: 


1989 


HST 2340. 


Georgian and Victorian Society 
and Culture (4) 


Fall: 


1991 


HST 2370. 


Churchill (2,4) 


Spring: 


1990 






Fall: 


1988, 1987 


HST 2880. 


Honors in History (4) 


Fall: 


1991 


MIL 2510. 


Advanced Second Year I (2) 


Spring: 


1988 






Fall: 


1987 


MUS 1740. 


Music Theory IV (4) 


Spring: 


1987 


MUS 2090. 


History of Music in the British Isles (4) 


Spring: 


1989 


MUS 2160. 


History of Music in England (4) 


Spring: 


1989, 1987 


MUS 2170. 


English Musical Journalism (4) 


Spring: 


1987 


POL 2420. 


Problems in Comparative Politics (4) 


Fall: 


1988, 1987 






Spring: 


1987 


REL 2010. 


History of Christianity in England (4) 


Spring: 


1990 






Fall: 


1987 



199 

REL2020. British Theological and Literary Spring: 1990 

Classics (4) Fall: 1987 

SCT 2800. Topics: Wolcott & Tagore (2-4) Spring: 1988 

SCT3110. The English Theater 1660-1940 (4) Fall: 1989,1988,1987 

Spring: 1989,1987 

SCT 3310. Survey English Theater History (4) Spring: 1992,1991,1988 

SCT 3300. Modern English and Continental Spring: 1992,1991,1988 

Drama (4) Fall: 1991 

SCT 3700. The English Theater 1660-1940 (4) Spring: 1987 

MOSCOW, Russia 

RUS2708. Independent Study (18) Spring: 1992 

SALAMANCA, Spain 

ART 2029. Spanish Art & Architecture (2,3,4) Spring: 1992,1991,1990, 

1989,1988,1987 

HST2019. General Flistory of Spain (4) Spring: 1992,1991,1990, 

1989,1988,1987 

SOC2029. Social and Political Structures of Spring: 1992,1991,1990, 

Present Day Spain (4) 1989,1988,1987 

SPA 1829. Introduction to Spain (2-4) Spring: 1992,1991,1990, 

1989,1988,1987 
SPA 2019. Intensive Spanish (2) Spring: 1992,1989,1987 

SPA 2029. Advanced Spanish (2,4) Spring: 1991,1990,1989, 

1988, 1987 
SPA 2059. History of the Spanish Language (4) Spring: 1991,1990,1989, 

1988,1987 
SPA 2199 Advanced Spanish (4) Spring: 1992 

SPA 2239. Latin American Civilization (4) Spring 

SPA 2419. Literature of the Golden Age I (4) Spring 



SPA 2649. Spanish American Short Story (4) Spring 

SPA 2739. 20th Century Spanish Novel (4) Spring 

SPA 2759. Contemporary Spanish Literature I (4) Spring 

SPA 2759. Spanish American Short Story (4) Spring 



1989 

1992, 1991, 1990, 

1989, 1988, 1987 

1989 

1991, 1988, 1987 

1990 

1992 



TAIPEI, Taiwan 

ANT 3651. Cultural Ecology of China (4) Fall: 1989 

CHI 1131. Elementary Chinese (10) Fall: 1989 

CHI 1551. Pre-Advanced Intermediate Chinese (10) Fall: 1989 

HMN2431. China in Perspective (2) Fall: 1989 



200 



VENICE, Italy 

ART 2693. Venetian Renaissance Art (4) 



CLA 2553. The World of Mythology in Ovid's 

Metamorphoses (4) 

CLA 2713. The Roman Civilization of Ancient 

Venetia (3) 

ENG 3613. The Italian Experience (4) 

ENG 3653. Twentieth-Century British Fiction (4) 

ENG 3863. Independent Study (4) 

HON 1313. Approaches to Human Experience 1 (4) 

HON 1353. Approaches to Human Experience (4) 

HON 2433. Literature, Travel and Discovery (4) 

HMN 2133. Studies in European Literature (4) 

HMN 2603. Rom/Ital Forerunners: West Lit (4) 

HST 2223. Renaissance and Reformation (4) 

HST 2253. History of Venice (4) 

HST 2263. Venetian Society & Culture (4) 

LTA 1533. Intermediate Italian (4) 

ITA 1993. Independent Study (4) 

ITA 2153. Introduction to Italian Literature I (4) 

ITA 2163. Introduction to Italian Literature II (4) 

ITA 2213. Spoken Italian: Venice (4) 



MUS 2143. The Language of Music in Italy (4) 

PHI 2853. Philosophy of Art (4) 

POL 1143. Intro, to Politics: Comparative (4) 

POL 2373. Comparative Public Policy in Selected 

Industrialized Democracies (4) 

POL 2423. Problems in Comparative Politics (4) 

POL 2703. Topics in Political Theory (4) 



Spring 


: 1992,1991, 


1990, 




1989, 1988, 


1987 


Fall 


• 1991,1990, 
1988, 1987 


1989, 


Spring 


1987 




Spring 


1987 




Fall 


1990, 1988 




Fall 


1991 




Spring 


1992 




Spring 
Fall 


1990 
1991, 1989 




Spring 


1991 




Fall 


1987 




Fall 


1990, 1988 




Fall 


1989 




Fall 


1991, 1989 




Spring 
Fall 


1992 
1987 




Spring 
Fall 


1991, 1990 
1990, 1989, 


1988 


Spring 

Spring 

Fall 


1992 

1991, 1990, 
1991, 1990, 


1989 
1989 


Spring 
Fall 


1991, 1990 
1991, 1989 




Spring 


1992, 1990, 
1987 


1988, 


Fall 


1991, 1988, 


1987 


Spring 


1991 




Spring 


1990 




Spring 
Spring 


1992, 1988 
1989, 1988 




Spring 
Spring 


1992, 1989, 
1992 


1988 






201 



VIENNA, Austria 

GER 2707. Individual Study (18) 



Spring: 1992 



SPECIAL PROGRAMS 

Asia, Pacific Rim 

BUS 290. International Management Study Tour (4) Summer: 1989,1988 
(China, Japan, Hong Kong) 

EDU272B. Geography Study Tour (4) Summer: 1989,1988,1987 



Europe 

ANT 383. 
384. 

BUS 291. 



EDU 272A. 



Field Research in Cultural Anthropology 
(4,3; 4,3) (Highlands, Scotland) 

International Marketing Field Study (4) 
(Belgium, France, England, Luxem- 
bourg, Switzerland, West Germany) 

Geography Study Tour (4) 



FRH181. Swiss French Civilization (4) 

FRH 185. Paris as Cultural Center of France (4) 

GER 160. German Language and Customs (4) 

MLS 484. The Oberammergau Passion Play 1990: 
A Study Tour (3) 

REL 218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World (4) 

RUS 242. Research on Language and Culture in 
HMN 242. the Soviet Union (2) 

Summer Salamanca Program: 

SPA 221. Conversation and Composition (4) 
SPA 224. Spanish Civilization (4) 



Summer: 1990,1989 
1988 

Summer: 1990 



Summer: 1991,1990,1989, 
1988, 1987 

Summer: 1990,1988,1987 

Summer: 1990,1989 

Summer: 1990,1989,1985 

Summer: 1990 

Summer: 1990 

Spring: 1990,1989,1988 



Summer: 1987 
Summer: 1987 



Caribbean 

ANT 381A. 

382A. 
ANT 383. 

384. 



Summer: 1991,1990,1988 



Archeological Research (4,4) 

(San Salvador, the Bahamas) 
Field Research in Cultural Anthropology Summer: 1987 

(4,4) (Saba Island, Windward Islands) 

(4,3:4,3) (Roatan Island, Honduras) Summer: 1991 



202 

School of Business and Accountancy 

Thomas C. Taylor, Dean 

Professors Eddie V. Easley, Thomas C. Taylor 

Associate Professors Umit Akinc, Leon P. Cook Jr., A. Sayeste Daser, 

Aran P. Dewasthali, John S. Dunkelberg, Stephen Ewing, Thomas S. Goho, 

Earl C. Hipp Jr., Dale R. Martin, Ralph B. Tower, Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. 

Assistant Professors S. Douglas Beets, P. Candace Deans, J. Kline Harrison 

Lecturers Horace O. Kelly Jr., DeLeon E. Stokes, 

Olive S. Thomas, C. Michael Thompson 

Instructor Paul E. Juras 

Adjunct Instructors Helen Akinc, Emily G. Neese 

Mission 

The mission of the School of Business and Accountancy is to provide students with 
an excellent business and professional accounting education within the framework of 
the liberal arts tradition of Wake Forest University. The School's distinctiveness in the 
pursuit of this mission derives from the size, reputation, and location of the University; 
the primary emphasis upon undergraduate education within a separate undergradu- 
ate business school; and a business and accounting curriculum which stresses 
knowledge and skills in several fields blending with the extensive liberal arts curriculum 
of the University. 

In implementing this commitment to quality education, highly effective teaching is 
of paramount importance. Teaching is complemented by research which provides 
new perspectives to be shared by students and colleagues. 

The ultimate goal of the School is to graduate young men and women who are 
technically competent and who have the ability to assume managerial and leadership 
positions in business, government, and other organizations. 

Objectives 

The School of Business and Accountancy has four specific objectives: 

1. to offer sound academic programs in business and accountancy leading to the 
bachelor of science degree; 

2. to undertake on a continuous basis the professional development of its faculty; 

3. to serve the University community; and 

4. to maintain a productive association with the public, especially the business 
community. 

Currently, two programs of study leading to the bachelor of science degree are 
offered. Students may choose a major in either business or accountancy. 

The primary goal of the business program is to provide a general study of business 
which will enable graduates to enter the business world with a breadth of understand- 
ing of relevant business problems and concepts. The general, as opposed to special- 



203 

ized, orientation of the major in business is appropriate for Wake Forest University in 
light of both its strong liberal arts tradition and its small size. 

The major goal of the accountancy program is to give students a thorough under- 
standing of accounting theory and methodology. Study of the basic functions in 
business operations is included in the curriculum. The role of the accountant in 
analyzing and controlling operations is considered. Contemporary issues in account- 
ing practice are discussed. 

Both the business and accountancy programs are accredited by the American 
Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business. 

The School is proposing a five-year accountancy program that would lead to both 
a bachelor of science and a master of science degree. This program would be designed 
to prepare the student for a career in public accounting. In addition, the School would 
offer a four-year baccalaureate program that combines study in accounting and 
finance. This program would lead to a bachelor of science degree and would serve the 
student interested in pursuing an accounting or finance career in the corporate or non- 
profit sectors of the economy. If approved, these programs would be effective for 
students entering the School of Business and Accountancy in the fall of 1994 and 
would replace the current accountancy program. 

Admission 

Admission to the School is by formal application, and applicants will be screened 
by the Committee on Admission and Continuation of the School of Business and 
Accountancy. Before being considered for admission to the School, the applicant first 
must have been admitted to Wake Forest College. Minimum requirements for admis- 
sion to the School of Business and Accountancy are completion of sixty-five credits, a 
grade-point average of 2.2 on all courses attempted, a minimum of a C grade in 
Accounting 111 and Accounting 112, and completion of Economics 150, Mathematics 
108 or 111, and Speech 151. Students who have not met fully the above requirements 
may appeal to the School's Admission and Continuation Committee to be considered 
for admission to the School. 

The number of students who can be accommodated is limited. Therefore, the School 
reserves the right to grant or to deny admission or readmission to any student who 
meets the minimum requirements. Readmission to the School of Business and Ac- 
countancy first requires readmission to Wake Forest College, requirements for which 
are discussed on page 45. 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 

It is expected that most work toward degrees offered by the School of Business and 
Accountancy will be taken in the School. For students wishing to transfer credit from 
other schools, the following general guidelines apply: 

(a) Courses at another school passed with the minimum passing grade at that school 
may not be transferred. 

(b) Courses transferred in business and accountancy may be subject to validating 
examinations. 



204 

(c) No work in courses numbered 200 and above will be accepted from two-year 
schools. 

(d) Courses taken elsewhere in subjects not offered at the School of Business and 
Accountancy will not count necessarily towards the credits required in the School 
of Business and Accountancy. 

For the BS in business, a minimum of forty credits must be earned in the School of 
Business and Accountancy at Wake Forest University; for the BS in accountancy, the 
minimum credits earned in this school must total fifty two. 

Requirements for Continuation 

In addition to the requirements stated on pages 44-45, a student must be academi- 
cally responsible and must show satisfactory progress towards completing the re- 
quirements for the degree. The administration of the School of Business and Accoun- 
tancy will notify the student if satisfactory progress is not being made and, after 
consultation with the Admission and Continuation Committee, will decide if the 
student may continue as a major in this school. 

Requirements for Graduation 

The School of Business and Accountancy confers the bachelor of science degree with 
majors in accountancy and business. For the major in business, a student must 
complete the following course work: Accounting 111 and 112; Business 201, 203, 211, 
221, 231, 241, 251, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; Speech 151; 
and a minimum of twelve credits from Business 212, 213, 214, 215, 222, 223, 224, 225, 
226, 232, 233, 234, 237, 242, 252, 253, 270, 290, 291, 292 or accounting courses numbered 
200 or above. One elective may be taken from economics courses numbered 200 or 
above. 

For the major in accountancy, the following course work must be completed: 
Accounting 111, 112, 211, 212, 252, 253, 254, 261, 271, 272, and 273; Business 201, 211, 
221, 231, 241, 251, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; and Speech 
151. Requirements for the degree can be met in the normal four years with proper 
planning. Since this will require a heavy course load in the junior and senior years, 
students may find it advisable to attend a summer session to meet these requirements. 
If the proposed five-year master's program (discussed on page 203) is implemented, 
these requirements will change. 

In addition to the courses stipulated above, the student in business and accountancy 
must also meet the following requirements for graduation: 

(a) a minimum of 144 credits, including the basic and divisional requirements 
established by Wake Forest College; 

(b) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at Wake Forest; 

(c) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at other institu- 
tions; and 

(d) an overall 2.0 grade-point average on all business and accountancy courses, 
exclusive of courses repeated with a C grade or better. 



205 

Senior Honors Program 

Students with a grade-point average of at least 3.0 on all college work and 3.3 on all 
work in business and accountancy are invited to apply for admission to the honors 
program in business and accountancy. A project, paper, or readings, and an oral 
examination are required. Those who successfully complete the requirements specified 
by the School are graduated with the designation "Honors in Business" or "Honors in 
Accountancy." For additional information, interested students should consult a 
member of the faculty of the School of Business and Accountancy. 

Beta Gamma Sigma, National Honor Society 

Membership in Beta Gamma Sigma is the highest national recognition a student can 
receive in an undergraduate program in accounting or business. To be eligible for 
membership, a student must rank in the upper 5 percent of the junior class or the upper 
10 percent of the senior class. 

Courses of Instruction 

Business 

201. Business Statistics. (4) Techniques of analysis of numerical data, including 
descriptive statistics, probability theory, sampling theory, statistical inference, chi- 
square analysis, analysis of variance, and regression and correlation analysis. 

203. Quantitative Applications. (4) This course emphasizes the understanding and 
application of quantitative tools for managerial decision-making. Specific tools covered 
include linear programming, transportation, assignment problems, decision analysis, 
program evaluation and review technique, Markov analysis, and queuing models. 
P— Business 201. 

211. Organizational Theory and Behavior. (4) The study of macro and micro 
organizational design — structure, processes, development, climate, behavior, and 
performance evaluations. 

212. Human Resource Management. (4) The application of concepts from Business 
211 to human resource problems faced by general managers and their organizations. 
Activities include class discussions, case analyses, and projects. P — Business 211. 

213. Entrepreneurship. (4) The course is designed to acquaint the student with the 
scope, current trends and elements of entrepreneurship. Students will study new 
business opportunities and will design a business plan for a new business start-up 
concept. Topics covered will include the entrepreneurship environment including 
entrepreneurial personalities, assessing new ventures including financial planning, 
sources of capital, managing entrepreneurial growth, marketing and marketing 
research, and legal issues of entrepreneurship. P — Business 211, 221, and 231. 

214. Labor Policy. (4) A study of selected topics in labor-management relations in both 
the business and the public sector from the view of labor, management, and the public. 
P— Business 211. 



206 

215. International and Comparative Management. (2,4) This course deals with the 
global issues in management. Particular emphasis is placed on the different 
management philosophies and styles employed by managers in an international 
context. The course focuses on the complexities involved in operating in different 
cultures and the implications which these cultural differences have on managing 
organizations and their employees' behavior. P — Business 211. 

221. Principles of Marketing. (4) A study of the role of marketing in business and the 
economy. Emphasis is on the examination of marketing concepts, functions, institutions, 
and methods. P — Economics 150. 

222. Marketing Strategy. (4) Managerial techniques in planning and executing 
marketing programs in business and nonbusiness organizations. Emphasis is on the 
group experience in decision-making related to market segmentation, product 
innovation and positioning, channels of distribution, pricing, and promotion. Extensive 
use of cases, readings, and team presentations. P — Business 201 and 221. 

223. International Marketing. (4) Study of problems and opportunities in marketing 
overseas, analysis of cultural, economic, and political environment of foreign marketing 
operations, organization, and control of the multinational company. P — Business 221 
and senior standing. 

224. Marketing Research. (4) Introduction to fundamentals of research methodology 
and use of research information in marketing decision-making. Topics include research 
design, data collection methods, scaling, sampling, and alternate methods of statistical 
data analysis. Students design and execute their own research projects. P — Business 
201 and 221. 

225. Buyer Behavior. (4) Study of interdisciplinary behavioral science findings in 
buying decision processes and application of this knowledge to the design of marketing 
strategies and to the development of creative communication programs. P — Business 
221. 

226. Retail Management. (4) This course is designed to acquaint the student with the 
scope, current trends and elements of retail management. Topics covered will include 
market structure of retailing, consumer behavior and retail strategy, changing retail 
institution types, merchandising strategies, basic financial tools essential to retail 
profitability and current research in retailing. P — Business 221. 

231. Principles of Finance. (4) An introduction to the field of finance including 
financial management, investment analysis, and financial institutions and markets. 
Emphasis is placed on financial management at the level of the business entity or non- 
profit organization. P — Accounting 112 and Economics 150. 

232. Advanced Financial Management. (4) Management decision-making applied to 
the financial function, including investment, financing, dividend, and working capital 
decisions and their impact on the value of the firm. P — Business 231. 

233. Investment Analysis. (4) Study of investment alternatives, expected returns, and 
corresponding risks; valuation of stocks and bonds applying both fundamental and 



207 

technical analysis; survey of past and current methods of stock selection techniques, 
including portfolio considerations. P — Business 231. 

234. Multinational Financial Management. (4) Analysis of the international aspects 
of managerial finance. Emphasis upon institutional and environmental factors 
influencing capital acquisition and allocation. P — Business 231. 

237. Taxes and Their Role in Business and Personal Decisions. (4) A review of the 
basic principles of income, property, sales, and payroll-related taxes and an examination 
of their impact on business and personal decisions. Introduction to tax return 
preparation and tax planning techniques. Not open to accounting majors; credit not 
granted for both Business 237 and Accounting 271. P — Accounting 112. 

241. Production and Operations Management. (4) A study of the problems of the 
operations function in organizations, their interfaces with other functional areas, and 
the methods of their solutions. Topics include process selection, forecasting, aggregate 
planning, job shop scheduling, project management, MRP inventory management, 
facilities location and design, quality planning and control. P — Business 201. 

242. International Operations Management. (2) This course represents a relatively 
new dimension in the field of production and operations management. It is intended 
to introduce the student to the international aspects of managing manufacturing 
service operations drawing on relatively modest amount of literature — books, articles, 
and cases that have recently accumulated. The following topics will be covered: 
international exchange rates, international logistics, international facility location 
decisions, international sourcing, joint manufacturing ventures and their strategic 
implications and performance analysis of multinational production systems. P — 
Business 241. 

251. Management Information Systems. (4) Study of the development, design, and 
implementation of management information systems with introduction to the 
terminology, concepts, and trends in computer hardware and software. 

252. Advanced Topics in Information Technology. (2) The course will focus on a 
more in-depth coverage of information technology topics including telecommuni- 
cations/network management, expert systems and database management. Students 
will gain hands-on experience with database and expert systems software. Exposure 
to other computer-based applications such as business graphics will be included. 
Assignments will emphasize managerial decision making. P — Business 251. 

253. Global Information Systems Issues. (2) The course will focus on managerial and 
technological information systems issues from a global perspective. The role of 
information technology in a changing international business environment and the 
relevant cultural, political, legal, and economic implications for the multinational IS 
manager will be incorporated. P — Business 251. 

261. Legal Environment of Business. (4) A study of the legal environment in which 
business decisions are made in profit and nonprofit organizations. Emphasis is put 
upon how the law develops and how economic, political, social, international, and 



208 

ethical considerations influence this development. Includes substantive areas such as 
torts and government regulation of the employment relationship, the competitive 
marketplace and the environment. P — Accounting 111. 

270. Business Law. (4) A study of substantive law topics applicable to business 
transactions including property (personal, real and intellectual), contracts /UCC 
sales, agency and business organizations. P — Business 261. 

271. Business Policy. (4) A study of strategic planning and implementation in business 
policy formulation. Emphasis is placed on case study analysis of domestic and 
international business situations. Methods of solution include basic principles of 
strategic planning and the use of computer simulations. P — Business 211, 221, 231, and 
241. 

275. Business Law for Accountants. (2) Continued study of law applicable to business 
transactions with emphasis on areas with auditing and accounting implications. P — 
Business 261. 

281. Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas of business. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

290. International Management Study Tour. (4) An experiential learning course which 
provides students an opportunity to learn about management decisions and practices 
in selected Pacific Rim countries. A guided tour of manufacturing plants and home 
offices of foreign companies and American companies with branches located in the 
Far East. Background readings and assignments are required prior to the trip, and a 
subsequent paper (including library research) analyzing a topic from the tour also is 
expected. P — Business 211 and permission of instructor. Offered in the summer. 

291. International Marketing Field Study. (4) An experiential learning journey to a 
foreign setting to conduct an in-depth study of marketing functions and practices. A 
guided tour of plants and offices of local and multinational companies will be 
provided in the selected foreign countries. Background readings and research are 
required prior to the class trip. An investigation designed by the student is carried out 
during the trip and an evaluative paper follows. P — Business 221 and permission of 
instructor. Offered in the summer. 

292. International Finance Study Tour. (4) An experiential learning course which 
provides students with an opportunity to learn about international financial institutions, 
policies, and practices in overseas financial centers. The students will visit international 
banks, as well as the multinational manufacturing firms with global financial opera- 
tions. Background readings and assignments are required prior to the trip, and a 
subsequent paper (including library research) analyzing a topic from the tour will also 
be required. P — Business 231 and permission of the instructor. Offered in the summer. 

Accountancy 

110. Introduction to Financial and Managerial Accounting. (4) Basic accounting 
concepts and procedures used in the preparation of financial reports issued to 
stockholders, creditors, and managers of business enterprises. Open only to juniors 



209 

and seniors not majoring in business or accountancy. Cannot be substituted for 
Accounting 111. 

111. Accounting Principles I. (4) The basic accounting process and underlying 
principles pertaining to the preparation and interpretation of published financial 
statements. Sophomore standing. 

112. Accounting Principles II. (4) A continuation of Accounting 111 and an introduction 
to management accounting. P — Minimum of C in Accounting 111. 

211. Intermediate Accounting I. (4) A detailed analysis of theory and related problems 
for typical accounts in published financial statements. P — Minimum of C in Accounting 
112. 

212. Intermediate Accounting II. (4) A continuation of Accounting 211. P — Minimum 
of C in Accounting 211. 

252. Management Accounting. (4) Advanced study of management accounting, 
includingbudgeting, product-costing, cost allocation, standard costs, transfer-pricing, 
differential analysis, cost-behavior analysis, and emerging issues. P — Minimum of C 
in Accounting 112. 

253. Accounting Information Systems. (2) A study of the design and operation of 
accounting systems relating to the functions of purchasing, production, sales, and 
cash management. Emphasis is placed upon the necessary controls for reliable data. 
P — Accounting 252 and Business 251. 

254. Accounting in the Not-for-Profit Sector. (2) A study of the accounting practices 
and financial reporting standards of governmental and not-for-profit organizations. 
P — Accounting 211. 

261. Advanced Accounting Problems. (4) A study of the concepts and theories of 
accounting for business combinations, consolidated financial statements, international 
transactions and holdings, and partnerships. Interim and segment reporting are also 
examined. P — Minimum of C in Accounting 212. 

271. Income Tax Accounting I. (4) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated 
with individuals, partnerships, corporations, estates, and trusts. Introduction to tax 
research and planning. P — Minimum of C in Accounting 212. 

272. Income Tax Accounting II. (2) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated 
with corporations; review of current changes in the federal income tax law. P — 
Accounting 271. 

273. Auditing. (4) Examination of basic auditing concepts and relationships, and the 
auditor's reporting and professional responsibilities. Study of auditing procedures 
commonly used in public accounting and internal auditing. P — Accounting 212 and 
Accounting 253. 

275. CPA Review-Accounting Practice and Theory. (4) An intensive study of CPA- 
type problems found on the accounting practice and accounting theory sections of the 
CPA exam. P — Accounting 252 and 261. 



210 



278. Reading and Research. (2,3/ or 4) Directed study in specialized areas of 
accountancy. P — Permission of instructor. 

290. International Accounting. (4) An experiential learning course that provides 
students with an opportunity to learn about international and transnational accounting 
standards, policies, and practices. Students will participate in a study tour of several 
selected countries and will gain an international accounting and business perspective 
through meetings with individuals in government, professional accounting firms, 
financial institutions, and manufacturing companies. Background readings and 
assignments are required prior to the tour, and a paper analyzing an issue related to 
the tour must be completed after the tour. P — Accounting 211 and permission of the 
instructor. Offered in the summer. 




The side patio of the Benson University Center 



211 



Enrollment 



399 


868 


423 


926 


423 


861 


445 


930 


51 


65 



1,909 


1,741 


3,650 




127 
32 
32 


174 

9 

47 


301 

41 
79 



Fall 1991 

The Undergraduate Schools Men Women Total 

Seniors 469 

Juniors 503 

Sophomores 438 

Freshmen 485 

Unclassified 14 

Total Undergraduate 

The Graduate School (Reynolda Campus) 

Master's Program 

Doctoral Program 

Unclassified 

Total 191 230 421 

The Graduate School (Hawthorne Campus) 

Master's Program 
Doctoral Program 
Unclassified 
Total 

Total Graduate 

The School of Law 256 207 463 

The Babcock Graduate School of Management 

Resident Program 
Executive Program 
Evening Program 
Total 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Allied Health Programs 
Total 

Total Professional Schools 

University Total 3,108 2,571 5,679 



2 

42 




4 

45 

4 


6 

87 

4 


44 


53 


97 


235 


283 


518 





165 


49 


214 


77 


15 


92 


132 


63 


195 


374 


127 


501 


294 


139 


433 


40 


74 


114 


334 


213 


547 


964 


547 


1,511 





212 



Geographic Distribution — Undergraduates 

Men Women 



Total 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 



15 


20 


35 





1 


1 


2 


1 


3 


2 


2 


4 


17 


5 


22 


4 


5 


9 


40 


29 


69 


13 


15 


28 


2 


2 


4 


109 


97 


206 


144 


124 


268 





1 


1 


29 


16 


45 


8 


17 


25 


2 


2 


4 


4 


1 


5 


23 


19 


42 


5 


12 


17 


9 


1 


10 


70 


89 


159 


36 


22 


58 


6 


4 


10 


5 


3 


8 


8 


12 


20 


12 


10 


22 


1 


1 


2 


4 


2 


6 


2 


5 


7 


87 


65 


152 





1 


1 


67 


52 


119 


672 


689 


1,361 


1 


1 


2 


51 


33 


84 


7 


2 


9 


1 


1 


2 


91 


47 


138 


4 


4 


8 


83 


71 


154 


1 





1 


51 


61 


112 


31 


20 


51 


1 


1 


2 



213 



Men 



Women 



Total 



Vermont 


2 


Virginia 
Washington 
West Virginia 
Wisconsin 


113 

3 

32 

1 


Wyoming 


1 




Other Countries 


Bolivia 


1 


Brazil 


1 


British Virgin Islands 

Bulgaria 

Canada 


1 

3 


China 





France 


1 


Germany 
Greece 


2 
1 


Iceland 


2 


India 


1 


Italy 
Jamaica 
Japan 
Lesotho 



2 
1 



Mexico 


1 


Netherlands 


2 


Pakistan 


3 


Panama 


1 


Paraguay 
Peru 


1 
1 


Russia 


1 


Saudi Arabia 


1 


South Africa 


1 


Spain 
Sweden 


3 

1 


Switzerland 


1 


United Kingdom 


4 



4 
115 

30 
5 
1 



6 

228 

3 

62 

6 

2 



214 



The Board of Trustees 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1992 



Louise Broyhill, Banner Elk 
Paul H. Broyhill, Lenoir 
Victor I. Flow Jr., Winston-Salem 
Marvin D. Gentry, King 
Constance F. Gray, Winston-Salem 



William B. Greene Jr., Gray, TN 

Roberto J. Hunter, Scarsdale, NY 

Jeanette W. Hyde, Raleigh 

Louis B. Meyer, Wilson 

Allison K Overbay, Waynesville (student) 



Duncan J. Sinclair Jr., Laurinburg 
Terms Expiring December 31, 1993 



D. Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT 
C. C. Hope Jr., Charlotte 
James B. Hunt Jr., Raleigh 
James E. Johnson Jr., Charlotte 
Russell W. Meyer Jr., Wichita, KS 



Barbara B. Millhouse, Winston-Salem 
Michael G. Queen, Wilmington 
Zachary T. Smith, Winston-Salem 
Lonnie B. Williams, Wilmington 
J. Tylee Wilson, Jacksonville, FL 




A view toward the side of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 



215 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1994 



Murray C. Greason Jr., Winston-Salem 
Deborah S. Harris, Charlotte 
Harvey R. Holding, Atlanta, GA 
Lawrence D. Hopkins, Winston-Salem 
James W. Johnston, Winston-Salem 



Petro Kulynych, Wilkesboro 
John G. Medlin Jr., Winston-Salem 
Frances P. Pugh, Raleigh 
William B. Sansom, Knoxville, TN 
K. Wayne Smith, Dublin, OH 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1995 



Clifton L. Benson Jr., Raleigh 
Jean H. Gaskin, Charlotte 
Joseph C. Hough Jr., Nashville, TN 
Hubert B. Humphrey Jr., Greensboro 
Albert R. Hunt, Washington, D.C. 



Joseph W. Luter EI, Smithfield, VA 
Charles M. Shelton, Charlotte 
Adelaide A. Sink, Tampa, FL 
J. Lanny Wadkins Jr., Dallas, TX 
Kyle A. Young, Greensboro 



Life Trustees 



Bert L. Bennett, Winston-Salem 
Henry L. Bridges, Raleigh 
Albert L. Butler Jr., Winston-Salem 
Charles W. Cheek, Greensboro 
Egbert L. Davis Jr., Winston-Salem 
Thomas H. Davis, Winston-Salem 
Floyd Fletcher, Durham 
John C. Hamrick Sr., Shelby 
Weston P. Hatfield, Winston-Salem 



J. Samuel Holbrook, Southern Pines 

Lex Marsh, Charlotte 

James W. Mason, Laurinburg 

W. Boyd Owen, Waynesville 

George W. Paschal Jr., Raleigh 

J. Robert Philpott, Lexington 

Samuel C. Tatum, Greensboro 

T. Eugene Worrell, Charlottesville, VA 

J. Smith Young, Lexington 



Officers 
(For one-year terms beginning January 1, 1992) 

D. Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT, Chairman 

C. C. Hope Jr., Charlotte, Vice-Chairman 

Leon H. Corbett Jr., Winston-Salem, Secretary 

John G. Williard, Winston-Salem, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

Carlos O. Holder, Clemmons, Assistant Treasurer 



216 



The Board of Visitors 



Bruce M. Babcock, Winston-Salem, N. C. 
Chair, College Board of Visitors 

Wake Forest College and Graduate School 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1992 



L. M. Baker Jr., Winston-Salem 
Thomas M. Belk, Charlotte 
Connie W. Brothers, Nashville, TN 
David R. Bryant, Charleston, WV 
Josephine D. Clement, Durham 
Stanley Frank, Greensboro 
Eldridge C. Hanes, Winston-Salem 



Nancy C. Kester, Winston-Salem 
James Alfred Martin Jr., Winston-Salem 
John F. McNair III, Winston-Salem 
Edwin S. Melvin, Greensboro 
John P. Polychron, Winston-Salem 
Howard A. Rollins Jr., Atlanta, GA 
Elizabeth P. Valk, New York, NY 




A printmaking class in the Scales Fine Arts Center 



217 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1993 



James S. Boshart HI, New York, NY 
Germaine Bree, Winston-Salem 
Janet H. Brown, Washington, DC 
F. Hudnall Christopher Jr., 
Winston-Salem 



Henry D. Clarke Jr., London, England 
Roberta W. Irvin, Winston-Salem 
Thomas W. Lambeth, Winston-Salem 
Gillian Lindt, New York, NY 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1994 



Joyce B. Baldwin, Durham 
Robert H. Demsey, Rancho Sante Fe, CA 
David H. Diamont, Pilot Mountain 
Frank H. Dunn Jr., Charlotte 
Evelyn P. Foote, Accokeek, MD 
John D. Graham, Norfolk, VA 
Frank S. Ioppolo, Orlando, FL 



Joanne Kemp, Bethesda, MD 
Caroline L. Lattimore, Durham 
Dottie Martin, Raleigh 
A. C. Moore, Santa Barbara, CA 
L. Richardson Preyer, Greensboro 
J. Howard Stanback, Chicago, IL 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1995 



Bruce M. Babcock, Winston-Salem 
Kathleen Brelsford-French, Annandale, VA 
B. Macon Brewer Jr., New York, NY 
John W. Chandler, Washington, DC 
Callie Anne Clark, Hinsdale, IL 
Laura M. Elliott, Washington, DC 
Charles U. Harris, Delaplane, VA 
E. Michael Howlette, Richmond, VA 



Suzanne Jowdy Jabbour, Winston-Salem 
James T. Lambie, Winston-Salem 
Douglas R. Lewis, Winston-Salem 
William L. Marks, New Orleans, LA 
Martin Mayer, New York, NY 
Stephen L. Neal, Washington, DC 
R. Jay Sigel, Berwyn, PA 
Jonathan H Witherspoon, Winston-Salem 



Ex Officio Member 



Gary B. Lambert, President, Alumni Council, Arlington, VA 



218 



School of Business and Accountancy 



Advisory Council 



Gayle Anderson, Winston-Salem 
Ren. L. Babcock, Winston-Salem 
J. Paul Breitbach, Winston-Salem 
D. Hayes Clement, Greensboro 
J. William Disher, Charlotte 
W. Chester Evans III, Greensboro 
Jeffrey D. Frisby, Clemmons 
Kathryn W. Garner, Winston-Salem 
J. W. Goodhew III, Norcross, GA 
Emma Graham, Winston-Salem 
H. Wade Gresham, Durham 
Dennis Hatchell, Winston-Salem 
John A. Howard, Raleigh 
G.B. Jewell, Winston-Salem 
Dennis Johnson, Elkin 
Patrick G. Jones, Atlanta, GA 



Ronald A. Joyce, Winston-Salem 
John M. Kane, Raleigh 
John Keener, Greensboro 
Deborah Lambert, Washington, DC 
J. Leonard Martin, Winston-Salem 
C.A. Michael III, Winston-Salem 
William C. O'Neil Jr., Nashville, TN 
Jack Powell, Reston, VA 
Robert N. Pulliam, Winston-Salem 
Scott Richardson, Winston-Salem 
David C. Rose, Henderson 
Ernest J. Sewell, Winston-Salem 
Porter B. Thompson, Greensboro 
Robert S. Vaughan Sr., Charlotte 
Robert F. Watson, Charlotte 
William J. Wieners, Winston-Salem 
David E. Williams, Greensboro 




The Administration 



219 



Date following name indicates year of appointment 
University 



Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

John P. Anderson (1984) 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Tech.; MBA, 
Alabama (Birmingham), PE, N.C., Ala. 

Russell E. Armistead Jr. (1976) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
MBA, Wake Forest; CPA, N.C. 

Sandra Combs Boyette (1981) 

BA, UNC-Charlotte; MEd, Converse 

David G. Brown (1990) 

BA, Denison; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Leon H.Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Richard Janeway (1966) 

BA, Colgate; MD, Pennsylvania 

G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest 

John G. Williard (1958) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; CPA, N.C. 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Kenneth A. Zick (1975) 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; 
MLS, Michigan 

Laura Christian Ford (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest; EdM, JD, Virginia; 
AM, PhD, Princeton 

Samuel T. Gladding (1990) 
BA, MAEd, Wake Forest; 
MAR, Yale; PhD, UNC-Greensboro 



President 



Vice President for 
Administration and Planning 



Vice President for 
Health Services Administration 



Vice President for Public Affairs 



Provost 



Vice President and Counsel 



Executive Vice President for Health Affairs 
of Wake Forest University 

Vice President for University Relations 

Vice President for Financial 
Resource Management and Treasurer 

Vice President for Special Projects 



Vice President for Student Life and 
Instructional Resources 



Associate Provost 



Assistant to the President 
for Special Projects 



College 



Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 



Toby A. Hale (1970) 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Duke; EdD, Indiana 



Dean of the College 



Associate Dean 



220 



William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 
BA, Winston-Salem State; 
MA, Wake Forest 



Graduate School 



Gordon A. Melson (1977) 

BS, PhD, Sheffield (England) 



School of Law 



Robert K. Walsh (1989) 

BA, Providence; JD, Harvard 

H. Miles Foy III (1984) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Harvard; 
JD, Virginia 

James Taylor Jr. (1983) 

BA, JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Associate Dean 
Associate Dean 

Dean of the Graduate School 

Dean of the School of Law 
Associate Dean, Academic Affairs 



Associate Dean, External Affairs, 
and Director of Clinical Programs 



Carol B. Anderson (1985) 
BA, JD, Duke 

Carrie C. Bullock (1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Rachel L. Hilbun (1984) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Jean K. Holmes (1985) 

Jean K. Hooks (1970) 



Sally A. Irvin (1984) 

BA, JD, Stetson; MA, 

South Carolina; MLS, South Florida 

LeAnn P. Joyce (1977) 
BMu, Salem 

Linda J. Michalski (1983) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro 

Melanie E. Nutt (1969) 

Deborah Leonard Parker (1984) 
BA, MA, UNC-Greensboro; 
JD, Wake Forest 



Associate Director of Clinical Programs 

Director of Placement 

Assistant Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

Activities Coordinator 
Director of Computer Services and Administration 
Associate Director of Computer Services 



Registrar 

Director of Professional and Public Relations 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 
Director of Legal Research and Writing 



Ronald M. Price (1989) 

AB, Guilford; JD, Wake Forest 

Lloyd K. Rector (1984) 
BS, JD, Wake Forest 



Assistant Director of Continuing Legal Education 
Director of Continuing Legal Education 



221 



Babcock Graduate School of Management 



John B. McKinnon (1989) 

AB, Duke; MBA, Harvard 

James M. Clapper (1975) 

BS, MS, Rensselaer Poly. Inst.; 
PhD, Massachusetts (Amherst) 

James G. Ptaszynski (1984) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill; MS, Shippensburg 

Jean B. Hopson (1970) 

BS, Murray State; MA in LS, George Peabody; 
MBA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Thomas M. Brinkley (1991) 

BA, MAT, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MBA, Wake Forest 



Dean of the Babcock Graduate School 
of Management 

Associate Dean 



Associate Dean 



Assistant Dean, Registrar, and 
Director of Babcock Library 



Director of Executive Education 



Patricia B. Lowder (1988) 
BS, Virginia 

C. Michael LoPiano (1991) 

BBA, George Washington, 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Coleen J. Sullivan (1988) 

BA, Denison; MS, Indiana 



Director of External Relations and Publications 



Director of Admissions 
and Financial Aid 



Director of Career Planning and Placement 



Bowman Gray School of Medicine 



Richard Janeway (1966) 

BA, Colgate; MD, Pennsylvania 

Russell E. Armisteadjr. (1976) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

James N. Thompson (1979) 

BA, DePauw; MD, Ohio State 

Eugene W. Adcock EI (1989) 

BS, Davidson; MD, Wake Forest 

John D. Tolmie (1970) 

BA, Hobart; MD, McGill 

William C. Park Jr. (1973) 

BS, The Citadel; MBA, Wake Forest 

B. Hofler Milam (1981) 
BS, Wake Forest 

J. Kiffin Penry (1979) 

BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Lawrence D. Smith (1983) 
BS, MS, Illinois 



Executive Vice President for Health Affairs 
of Wake Forest University and Executive Dean 

Vice President for Health Services Administration 
and Associate Dean for Administrative Services 



Associate Dean 

Associate Dean for Professional Affairs 

Associate Dean for Academic Affairs 

Assistant Dean for Clinical Services 

Assistant Dean for Planning and 
Resource Management 

Senior Associate Dean for Research Development 
Associate Dean for Research Development 



222 



Patricia L. Adams (1979) 

BA, Duke; MD, Wake Forest 

Michael R. Lawless (1974) 

BA, Texas (Austin); MD, 

Texas Medical Branch (Galveston) 

Lewis H. Nelson III (1976) 
BS, North Carolina State; 
MD, Wake Forest 

James C. Leist (1974) 

BS, Southeastern Missouri State; 
MS, EdD, Indiana 

Paul M. LoRusso (1987) 

BS, Syracuse; MBA, Florida State 

J. Dennis Hoban (1978) 

BA, Villanova; MS, EdD, Indiana 

David P. Friedman (1990) 

BS, Pittsburgh; MS, PhD, New York 
Medical College 

Julie M. Watson (1991) 

BA, Coe; MA, Johns Hopkins 

Velma G. Watts (1983) 

BS, MA, North Carolina A&T; 
MEd, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) 

BA, MSLS, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Associate Dean for Student Affairs 
Deputy Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

Associate Dean for Admissions 

Associate Dean for Continuing Education 

Associate Dean for Information Services 



Director of the Office of Educational 
Research and Services 

Assistant Dean for Basic Science 
Research Development 



Assistant Dean for Research Administration 
Director of Minority Affairs 

Librarian 



Thomas C. Taylor (1971) 

BS, MA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
PhD, Louisiana State; CPA, N.C. 

Michael Thompson (1990) 

BA, JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Stephen Ewing (1971) 

BS, Howard Payne; MBA, Baylor; 
PhD, Texas Tech 



School of Business and Accountancy 

Dean of the School of Business and Accountancy 



Assistant Dean 



Coordinator of Business Program 



Dale R. Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; DBA, Kentucky 



Coordinator of Accountancy Program 
Summer Session 



Lula M. Leake (1964) 

BS, Louisiana State; 

MRE, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 



Dean of the Summer Session 



223 



John P. Anderson (1984) 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Tech.; 
MBA, Alabama (Birmingham) 



Ross A. Griffith (1966) 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, UNC-Greensboro 

Larry R. Henson (1981) 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla) 

Lula M. Leake (1964) 

BS, Louisiana State; 

MRE, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

James L. Ferrell (1975) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 

MS, Virginia Commonwealth 

W. Derald Hagen (1978) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Carlos O. Holder (1969) 

BBA, MBA, Wake Forest 

James W. Kausch (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) 
BS, South Carolina 

C. Monroe Whitt (1986) 
MBA, Wake Forest 



Planning and Administration 

Vice President for Administration and Planning 



Assistant Vice President for 
Administration and Planning 

Assistant Vice President for Data Services 

Assistant Vice President for 
Administration and Planning 

Director of Personnel 



Assistant Controller 

Controller and Assistant Treasurer 

Purchasing Coordinator 

Registrar 

Director of the Physical Facilities 



Legal Department 



Leon H. Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BA, JD, Wake Forest 

J. Reid Morgan (1980) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Donna H. Hamilton (1988) 

AB, Drury; JD, Wake Forest 

Beverly C. Moore (1989) 

BA, Mount Holyoke; JD, Wake Forest 



Student Life 



Kenneth A. Zick (1975) 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; MLS, Michigan 



Vice President and Counsel 

University Counsel 

Assistant University Counsel 

Assistant University Counsel 



Vice President for Student Life 
and Instructional Resources 



Harold R. Holmes (1987) 

BS, Hampton; MBA, Fordham 

Mary T. Beil (1985) 

BA, Hiram; MEd, Kent State 



Dean of Student Services 
Director of the Benson University Center 



224 



Mark A. Hall (1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MEd, UNC-Greensboro 

Edgar D. Christman (1956, 1961) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; STM, Union Theo. Seminary 

William C. Currin (1988) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
BD, Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Jessica B. Pollard (1988) 

BS, Fisk; MA, North Carolina Central 

Ernest M. Wade (1986) 

BS, Johnson C. Smith; MS, Wisconsin; 
PhD, Michigan State 



Associate Director of the 
Benson University Center 

University Chaplain 

Director of Career Services 

Assistant Director of Career Services 
Director of Minority Affairs 



Dennis Gregory (1986) 

AA, Ferrum; BA, James Madison; 
MA, EdD, Virginia 

Connie L. Carson (1986) 

BS, MEd, North Carolina State 

Daniel J. Bertsos (1990) 

BA, Central Michigan; 

MA, Miami University of Ohio 

Michael Ford (1981) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MDiv, Gordon-Conwell Theo. Seminary 

Natascha L. Romeo (1990) 
BA, South Carolina; 
MEd, UNC-Greensboro 

Cecil D. Price (1991) 

BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Sylvia T. Bell 

RN, N.C. Baptist Hosp. School of Nursing 



Director of Residence Life and Housing 



Associate Director of Residence Life 
and Housing 

Associate Director of Residence Life 
and Housing 



Director of Student Development 



Health Educator 



Director of the Student Health Service 



Assistant Director-Administration of 
Student Health Service 



Marianne A. Schubert (1977) 
BA, Dayton; 
MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Sandra L. Chadwick (1989) 
BA, BS, Texas (Austin); 
MA, Columbia; PhD, Fielding 



Director of the University Counseling Center 
Director of Learning Assistance Program 



Chaplain's Office 

Edgar D. Christman (1954) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; STM, Union Theo. Seminary 

David L. Fouche (1982) 
BA, Furman; MDiv, 
Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 



Chaplain 



Assistant Chaplain and 
Baptist Campus Minister 



225 



Ross A. Griffith (1966) 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, UNC-Greensboro 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) 
BS, South Carolina 

Hallie S. Arrington (1977) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest 

Susan C. Hunter (1984) 
BS, Louisville 

Judy G. Walker (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Institutional Research 

Director of Institutional Research 



Registrar 

Associate Registrar 

Assistant Director of Institutional Research 

Assistant Registrar 



Larry R. Henson (1981) 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla); 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Buck Bayliff (1988) 
BA, Elon 

D. Jean Seeman (1977) 

BA, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, Georgia 

Ken L. Carmack (1983) 

Jay L. Dominick (1991) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Georgetown 

Jeri Nelson (1985) 

BS, UNC-Greensboro 

Tim Covey (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest 



Data Services 

Assistant Vice President for Data Services 



Director of Communication Services 

Academic Computing Manager 

Administrative Computing Manager 
Network/Operations Manager 

Microcomputer Center Business Manager 

Microcomputer Technical Coordinator 



William G. Starling (1958) 
BBA, Wake Forest 

Thomas O. Phillips (1982) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Martha Blevins Allman (1982) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Steven Brooks (1989) 

BA, MA, EdD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Wayne E. Johnson (1985) 

BA, Northwestern; JD, Wake Forest 

Karen B. Grogan (1988) 
BA, Randolph Macon 



Admissions and Financial Aid 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 



Associate Director of Admissions and 
Scholarship Officer 

Associate Director of Admissions 
Associate Director of Financial Aid 
Assistant Director of Financial Aid 

Assistant Director of Admissions 



226 



Robert P. Jackson (1989) 

BA, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Jane E. O'Sullivan (1991) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Elizabeth A. Bilyeu (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

K. Brooke Fenderson (1991) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Nevan A. Fisher (1991) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Timothy M. McConnell (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Career Services 



William C. Currin (1988) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
BD, Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Susan Brooks (1989) 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; MAEd, Wake Forest; 
MBA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MDiv, Iliff School of Theology 

Jessica B. Pollard (1988) 

BS, Fisk; MA, North Carolina Central 



Assistant Director of Admissions 
Assistant Director of Admissions 
Admissions Counselor 
Admissions Counselor 
Admissions Counselor 
Admissions Counselor 

Director of Career Services 



Director of Internships and 
Experiential Learning Programs 



Assistant Director of Career Services 



Public Affairs 



Sandra Combs Boyette (1981) 

BA, UNC-Charlotte; MEd, Converse 

T. Cleve Callison (1982) 

BA, Duke; MA, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 

Kevin P. Cox (1990) 

BA, East Texas State; MA, Wake Forest 

Brian H. Eckert (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

David W. Fyten (1991) 

BA, Minnesota; MA, Iowa; MFA, Iowa 

Teresa Brown Grogan (1976) 

Cherin Chewning Poovey (1987) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Bernard H. Quigley (1989) 
BA, Massachusetts 

Jim A. Steele (1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Vice President for Public Affairs 

WFDD Station Manager 

Assistant Director, Media Relations 

Director of Media Relations 

University Editor 

Printing Services Manager 

Director of Publications and 
Associate University Editor 

Staff Writer 
Media Relations Officer 



227 



University Relations 



G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Robert T. Baker (1978) 

BA, MS, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) 



Vice President for University Relations 



Assistant Vice President and 
Director of Development 



Julius H. Corpening (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest; BD, 
Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Robert D. Mills (1972) 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Minta Aycock McNally (1978) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Elizabeth K. Blanchard (1991) 
AB, Randolph-Macon 

Dorothy Bryan (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

James R. Bullock (1985) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Cathy B. Chinlund (1986) 
BS, East Carolina 

R. Kriss Dinkins (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Scott K. DuBois (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

John W. Gillon (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kerry M. King (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kay Doenges Lord (1985) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Sheila Massey (1986) 

BA, Winston-Salem State 

Sonja Harvey Murray (1990) 
BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Joanne F. O'Brien (1989) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Allen H. Patterson Jr. (1987) 
BS, Wake Forest 



Katherine Rand (1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, UNC-Greensboro 



Assistant Vice President for University Relations 



Assistant Vice President and 
Director of Capital Campaign 

Assistant to the Vice President 
for University Relations 

Director of Law Alumni and Development 

Director of Prospect Research 

Director of Capital Support 

Manager of Support Services 

Director of Corporate Relations 

Director of Alumni and Parent Programs 

Director of Babcock Alumni Development 

Staff Writer 

Director of Alumni Activities 

Gift Stewardship 

Director of College Fund 

Director of Foundation Relations 

Director of Planned Giving 

Director of Reunion Programs 



228 



Robert Spinks (1989) 

BA, Furman; MRE, New Orleans 
Theo. Seminary; MA, Iowa 

Claudia A. Stitt (1978) 

BS, East Tennessee State 

Kellie Tabor (1991) 
BA, Wake Forest 

James G.Welsh Jr. (1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Bruce A. Young (1991) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Director of Development for Divinity School 

Director of Records and Support Services 

Development Associate 

Associate Director of Alumni Activities 

Alumni Activities Officer 



Graylyn Conference Center 



Thomas P. Gilsenan (1985) 
BS, California (Berkeley) 



General Manager and Director of the 
Graylyn Conference Center 



Jane Rachlin (1979) 



Assistant Director 



Financial Resource Management 



John G. Williard (1958) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; CPA, N.C. 

Richard T. Clay (1956) 
BBA, Wake Forest 

Richard D. Whisnant (1960) 
BBA, Wake Forest 

Barry C. Schline 

BBA, Notre Dame; MBA, New Haven 



Vice President for Financial Resource 
Management and Treasurer 

Director of University Stores 

Assistant Director, University Stores 

Real Estate Manager 



Rhoda K. Channing (1989) 

BA, Brooklyn; MS in LS, Columbia; 
MBA, Boston College 



Libraries 

Director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 



Charles M. Getchell Jr. (1986) 

BA, Tulane; MA, Mississippi; 
MLS, Texas 

John Via (1977) 

BA, Virginia; MS in LS, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 



Assistant Director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 



Assistant Director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 



Thomas M. Steele (1985) 

BA, Oklahoma State; MLS, Oregon; JD, Texas 

Jean B. Hopson (1970) 

BS in Ed, Murray State; MS in LS, George 
Peabody (Vanderbilt); MBA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, Vanderbilt 



Director of Law Library Services 

Director of the Babcock Graduate School 
of Management Library 



229 



Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) 

BA, MS in LS, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Director of the Coy C. Carpenter Library, 
Cn 



Athletics 



G. Eugene Hooks (1956) 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
EdD, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) 

Dianne Dailey (1988) 

BA, Salem; MEd, North Carolina State 



Bowman Cray School of Medicine 



Director of Athletics 



Director of Women 's Athletics 



Harold C. Tedford (1965) 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Louisiana State 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 

Mary R. Wayne (1980) 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State 

Jonathan H. Christman (1983) 
AB, Franklin and Marshall; 
MFA, Massachusetts 

John E. R. Friedenberg (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Carnegie-Mellon 

Patricia W. Toole (1990) 

AB, Smith; MA, Wake Forest 



Wake Forest University Theater 

Director of the University Theater 



Associate Director of Theater 

Theater Designer 

Technical Director 

Theater Manager 
Director of Theater Speech 



Other Administrative Offices 



James P. Barefield (1963) 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mary Jane Berman (1986) 
BA, Harpur; MA, 
PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Nicholas B. Bragg (1970) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Julie Cole (1988) 

BS, MA, Appalachian 

Gloria E. Cooper (1987) 
BA, Maryland 

Mary K. DeShazer (1982) 

BA, Western Kentucky; MA, Louisville; 
PhD, Oregon 

Thomas M. Elmore (1962) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, George Peabody; 
PhD, Ohio State 



Coordinator of the Honors 
and the Venice Programs 

Director/Curator of the 
Museum of Anthropology 



Executive Director of the Reynolda House 
Museum of American Art 

Director of Research and Sponsored Programs 

Director of Equal Opportunity/ 
Affirmative Action 

Coordinator of Women 's Studies 



Director of Counseling Program 



230 



Victor Faccinto (1978) 

BA, MA, California State (Sacramento) 

Richard P. Faude (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Montana State 

Susan L. Faust (1991) 

BA, Ma, Arkansas (Fayette ville) 

Brian Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); 
DMA, Illinois 

David W. Hadley (1966) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Win-chiat Lee (1983) 

BA, Cornell; PhD, Princeton 

Patrick E. Moran (1989) 

BA, MA, Stanford; MA, National 
Taiwan University; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Martin Province (1982) 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado 

Richard D. Sears (1964) 

BA, Clark; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Judith K. Shannon (1980) 

Martine Sherrill (1985) 

BFA, UNC-Greensboro 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke 

Ross Smith (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest 

George William Trautwein (1983) 

BMus, Oberlin; MMus, Cleveland 
Inst, of Music; MusD, Indiana 

Robert L. Utley Jr. (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Jody L. Walker (1986) 

BA, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 



Director of the Art Gallery 

Head of Information Technology Center 
(Z. Smith Reynolds Library) 

Assistant to the Vice President 
for Special Projects 

Director of Choral Ensembles 



Coordinator of the London Program 
Coordinator of Asian Studies 



Coordinator of East Asian Languages 
and Literatures 



Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
and Director of Bands 

Director of International Studies 



Adviser to International Students 
Curator of Slides and Prints 



Coordinator of Humanities and Director of 
Program of Academic Support Services 

Debate Coach 



Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
ana the Secrest Artists Series 



Director of the Tocqueville Forum 



Study Abroad Coordinator 
(International Studies) 



231 

The Undergraduate Faculties 

Date following name indicates year of appointment. 

John M. Aho (1988) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Exeter (England) 

Helen W. Akinc (1987) Adjunct Instructor in Business 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; (School of Business and Accountancy) 

MBA, SUNY (Binghamton) (Part-time) 

Umit Akinc (1982) Associate Professor of Business 

BS, Middle East Tech. University (School of Business and Accountancy) 

(Ankara); MBA, Florida State; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Gary R. Albrecht (1987, 1990) Adjunct Associate Professor of Economics 

BA, Tulane; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Jane W. Albrecht (1987) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Wright State; MA, PhD, Indiana (Spanish; Leave, 1991-92) 

William T. Alderson (1990) Adjunct Professor of History 

AB, Colgate; MA, PhD, Vanderbilt (Part-time) 

Brian Allen (1977) Lecturer in Art History (London) 

BA, East Anglia; MA, PhD, London (Department of Art, Part-time) 

Edward E. Allen (1991) Assistant Professor of Mathematics 

BS, Brigham Young, MA, PhD, California (San Diego) 

Eva M. Allen (1990) Instructor in Mathematics 

BS, Gardner- Webb; MA, Wake Forest 

Nina Stromgren Allen (1984) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, Wisconsin; MS, PhD, Maryland 

Ralph D. Amen (1962) Professor of Biology 

BA, MA, Northern Colorado; MBS, PhD, Colorado 

Gunnar Anderson (1990) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Lawrence; MA, Northwestern; PhD, Chicago (Spanish) 

Paul R. Anderson (1990) Assistant Professor of Physics 

BS, Wisconsin (Madison); MA, PhD, 
California (Santa Barbara) 

John L. Andronica (1969) Professor of Classical Languages 

BA, Holy Cross; MA, Boston College; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Maya Angelou (1982) Reynolds Professor of American Studies 

LittD, Smith, Lawrence, Columbia College 
(Chicago), Atlanta, Wheaton; LHD, Mills, Wake 
Forest, Occidental, Arkansas, Claremont, Kean 

Guy M. Arcuri (1989) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, North Carolina State; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill (Spanish) 

E. Pendleton Banks (1954) Professor of Anthropology 

BA, Furman; AM, PhD, Harvard 



232 



Sarah E. Barbour (1985) 

BA, Maryville; MA, Paris; PhD, Cornell 

Janice B. Bardsley (1989) 

BA, California (Davis); 

MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

James P. Barefield (1963) 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Bernadine Barnes (1989) 

BA, Illinois (Urbana-Champaign); 
MA, Pittsburgh; PhD, Virginia 



Richard C. Barnett (1961) 

BA, Wake Forest; MEd, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 



Assistant Professor of Japanese 
(East Asian Languages and Literatures) 



Professor of History 
Assistant Professor of Art 



Phillip G. Batten (1991) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Yale 
Divinity School; MA, Wake Forest 

John V. Baxley (1968) 

BS, MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Wisconsin 



H. Kenneth Bechtel (1981) 

BA, MA, North Dakota; PhD, Southern Illinois 
(Carbondale) 

Robert C. Beck (1959) 
BA, PhD, Illinois 

S. Douglas Beets (1987) 
BS, Tennessee; 
MAcc, PhD, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Donald B. Bergey (1978) 
BS, MA, Wake Forest 



Professor of History 
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 



Professor of Mathematics 



Associate Professor of Sociology 
(Leave, Spring 1992) 



Professor of Psychology 



Assistant Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Instructor in Health and Sport Science 
(Part-time) 



Mary Jane Berman (1986) 
BA, Harpur; 
MA, PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 



Director/Curator of the Museum of Anthropology 
and Assistant Professor of Anthropology 



Michael J. Berry (1985) 

BS, Jacksonville State; MA, South- 
eastern Louisiana; PhD, Texas A&M 



Associate Professor of Health and Sport Science 



Deborah L. Best (1972, 1978) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Zanna Beswick (1987) 

BA, Hons, Bristol (England) 

Mary Lucy Bivins (1985) 

BA, Salem; MA, Wake Forest 

Terry D. Blumenthal (1987) 

BS, Alberta (Edmonton); MS, PhD, Florida 

Susan Harden Borwick (1982) 

BM, BME, Baylor; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Professor of Psychology 

Lecturer in Theater (London) 
(Department of Theater, Part-time) 

Adjunct Instructor in Theater 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 
(Leave, Spring 1992) 

Professor of Music 



233 



Stephen B. Boyd (1985) 

BA, Tennessee; MDiv, ThD, Harvard 
Divinity School 

Debra Boyd-Buggs (1989) 

BA, Iowa; MA, Rutgers, PhD, Ohio State 

Anne Boyle (1986) 

BA, Wilkes College; MA, PhD, Rochester 

Robert W. Brehme (1959) 

BS, Roanoke; MS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Linda Carter Brinson (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MFA, UNC-Greensboro 

David G. Brown (1990) 

AB, Denison; PhD, Princeton 

Carole L. Browne (1980) 

BS, Hartford; PhD, Syracuse 

Robert A. Browne (1980) 

BS, MS, Dayton; PhD, Syracuse 

David B. Broyles (1966) 

BA, Chicago; BA, Florida; MA, PhD, 
California (Los Angeles) 

David P. Bumgarner (1990) 
BS, Appalachian 

Julian C. Burroughs Jr. (1958) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Michigan 

Daniel A. Cafias (1987) 

BS, Tecnologico de Monterrey (Mexico); 
MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Richard D. Carmichael (1971) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Christa G. Carollo (1985) 

BA, UNC-Greensboro; MA, Duke 

Simone M. Caron (1991) 

BA, Bridgewater State, MA, Northeastern; 
PhD, Clark 

John A. Carter Jr. (1961) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Stewart Carter (1982) 

BME, Kansas; MS, Illinois; PhD, Stanford 

David W. Catron (1963) 

BA, Furman; PhD, George Peabody 



Associate Professor of Religion 
(Leave, Spring 1992) 



Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 
(French; Leave, 1991-92) 

Assistant Professor of English 
(Leave, Spring 1992) 

Professor of Physics 

Lecturer in Journalism 
(Department of English, Part-time) 

Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Biology 
(Leave, Fall 1991) 

Associate Professor of Biology 
(Leave, Fall 1991) 

Professor of Politics 

(Leave, Fall 1991) 

(Venice, Spring 1992) 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

« 

Professor of Speech Communication 

Associate Professor of Computer Science 



Professor of Mathematics 

Lecturer in German 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of History 



Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Music 

Associate Professor of Psychology 



234 



Sarah S. Catron (1989) 

BA, Furman; MA, George Peabody 
(Vanderbilt); PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Dorothy J. Cattle (1989) 



BA, Washington; MA, PhD, New Mexico 

Jonathan H. Christman (1983) 

AB, Franklin and Marshall; MFA, Massachusetts 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology 



Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 



David Cody (1990) 

BA, Tufts; MA, PhD, Brown 



John E. Collins (1970) 

BS, MS, Tennessee; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; MA, PhD, Princeton 

William E. Conner (1988) 

BS, Notre Dame; MS, PhD, Cornell 



Visiting Assistant Professor of English 
Professor of Religion 



Jule M. Connolly (1985) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MEd, South Carolina 

Leon P. Cook Jr. (1957) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst. & SU; 
MS, Tennessee; CPA, Arkansas 

Nancy J. Cotton (1977) 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; PhD, Columbia 

Allin F. Cottrell (1989) 

BA, Oxford (Merton College); PhD, Edinburgh 



Brian F. Crisp (1991) 

BA, Hope College; PhD, Michigan 

Patricia M. Cunningham (1978) 

BA, Rhode Island; MS, Florida State; 
EdS, Indiana State; PhD, Georgia 

James F. Curran (1988) 

BAAS, Delaware; MA, PhD, Rice 

George B. Cvijanovich (1989) 
PhD, Bern (Switzerland) 

Dale Dagenbach (1990) 

BA, New College; MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Mary M. Dalton (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, UNC-Greensboro 

Thomas B. Dalton III (1990) 
BS, Arizona State 

Sayeste A. Daser (1978) 
BS, Middle East Tech 
University (Ankara); MS, Ege (Izmir); 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Associate Professor of Biology 

Instructor in Mathematics 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Assistant Professor of Politics 



Professor of Education 
(Leave, Spring 1992) 



Assistant Professor of Biology 

Adjunct Professor of Physics 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 

Instructor in Speech Communication 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 



Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



235 



Huw M. L. Davies (1983) 

BSc, University College (Cardiff); PhD, East Anglia 



Associate Professor of Chemistry 



P. Candace Deans (1989) 
BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; 



MEd, North Carolina State; MBA, East Carolina; 
PhD, South Carolina 



Assistant Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Mary K. DeShazer (1982, 1987) 
BA, Western Kentucky; 
MA, Louisville; PhD, Oregon 



Associate Professor of English and Women's Studies 



Arun P. Dewasthali (1975) 

BS, Bombay; MS, PhD, Delaware 

Constance L. Dickey (1991) 

BA, Portland State; MA, Washington 
(Seattle); PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Ronald V. Dimock Jr. (1970) 

BA, New Hampshire; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, California (Santa Barbara) 

Patricia Dixon (1986) 

BM, North Carolina School of the Arts; 
MM, UNC-Greensboro 

Kevin M. Doak (1989) 

BA, Quincy College, MA, PhD, Chicago 

James H. Dodding (1979) 

Diploma, Rose Bruford College of Speech and 
Drama (London); Cert., Birmingham University; 
Cert., Westhill Training College (Birmingham); 
Diploma, Theater on the Balustrade (Prague) 



Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 



Professor of Biology 



Part-time Instructor in Music 



Dana Faculty Fellow and 
Assistant Professor of History 

Visiting Lecturer in Theater 
(Spring 1992) 



Thomas E. Dougherty Jr. (1977) 
BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, PhD, 
Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Robert H. Dufort (1961) 
BA, PhD, Duke 

John S. Dunkelberg (1983) 
BS, Clemson; 
MBA, PhD, South Carolina 

John R. Earle (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Eddie V. Easley (1984) 
BS, Virginia; 
MS, PhD, Iowa State 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Religion 
(Part-time) 



Professor of Psychology 



Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Professor of Sociology 



Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



C. Drew Edwards (1980) Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, Furman; MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Florida State (Part-time) 



Bashir El-Beshti (1990) 

BA, Tripoli University (Libya); 

MA, Colorado State; PhD, California (Berkeley) 



Assistant Professor of English 



236 



Leo Ellison Jr. (1957) 

BS, MS, Northwestern State 



Associate Professor of Health and Sport Science 



Thomas M. Elmore (1962) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MA, George Peabody; PhD, Ohio State 

Helen V. Emmitt (1991) 

AB, Bryn Mawr; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Gerald W. Esch (1965) 

BS, Colorado College; MS, PhD, Oklahoma 

Paul D. Escott (1988) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Duke 

Andrew V. Ettin (1977) 

BA, Rutgers; MA, PhD, Washington (St. Louis) 

Herman E. Eure (1974) 

BS, Maryland State; PhD, Wake Forest 

David K. Evans (1966) 

BS, Tulane; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Robert H. Evans (1983) 

BA, Ohio Wesleyan; MS, New Hampshire; 
PhD, Colorado 

Stephen Ewing (1971) 
BS, Howard Payne; 
MBA, Baylor; PhD, Texas Tech. 

David L. Faber (1984) 



Professor of Education 

(Counseling Psychology) 

(Department of Education) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Professor of Biology 

Reynolds Professor of History 
(Leave, 1991-92) 

Professor of English 

Professor of Biology 

Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Education 



Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Associate Professor of Art 



AA, Elgin; BFA, Northern Illinois; MFA, Southern Illinois 

Associate Professor of Psychology 



Philippe R. Falkenberg (1969) 

BA, Queens (Ontario); PhD, Duke 

Susan L. Faust (1992) 

BA, MA, Arkansas (Fayetteville) 

Ramiro Fernandez (1987) 

BA, Miami; MA, Middlebury College 
in Madrid; PhD, Temple 



Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 



David Finn (1988) 

BS, Cornell; MFA, Massachusetts College of Art 

James C. Fishbein (1988) 

BA, Johns Hopkins; PhD, Brandeis 

Jack D. Fleer (1964) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Doyle R. Fosso (1964) 

AB, Harvard; MA, Michigan; PhD, Harvard 



Visiting Instructor in Art 
(Part-time) 

Dana FacultyFellow and Assistant 
Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Politics 



Professor of English 



237 



David W. Frauenfelder (1991) 

BA, California (Santa Cruz); MA, PhD, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 

Donald E. Frey (1972) 

BA, Wesleyan; MDiv, Yale; PhD, Princeton 

John E. R. Friedenberg (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Carnegie-Mellon 



Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Classical Languages 



Professor of Economics 
Lecturer in Theater 



Mary Lusky Friedman (1987) 

BA, Wellesley; MA, PhD, Columbia 



Associate Professor of Romance Languages 
(Spanish; Salamanca, Spring 1992) 



N. Ganapathisubramanian (1986) 
BS, Madura College (India); 
MSc, PhD, Indian Insti. of Technology (Madras) 



Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



Cynthia Gentry (1988) 

BA, Frostburg State; MA, PhD, Tulane 

J. Whitfield Gibbons (1971) 

BS, MA, Alabama; PhD, Michigan State 

Michael J. T. Gilbert (1988) 

BA, Bucknell; MA, MM, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 

Samuel T. Gladding (1990) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest; MA, Yale; 
PhD, UNC-Greensboro 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology 

Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Assistant Professor of German 

Professor of Education 



David M. Glass (1989) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Youngstown State; MA, Wake Forest; MA, Virginia (Spanish) 



Kathleen M. Glenn (1974) 
BA, MA, PhD, Stanford 

Thomas S. Goho (1977) 

BS, MBA, Pennsylvania 
State; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Louis R. Goldstein (1979) 
BM, Oberlin; MFA, 
California Inst, of the Arts; DMA, Eastman 

Harold O. Goodman (1958) 
BA, MA, PhD, Minnesota 

Bobbi M. Goodnough (1987) 

BS, Winthrop; MEd, Toledo 

Brian L. Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); 
DMA, Illinois 

Margaret C. Gregory (1990) 

BA, Wellesley; MA, Michigan 

David W. Hadley (1966) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 



Wake Forest University Professor 
of Romance Languages (Spanish) 

Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Associate Professor of Music 

Adjunct Professor of Biology 
Instructor in Health and Sport Science 



Director of Choral Ensembles 
(Department of Music) 



Visiting Lecturer in Art 
(Part-time) 

Professor of History 



238 



William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Claire Holton Hammond (1978) 

BA, Mary Washington; PhD, Virginia 

J. Daniel Hammond (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Virginia 

Philip S. Hammond (1990) 

BA, Gettysburg; MS, PhD, Michigan 

Phillip J. Hamrick Jr. (1956) 

BS, Morris Harvey; PhD, Duke 

Charles Hands (1988) 

BS, Winston-Salem State 



James S. Hans (1982) 

BA, MA, Southern Illinois; PhD, Washington 

Hanna M. Hardgrave (1985) 

BA, Brown; MA, PhD, Chicago 

KatyJ.Harriger(1985) 

BA, Edinboro State; MA, PhD, Connecticut 

Catherine T. Harris (1980) 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; MA, Duke: PhD, Georgia 

J. Kline Harrison (1990) 

BS, Virginia; PhD, Maryland 

Negley Boyd Harte (1978) 

BS, London School of Economics 

Elmer K. Hayashi (1973) 

BA, California (Davis); 

MS, San Diego State; PhD, Illinois 

Michael David Hazen (1974) 
BA, Seattle Pacific; 
MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Kansas 

Terry C. Hazen (1988) 

BS, MS, Michigan State; PhD, Wake Forest 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Robert A. Heckman (1991) 
BS, PhD, Georgia Tech 

Robert A. Hedin (1980) 

BA, Luther; MFA, Alaska 



Associate Professor of Russian 

Associate Professor of Economics 
(London, Spring 1992) 

Professor of Economics 
(Leave, Spring 1992) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Professor of English 



Lecturer in Philosophy 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Politics 
Professor of Sociology 



Assistant Professor of Business 
(School of Business & Accountancy) 

Lecturer in History (London) 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 



Professor of Speech Communication 

Adjunct Professor of Biology 
Professor of Philosophy 

Adjunct Professor of Chemistry 

Poet-in-Residence 
(Department of English; Part-time) 



Roger A. Hegstrom (1969) 

BA, St. Olaf; AM, PhD, Harvard 



Wake Forest University Professor of Chemistry 



239 



Amanda C. Heinemann (1991) 

BS, UNC-Greensboro; MAEd, Wake Forest 

David Helm (1991) 

BA, Ithaca, MFA, Illinois (Chicago) 

Robert M. Helm (1940) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

J. Edwin Hendricks (1961) 

BA, Furman; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Marcus B. Hester (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

David A. Hills (1960) 

BA, Kansas; MA, PhD, Iowa 



Instructor in Education 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Art 

Worrell Professor of Philosophy 

Professor of History 

Professor of Philosophy 

Associate Professor of Psychology 



Willie L. Hinze (1975) Wake Forest University Professor of Chemistry 

BS, MA, Sam Houston State; PhD, Texas A&M 



Earl C. Hipp Jr. (1991) 

BA, Wofford, MBA, JD, South Carolina 

Kenneth G. Hoglund (1990) 

BA, Wheaton; MA, PhD, Duke 

George M. Holzwarth (1983) 

BA, Wesleyan; MS, PhD, Harvard 

Natalie A. W. Holzwarth (1983) 

BS, Massachusetts Inst, of Tech.; PhD, Chicago 

Fred L. Horton Jr. (1970) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
BD, Union Theo. Seminary; PhD, Duke 



Associate Professor of Business Law 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Religion 

Professor of Physics 

Associate Professor of Physics 

Albritton Professor of Religion 



William L. Hottinger (1970) 

BS, Slippery Rock; MS, PhD, Illinois 

Frederic T. Howard (1966) 

BA, MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Duke 

Pamela Howland (1989) 

BM, MM, Wisconsin Conservatory of Music; 
DMA, Eastman 



Professor of Health and Sport Science 

Professor of Mathematics 

Part-time Assistant Professor of Music 



Paul F. Huck (1989) 

BS, Marquette; MBA, Washington; MA, Northwestern 



Instructor in Economics 



Stephen J. Huebner (1989) Adjunct Instructor in Military Science 

BA, William and Mary; MA, Central Michigan 



Michael L. Hughes (1984) 



BA, Claremont McKenna; MA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Charles F. Jackels (1977) 

BChem, Minnesota; PhD, Washington 



Associate Professor of History 



Professor of Chemistry 
(Part-time) 



240 



Susan C. Jackels (1977) 

BA, Carleton; PhD, Washington 

MordecaiJ.Jaffe(1980) 

BS, City College (New York); PhD, Cornell 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 

David J. John (1982) 

BS, Emory and Henry; MS, PhD, Emory 



Professor of Chemistry 

Babcock Professor of Botany 
(Department of Biology) 

Lecturer in English 



Associate Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 



W. Dillon Johnston (1973) 

BA, Vanderbilt; MA, Columbia; PhD, Virginia 

Bradley T. Jones (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, Florida 

Paul E. Juras (1991) 

BBA, MBA, Pace; PhD, Syracuse 

Peter Kairoff (1988) 

BA, California (San Diego); 
MM, DMA, Southern California 

Jay R. Kaplan (1981) 

BA, Swarthmore; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Judith W. Kay (1988) 

BA, Oberlin; MA, Pacific School of Religion; 
PhD, Graduate Theo. Union 



Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Instructor in Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Music 



Adjunct Professor of Anthropology/ 
Psychology 

Assistant Professor of Religion 
(Leave, Spring 1992) 



Horace O. Kelly Jr. (1987) 
BA, Baylor 

Judy K. Kem (1987) 

BA, Western Kentucky; MA, Louisville; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Charles H. Kennedy (1985) 

BA, Eckerd; AM, MPP, PhD, Duke 

Ralph C. Kennedy III (1976) 

BA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 

William C. Kerr (1970) 

BS, Wooster; PhD, Cornell 

Charles Jeffery Kinlaw (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MDiv, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 



Lecturer in Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 
(French; Leave, 1991-92) 

Associate Professor of Politics 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 

Professor of Physics 

Instructor in Philosophy 



Ellen E. Kirkman (1975) 

BA, Wooster; MA, MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Scott W. Klein (1991) 

AB, Harvard; BA, MA, Cambridge; MA, MPhil., PhD, Yale 

Robert Knott (1975) 

BA, Stanford; MA, Illinois; PhD, Pennsylvania 



Professor of Mathematics 



Assistant Professor of English 



Professor of Art 



241 



Dilip K. Kondepudi (1987) 

BS, Madras (India); MS, Indian 
Technology (Bombay); PhD, Texas (Austin) 



Associate Professor of Chemistry 



Anna Krauth (1986) Instructor in Romance Languages 

Licence de Lettres, Licence d'Anglais, Paris III, Sorbonne; (French) 

Maitrise de Lettres Modernes, Diplome d'Etudes 
Approfondies en litterature compared, Paris-Sorbonne. 



Kathleen A. Kron (1991) 

BS, MS, Michigan State; PhD, Florida 

Philip Kuberski (1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, California (Irvine) 

Raymond E. Kuhn (1968) 

BS, Carson-Newman; PhD, Tennessee 

James Kuzmanovich (1972) 

BS, Rose Polytechnic; PhD, Wisconsin 

Kelly B.Kyes (1989) 



BS, South Carolina (Coastal Carolina College); 
MS, PhD, Georgia 

Randall C. Kyes (1990) 

BA, Maine; MA, Bucknell; PhD, Georgia 

Abdessadek Lachgar (1991) 

BS, MS, PhD, University of Nantes (Frances) 

Louise Lackey-Zachmann (1991) 

BA, Winthrop; MFA, UNC-Greensboro 

Hugo C. Lane (1973) 

Licenciate of the Biological Sciences, 
Doctorate of the Biological Sciences, Geneva 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology 

Assistant Professor of English 

Professor of Biology 

Professor of Mathematics 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 



Adjunct Instructor in Psychology 
(Fall 1991) 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Visiting Instructor in Art 
(Part-time, Fall 1991) 

Associate Professor of Biology 



Page H. Laughlin (1987) 

BA, Virginia; MFA, Rhode Island School of Design 

Michael S. Lawlor (1986) 

BA, Texas (Austin); PhD, Iowa State 

Mark R. Leary (1985) 

BA, West Virginia Wesleyan; MA, PhD, Florida 

Wei-chin Lee (1987) 

BA, National Taiwan University; MA, PhD, Oregon 

Win-chiat Lee (1983) 

BA, Cornell; PhD, Princeton 



Philip LeMasters (1991) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Rice; PhD, Duke 

David B. Levy (1976) 

BM, MA, Eastman; PhD, Rochester 



Assistant Professor of Art 
Associate Professor of Economics 
Professor of Psychology 
Assistant Professor of Politics 
Associate Professor of Philosophy 
Visiting Assistant Professor of Religion 
Associate Professor of Music 



242 



Kathryn Levy (1988) 
BM, Eastman 

Charles M. Lewis (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt; ThM, Harvard 

Thomas P. Liebschutz (1987) 
BA, MA, Rochester; 
BHL, MAHL, Hebrew Union; DMin, Boston 

John H. Litcher (1973) 

BS, Winona State; MA, PhD, Minnesota 



Part-time Instructor in Music 



Professor of Philosophy 



Visiting Lecturer in Religion 
(Part-time) 



Professor of Education 



John T. Llewellyn (1990) Assistant Professor of Speech Communication 

AB, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Texas (Austin) 



Dan S. Locklair (1982) 

BM, Mars Hill; SMM, Union 
Theo. Seminary; DMA, Eastman 

Charles F. Longino Jr. (1991) 

BA, Mississippi; MA, Colorado; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Allan D. Louden (1985) 

BA, Montana State; MA, Montana; 
PhD, Southern California 

Melanie H. Louden (1991) 

BA, Arizona State; MA, North Florida 

Robert W. Lovett (1962, 1968) 

BA, Oglethorpe; MAT, PhD, Emory 

Gene T. Lucas (1967, 1986) 

BA, Phillips; MA, Denver 

Vicky M. MacLean (1990) 

BS, Tulsa; MA, PhD, Duke 

Linda S. Maier (1987) 

AB, Washington; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Barry G. Maine (1981) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Allen Mandelbaum (1989) 

BA, Yeshiva; MA, PhD, Columbia 

Milorad R. Margitic (1978) 

MA, Leiden (Netherlands); PhD, Wayne State 

Dale R. Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; 
DBA, Kentucky 

James A. Martin (1983) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Duke; PhD, Columbia 



Associate Professor of Music 
and Composer-in-Residence 



Wake Forest Professor of Sociology 

Associate Professor of Speech Communication 

Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

(Part-time) 

Professor of English 

Lecturer in Mathematics 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Associate Professor of English 
Kenan Professor of Humanities 



Professor of Romance Languages 
(French) 

Associate Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



University Professor 
(Department of Religion) 



243 

George Eric Matthews Jr. (1979) Professor of Physics 

BS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

J. Gaylord May (1961) Professor of Mathematics 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Jo Whitten May (1972) Adjunct Professor of Speech Communication 

BS, Virginia; MA, PhD, UNC-Greensboro ' (Part-time) 

W. Graham May (1961) Professor of Mathematics 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Leah P. McCoy (1990) Assistant Professor of Education 

BS, West Virginia Inst, of Tech.; MA, Maryland; 
EdD, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Thomas W. McGohey (1990) Instructor in English 

BA, MA, Michigan State; MFA, UNC-Greensboro 

Jill Jordan McMillan (1983) Associate Professor of Speech Communication 

BA, Baylor; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Texas 

Dolly A. McPherson (1974) Professor of English 

BA, Southern; MA, Boston University; PhD, Iowa 

Gordon A. Melson (1991) Professor of Chemistry 

BS, PhD, Sheffield (England) 

Stephen P. Messier (1981) Associate Professor of Health and Sport Science 

BS, MS, Rhode Island; PhD, Temple 

Christopher Metress (1990) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA, St. Mary's University; MA, PhD, Vanderbilt 

William K. Meyers (1988) Assistant Professor of History 

BA, Washington; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Joseph O. Milner (1969) Professor of Education 

BA, Davidson; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

G. Dianne Mitchell (1983) Lecturer in Education 

BA, Salem; MAEd, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke (Part-time) 

John P. Modica (1989) Professor of Military Science 

BA, Marquette; MA, Oklahoma; MA, Naval War College 

Anne Marie Moore (1991) Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology 

BS, Bates; PhD, Duke 

John C. Moorhouse (1969) Professor of Economics 

BA, Wabash; PhD, Northwestern 

Patrick E. Moran (1989) Assistant Professor of Chinese 

BA, MA, Stanford; MA, (East Asian Languages and Literatures) 

National Taiwan University; PhD, Pennsylvania 

William M. Moss (1971) Professor of English 

BA, Davidson; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



244 

Gloria K. Muday (1991) Assistant Professor of Biology 

BS, MS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; PhD, Purdue 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) Professor of History 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Margaret Mulvey (1986) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology 

BA, MS, Connecticut; PhD, Rutgers 

Stephen Murphy (1987) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Canisius; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill (French) 

Rebecca Myers (1981) Instructor in Dance and Director of 

BS, MA, Ball State Dance Programs pepartment of Theater) 

Emily G. Neese (1991) Adjunct Instructor in Accounting 

BS, Wake Forest (School of Business and Accountancy; Part-time) 

Candelas M. Newton (1978) Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Salamanca (Spain); MA, PhD, Pittsburgh (Spanish) 

Linda N. Nielsen (1974) Professor of Education 

BA, MS, EdD, Tennessee 

Ronald E. Noftle (1967) Professor of Chemistry 

BS, New Hampshire; PhD, Washington 

James L. Norris III (1989) Assistant Professor of Mathematics 

BS, MS (Science), MS (Statistics), 
North Carolina State; PhD, Florida State 

Mary Anne Nunn (1991) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

AB, Kenyon; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Barbee Myers Oakes (1989) Assistant Professor of Health and Sport Science 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Tennessee 

Juan Orbe (1987) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); (Spanish) 

MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Gillian Rose Overing (1979) Associate Professor of English 

BA, Lancaster (England); MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) ' (Leave, 1991-92) 

Christopher H. Owen (1991) Visiting Assistant Professor of History 

BA, Georgia (Athens); MA, Baylor; PhD, Emory 

Karen L. Oxendine (1986) Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

BS, Wayne State; MEd, UNC-Greensboro (Part-time) 

Anthony S. Parent Jr. (1989) Assistant Professor of History 

BA, Loyola; MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

Perry L. Patterson (1986) Associate Professor of Economics 

BA, Indiana; MA, PhD, and Lecturer in Russian (Part-time) 

Northwestern 

Darwin R. Payne (1984) Adjunct Professor of Theater 

BS, MF A, Southern Illinois (Part-time) 



245 



Willie Pearson Jr. (1980) 

BA, Wiley; MA, Atlanta; 

PhD, Southern Illinois (Carbondale) 

Mary L. B. Pendergraft (1988) 
BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Philip J. Perricone (1967) 

BS, MA, Florida; PhD, Kentucky 

Elizabeth A. Petrino (1991) 

BA, SUNY (Buffalo); MA, PhD, Cornell 

Terisio Pignatti (1971) 
PhD, Padua 

Robert J. Plemmons (1990) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, Auburn 

Alton B. Pollard HI (1988) 

BA, Fisk; MDiv Harvard; PhD, Duke 

James T. Powell (1988) 

BA, Emory; M Phil, MA, PhD, Yale 



Gregory D. Pritchard (1968) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; BD, Southern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; PhD, Columbia 



Professor of Sociology 

Assistant Professor of Classical Languages 

Professor of Sociology 

Assistant Professor of English 

Reynolds Professor of Art History (Venice) 
(Department of Art, Part-time) 

Reynolds Professor of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 

Assistant Professor of Religion 
Assistant Professor of Classical Languages 
Professor of Philosophy 



Martin R. Province (1982) 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado 

Jerry Pubantz (1992) 

BSFS, Georgetown (School of 
Foreign Service); MA, PhD, Duke 

Teresa Radomski (1977) 

BM, Eastman; MM, Colorado 

Bill B. Raines (1989) 

BA, Valdosta State; MA, Utah 

Mary Lynn B. Redmond (1989) 



Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
(Department of Music) 

Visiting Professor of Politics 
(Part-time, Spring 1992) 



Assistant Professor of Music 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 



BA, EdD, UNC-Greensboro; MEd, UNC-Chapel Hill 

J. Don Reeves (1967) 

BA, Mercer; BD, ThM, Southern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; EdD, Columbia 



Assistant Professor of Education 



Professor of Education 



W. Jack Rejeski Jr. (1978) 

BS, Norwich; MA, PhD, Connecticut 



Professor of Health and Sport Science; 
Adjunct Professor of Psychology 



Paul M. Ribisl (1973) Professor of Health and Sport Science 

BS, Pittsburgh; MA, Kent State; PhD, Illinois 



Stephen H. Richardson (1963) 

BA, California; MS, PhD, Southern California 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 



246 

Charles L. Richman (1968) Professor of Psychology 

BA, Virginia; MA, Yeshiva; PhD, Cincinnati 

Leonard P. Roberge (1974) Associate Professor of Education 

BA, New Hampshire; MA, Atlanta; EdD, Maine (Leave, Spring 1992) 

Stephen B. Robinson (1991) Assistant Professor of Mathematics 

BA, PhD, California (Santa Cruz) 

Eva Marie Rodtwitt (1966) Lecturer in Romance Languages 

Cand Philol, Oslo (Norway) (French; Dijon, Fall 1991) 

Randall G. Rogan (1990) Visiting Assistant Professor of Speech Communication 

BA, St. John Fisher College; 
MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Ellen R. Rosenberg (1989) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA, Long Island; MA, New York; PhD, Indiana 

Henry W. Russell (1989) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA, Princeton; MA, South Carolina; PhD, Louisiana State 

Wilmer D. Sanders (1954, 1964) Professor of German 

BA, Muhlenberg; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Peter Santago (1989) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Physics 

BS, VPI, PHD, North Carolina State 

Jennifer Sault (1984) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, UNC-Greensboro (Italian, Part-time) 

James Ralph Scales (1967) Worrell Professor of Anglo- American Studies 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; (Department of History) 

LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broadus, Duke 

Donald O. Schoonmaker (1965) Professor of Politics 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Marianne A. Schubert (1977) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, Dayton; and Lecturer in Education 

MA, PhD, Southern Illinois (Part-time) 

Katie Scott (1985) Assistant Lecturer in Art History (London) 

BA Hons., London (Department of Art; Part-time) 

Richard D. Sears (1964) Professor of Politics 

BA, Clark; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Timothy F. Sellner (1970) Professor of German 

BA, Michigan; MA, Wayne State; PhD, Michigan 

Catherine E. Seta (1987) Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Dudley Shapere (1984) Reynolds Professor of Philosophy and 

B A, MA, PhD, Harvard History of Science 

Bynum G. Shaw (1965) Professor of Journalism 

BA, Wake Forest (Department of English) 



247 



Kurt C. Shaw (1987) 

AB, Missouri; MA, PhD, Kansas 

Walter W. Shaw (1987) 

BA, Berea; MA, Georgia 



Assistant Professor of German and Russian 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 



Howard W. Shields (1958) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MS, Pennsylvania State; PhD, Duke 



Professor of Physics 



Carol A. Shively (1988) 

BA, Hiram; MA, PhD, California pavis) 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke 



Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Professor of English 



Gale Sigal (1987) 

BA, City College (New York); MA, Fordham; 
PhD, CUNY (Graduate Center) 

Wayne L. Silver (1985) 

BA, Pennsylvania; PhD, Florida State 

Michael L. Sinclair (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Stanford 

Yuri Slezkine (1989) 

MA, University of Moscow; PhD, Texas 

Alison T. Smith (1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

J. Howell Smith (1965) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Tulane; PhD, Wisconsin 

Kathleen B. Smith (1981) 

BA, Baldwin- Wallace; MA, PhD, Purdue 

Wesley E. Snyder (1990) 

BS, North Carolina State; MS, PhD, Illinois 



Margaret Supplee Smith (1979) 

BS, Missouri; MA, Case Western Reserve; PhD, Brown 

Cecilia H. Solano (1977) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Loraine Moses Stewart (1991) 

BA, MA, North Carolina Central; 
EdD, UNC-Greensboro 



Assistant Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of History 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(French) 

Professor of History 
Associate Professor of Politics 
Professor of Computer Science 
Professor of Art 
Associate Professor of Psychology 
Assistant Professor of Education 



DeLeon E. Stokes (1982) 

BA, Duke; MBA, Michigan; 
CPA, N.C. 

David H. Stroupe (1990) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Anna- Vera Sullam (1972) 
BA, Padua 



Lecturer in Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Instructor in Health and Sport Science 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Italian; Part-time, Venice) 



248 



Charles H. Talbert (1963) 

BA, Howard; BD, Southern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 



Ian M. Taplin (1985) 

The College of Architecture, Oxford (England); 

BA, York (England); MPhil, Leicester (England); PhD, Brown 



Wake Forest Professor of Religion 
Assistant Professor of Sociology 



Thomas C. Taylor (1971) 

BS, MA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
PhD, Louisiana State; CPA, N.C. 



Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Harold C. Tedford (1965) 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Louisiana State 

Stanton K. Tefft (1964) 

BA, Michigan State; MS, Wisconsin; PhD, Minnesota 

Claudia Newel Thomas (1986) 

BA, Notre Dame; MA, Virginia; PhD, Brandeis 



Professor of Theater 

Professor of Anthropology 

Assistant Professor of English 



Olive S. Thomas (1978) 

BS, Wake Forest; MBA, 
UNC-Greensboro; CPA, N.C. 

Stan J. Thomas (1983) 

BS, Davidson; PhD, Vanderbilt 

C. Michael Thompson (1991) 
BA, JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Lecturer in Accounting 

(School of Business and Accountancy) 

(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Computer Science 



Lecturer in Law 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Harry B.Titus Jr. (1981) 

BA, Wisconsin (Milwaukee); MFA, PhD, Princeton 



Patricia W. Toole (1990) 

AB, Smith; MA, Wake Forest 

Todd C. Torgersen (1989) 

BS, MS, Syracuse; PhD, Delaware 

Ralph B. Tower (1980) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MBA, Cornell 

Florence Toy (1988) 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; MA, Michigan 

George William Trautwein (1983) 

BMus, Oberlin; MMus, Cleveland 
Institute; MusD, Indiana 

Robert W. Uleryjr. (1971) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Robert L. Utleyjr. (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Antonio Carlo Vitti (1986) 
BA, MA, Wayne State; 
PhD, Michigan 



Associate Professor of Art 

Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 



Dana Faculty Fellow and Assistant 
Professor of Computer Science 

Associate Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(French) 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
(Department of Music) 



Professor of Classical Languages 
(Leave, 1991-92) 

Associate Professor of Humanities 



Dana Faculty Fellow and Associate 

Professor of Romance Languages 

(Italian) 



249 

Marcellus E. Waddill (1962) Professor of Mathematics 

BA, Hampden-Sydney; MA, PhD, Pittsburgh 

J. Van Wagstaff (1964) Professor of Economics 

BA, Randolph-Macon; MBA, Rutgers; PhD, Virginia 

C. Anne Wallen (1989) Adjunct Associate Professor of Physics 

BS, UNC-Greensboro; PhD, Rochester 

Sarah L. Watts (1987) Associate Professor of History 

BA, Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts; MA, PhD, Oklahoma 

Mary R. Wayne (1980) Lecturer in Theater 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State (Part-time) 

David S. Weaver (1977) Professor of Anthropology 

BA, MA, Arizona; PhD, New Mexico 

Peter D. Weigl (1968) Professor of Biology 

BA, Williams; PhD, Duke 

Kari Weil (1985) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Cornell; MA, PhD, Princeton (French) 

David P. Weinstein (1989) Assistant Professor of Politics 

BA, Colorado College; MA, Connecticut; 
PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mark E. Welker (1987) Associate Professor of Chemistry 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Florida State (Leave, Fall 1991) 

Byron R. Wells (1981) Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, MA, Georgia; PhD, Columbia (French) 

Larry E. West (1969) Professor of German 

BA, Berea; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Robert M. Whaples (1991) Assistant Professor of Economics 

BA, Maryland; PhD, Pennsylvania 

M. Stanley Whitley (1990) Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Cornell (Spanish) 

Ulrike Wiethaus (1991) Assistant Professor of Religion 

Colloquium at Kirchliche Hochschule (Berlin, 
Germany); MA, PhD, Temple 

Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. (1989) Associate Professor of Accounting 

BS, Bob Jones University; (School of Business and Accountancy) 

PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Alan J. Williams (1974) Professor of History 

BA, Stanford; PhD, Yale 

George P. Williams Jr. (1958) Professor of Physics 

BS, Richmond; MS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

John E. Williams (1959) Professor of Psychology 

BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, Iowa 



250 



Richard T. Williams (1985) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Frank M. Williamson (1989) 

BA, Newberry; MEd, South Carolina 

James Willson-Quayle (1991) 

BA, MA, San Francisco State; 

PhD, London School of Economics (England) 

David C. Wilson (1984, 1987) 

BS, Wake Forest; MAT, Emory 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946, 1951) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 



Reynolds Professor of Physics 
Assistant Professor of Military Science 
Visiting Assistant Professor of Politics 



Instructor in Mathematics 
(Part-time) 



Professor of English 
Professor of Theater 



Frank B. Wood (1971) 



BA, MA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Southeastern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Duke 

John H. Wood (1985) 

BS, Ohio; MA, Michigan State; PhD, Purdue 

Ralph C. Wood Jr. (1971) 

BA, MA, East Texas State; MA, PhD, Chicago 

J. Ned Woodall (1969) 

BA, MA, Texas; PhD, Southern Methodist 

Beverly Wright (1989) 

BA, Grambling State; MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 

Raymond L. Wyatt (1956) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Richard L. Zuber (1962) 

BS, Appalachian; MA, Emory; PhD, Duke 

Margaret D. Zulick (1991) 

BM, Westminster Choir College; 
MA, Earlham School of Religion; 
MTS, Garrett-Evangelical Theo. Seminary 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 



(Part-time) 

Reynolds Professor of Economics 

Easley Professor of Religion 

Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Sociology 
(Leave, 1991-92) 

Professor of Biology 

Professor of History 

Instructor in Speech Communication 



251 

Emeriti 



Dates following names indicate period of service. 

Charles M. Allen (1941-1989) Professor Emeritus of Biology 

BS, MS, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

John William Angell (1955-1990) Easley Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; STM, Andover Newton 

Bianca Artom (1975-1990) Lecturer Emerita in Romance Languages 

Harold M. Barrow (1948-1977) Professor Emeritus of Physical Education 

BA, Westminster; MA, Missouri; PED, Indiana 

Merrill G. Berthrong (1964-1989) Director of Libraries Emeritus 

BA, Tufts; MA, Fletcher; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Germaine Bree (1973-1985) Kenan Professor Emerita of Humanities 

Licence, EES, Agregation, Paris; LittD, Smith, 
Mount Holyoke, Alleghany, Duke, Oberlin, 
Dickinson, Rutgers, Wake Forest, Brown, 
Wisconsin (Milwaukee), New York, Massachusetts, 
Kalamazoo, Washington (St. Louis), University of the 
South, Boston, Wisconsin (Madison); LHD, Wilson, 
Colby, Michigan,Davis and Elkins; LLD, Middlebury 

Dalma Adolph Brown (1941-1973) Professor Emeritus of English 

BA, MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

George McLeod Bryan (1956-1987) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; BD, PhD, Yale 

Shasta M. Bryant (1966-1987) Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Ruth F. Campbell (1962-1974) Professor Emerita of Spanish 

BA, UNC-Greensboro; 
MA, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 

Robert L. Carlson (1969-1987) Professor Emeritus of Management 

BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 
MBA, PhD, Stanford 

Dorothy Casey (1949-1988) Associate Professor Emerita of Health 

BS, UNC-Greensboro; and Sports Science 

MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Cyclone Covey (1968-1988) Professor Emeritus of History 

BA, PhD, Stanford 

Marjorie Crisp (1947-1977) Associate Professor Emerita 

BS, Appalachian; MA, George Peabody of Physical Education 

Hugh William Divine (1954-1979) Professor Emeritus of Law 

BS, Georgia; MA, Louisiana State; JD, Emory; 
LLM, SJD, Michigan 



252 



Robert Allen Dyer (1956-1983) 
BA, Louisiana State; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

J. Allen Easley (1928-1963) 

BA, Furman; ThM, Southern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; DD, Furman 



Professor Emeritus of Religion 
Professor Emeritus of Religion 



Walter S. Flory (1963-1980) Babcock Professor Emeritus of Biology 

BA, Bridgewater; MA, PhD, Virginia; ScD, Bridgewater 



Ralph S. Fraser (1962-1988) 

BA, Boston University; MA, Syracuse; PhD, Illinois 



Caroline Sandlin Fullerton (1969-1990) 
BA, Rollins; MFA, Texas Christian 

Ivey C. Gentry (1949-1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; BS, New York; MA, PhD, Duke 



Professor Emeritus of German 

Lecturer Emerita in SCTA 
(Theater Arts) 



Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 



Christopher Giles (1951-1988) Associate Professor Emeritus of Music 

BS, Florida Southern; MA, George Peabody 



Balkrishna G. Gokhale (1960-1990) 
BA, MA, PhD, Bombay 

Thomas F. Gossett (1967-1987) 

BA, MA, Southern Methodist; PhD, Minnesota 

George J. Griffin (1948-1981) 



Professor Emeritus of History 
and Asian Studies 

Professor Emeritus of English 



BA, Wake Forest; ThB, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary; 
BD, Yale; PhD, Edinburgh 



Professor Emeritus of Religion 



Paul M. Gross Jr. (1959-1987) 
BS, Duke; PhD, Brown 

William H. Gulley (1966-1987) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Emmett Willard Hamrick (1952-1988) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 

Carl V. Harris (1956-1989) 



BA, Wake Forest; BD, STM, Yale; PhD, Duke 

Lucille S. Harris (1957-1991) 
BA, BM, Meredith 

Delmer P. Hylton (1949-1991) 

BS, MBA, Indiana; CPA, Ind. 

Lois Johnson (1942-1962) 

BA, Meredith; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

Professor Emeritus of Sociology 

Albritton Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emeritus of Classical Languages 



Alonzo W. Kenion (1956-1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Duke 

Harry L. King Jr. (1960-1981) 



Instructor Emerita in Music 

Professor Emeritus of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Dean of Women Emerita 
Professor Emeritus of English 



BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 



253 



Robert E. Lee (1946-1977) 
BS, LLD, Wake Forest; 
MA, Columbia; LLM, SJD, Duke 

Harry B. Miller (1947-1983) 

BS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Carlton T. Mitchell (1961-1991) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Yale; STM, 
Union Theo. Seminary; PhD, New York 

Carl C. Moses (1964-1991) 

AB, William and Mary; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

John W. NoweU (1945-1987) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

James C. O'Flaherty (1947-1984) 

BA, Georgetown; MA, Kentucky; PhD, Chicago 



Professor Emeritus of Law and 
Dean Emeritus of the School of Law 

Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

Professor Emeritus of Religion 



Professor Emeritus of Politics 
Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 
Professor Emeritus of German 



A. Thomas Olive (1961-1988) 



BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, North Carolina State 

F. Jeanne Owen (1956-1991) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro; 
MCS, Indiana; JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

John E. Parker, Jr. (1950-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Clarence H. Patrick (1946-1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Andover Newton; PhD, Duke 

Percival Perry (1939, 1947-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Rutgers; PhD, Duke 

Elizabeth Phillips (1957-1989) 

BA, UNC-Greensboro; MA, Iowa; 
PhD, Pennsylvania 

Lee Harris Potter (1965-1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Herman J. Preseren (1953-1983) 

BS, California State (Pennsylvania); MA, Columbia; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Associate Professor Emeritus of Biology 



Professor Emerita of Business Law 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Professor Emeritus of Education 
and Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Sociology 

Professor Emeritus of History 

Professor Emerita of English 

Professor Emeritus of English 
Professor Emeritus of Education 



Beulah L. Raynor (1946-1979) 

BA, East Carolina; MA, Wake Forest 

Mark H. Reece (1956-1988) 
BS, Wake Forest 

C. H. Richards Jr. (1952-1985) 

BA, Texas Christian; MA, PhD, Duke 

Mary Frances Robinson (1952-1989) 
BA, Wilson; MA, PhD, Syracuse 



Associate Professor Emerita of English 

Dean of Students Emeritus 

Professor Emeritus of Politics 

Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 



254 



Paul S. Robinson (1952-1977) 



BA, Westminster; BM, Curtis; MSM, DSM, Union Seminary 



Professor Emeritus of Music 



John W. Sawyer (1956-1988) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Missouri 

James Ralph Scales (1967-1983) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; 
LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broaddus; LLD, Duke 

Ben M. Seelbinder (1959-1988) 
BA, Mississippi Delta State; 
MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 

President Emeritus 



Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 



Richard L. Shoemaker (1950-1982) 
BA, Colgate; MA, Syracuse; 
PhD, Virginia 

David L. Smiley (1950-1991) 

BA, MA, Baylor; PhD, Wisconsin 

Blanche C. Speer (1972-1984) 

BA, Howard Payne; MA, PhD, Colorado 

Henry Smith Stroupe (1937-1984) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Anne S. Tillett (1956-1986) 



BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Northwestern 



Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of History 

Associate Professor Emerita of Linguistics 

Professor Emeritus of History 

Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 



Lowell R. Tillett (1956-1989)* 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Columbia; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Carlton P. West (1928-1975) 

BA, Boston; MA, Yale; BA in LS, UNC-Chapel Hill 

W. Buck Yearns Jr. (1945-1988) 

BA, Duke; MA, Georgia; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Professor Emeritus of History 



Librarian Emeritus 



Professor Emeritus of History 



* Died on December 31, 1991. 



255 

The Committees of the Faculty 

September 1, 1992 

The terms of members, except where otherwise shown, expire on August 31 of the 
year indicated. Each committee selects its own chair except where the chair is 
designated. 

Executive Committees 
The Committee on Academic Affairs 

Non-voting. Dean of student services, associate deans of the College, and one under- 
graduate student. Voting. Dean of the College; 1995 Nina S. Allen, John A. Carter Jr.; 
1994 John E. Collins, Dolly A. McPherson; 1993 Robert W. Brehme, Claudia N. 
Thomas; and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Admissions 

Non-voting. Director of admissions, two members from the administrative staff of the 
Office of the Dean of the College, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the 
College; 1995 Win-chiat Lee, BarbeeM. Oakes; 1994 Michael J. Berry, David W. Catron; 
1993 Carole L. Browne, George M. Holzwarth; and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid 

Non-voting. One undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, director of ad- 
missions and financial aid, two members from the administrative staff of the Office of 
the Dean of the College; 1995 Robert H. Evans, Gale Sigal; 1994 Barry G. Maine, Alton 
B. Pollard; 1993 David W. Hadley, Kari Weil; and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Curriculum 

Voting. Provost, dean of the College, dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, 
registrar, and the chairs of each department of the College as follows: Division I. Art, 
Classical Languages, English, German and Russian, Music, Romance Languages, 
Theatre. Division II. Biology, Chemistry, Health and Sport Science, Mathematics and 
Computer Science, Physics. Division III. Education, History, Military Science, Phi- 
losophy, Religion. Division IV. Anthropology, Economics, Politics, Psychology, So- 
ciology. (The placement of Speech Communication is yet to be determined. For 
administrative purposes, the School of Business and Accountancy is included in 
Division IV.) 



256 



Advisory Committees 
The Committee on Academic Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, and one 
undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, director of the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Library, one undergraduate student, and 1996 David B. Levy, Herman E. Eure; 1995 
Judith W. Kay, Ian M. Taplin; 1994 Roger A. Hegstrom, Milorad R. Margitic; 1993 Alan 
J. Williams, Cecilia Solano. 

The Committee on Athletics 

Non-voting. Director of athletics. Voting. Vice president and treasurer, dean of the 
College, faculty representative to the Atlantic Coast Conference; and 1997 Robert C. 
Beck, Susan H. Borwick; 1996 Eddie V. Easley, Sarah L. Watts; 1995 Ronald V. Dimock, 
Howard W. Shields; 1994 Robert Knott, Ronald E. Noftle; 1993 Richard D. Carmichael, 
Robert N. Shorter. 

The Committee on Institutional Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, vice president and treasurer, vice president for administration 
and planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, dean of the 
School of Business and Accountancy, one undergraduate student; and 1996 Harold C. 
Tedford, Mark E. Welker; 1995 Marcus B. Hester, Beverly Write, Dale R. Martin; 1994 
James Kuzmanovich, Robert W. Ulery Jr.; 1993 Patricia M. Cunningham, H. Kenneth 
Bechtel. 

The Committee on Nominations 

Voting. 1995 Elmer K. Hayashi, Timothy F. Sellner, Jack Wilkerson; 1994 Gillian R. 
Overing, Charles H. Talbert; 1993 Deborah L. Best, Peter D. Weigh 

The Committee on Library Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, dean of the Graduate School, one faculty representative from the 
Committee on Academic Planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. One 
faculty representative from each academic department of the College, Dean of the 
College, one faculty representative from the School of Business and Accountancy, the 
director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, and one undergraduate student. 



257 



Special Committees 
The Committee on Publications 

Voting. Dean of the College, vice president and treasurer, university editor, three 
faculty advisers of Old Gold and Black, The Student, and the Howler; and 1995 Claudia 
N. Thomas; 1994 Andrew V. Ettin; 1993 Paul Escott. 

The Committee for Teacher Education 

Voting. Dean of the College, dean of the Graduate School, chairperson of the Depart- 
ment of Education; and 1995 Charles F. Jackels, Michael L. Hughes; 1994 David L. 
Faber, Stephen P. Messier; 1993 Mary Friedman, Ralph Wood. 

The Committee on Honors 

Non-voting. One student from the College. Voting. Dean of the College, the coordinator 
of the Honors Program, one student from the College, and 1996 Anthony S. Parent; 
1995 George E. Matthews Jr.; 1994 Perry L. Patterson; 1993 Timothy F. Sellner. 

The Committee of Lower Division Advisers 

Dean of the College, chairperson of the lower division advisers, and members of the 
faculty who are appointed as advisers to the Lower Division. 

The Committee on Orientation 

Dean of the College, chairperson of the lower division advisers, who shall serve as 
chairperson, dean of students, a designated member of the administrative staff, 
president of the Student Government or a representative, and other persons from the 
administration and student body whom the chair shall invite to serve. 

The Committee on Records and Information 

Non-voting. Registrar. Voting. Dean of the College, archivist, who shall be secretary, 
vice-chairperson of the faculty, secretary of the faculty, and 1995 Paul R. Anderson; 
1994 Todd Torgersen; 1993 Dolly McPherson. 



258 



The Committee on Open Curriculum 

Dean of the College, 1996 Dilip K. Kondepudi, Linda N. Nielsen; 1995 Antonio Vitti, 
John C. Moorhouse; 1994 John V. Baxley, Robert H. Evans; 1993 Mary DeShazer, Ian 
M. Taplin. 

The Committee for the ROTC 

Voting. Dean of the College, ROTC coordinator, professor of military science; and 1995 
James F. Curran; 1994 William L. Hottinger; 1993 Leo Ellison. 

Joint Faculty/Administration Committees 
The Joint Admissions Committee 

Dean of the College, director of admissions and financial aid, provost, and three 
faculty members of the Committee on Admissions. 

The Judicial Council 

Administration. 1995 Patricia Johansson; 1992 Kenneth A. Zick. Alternate. 1995 Toby A. 
Hale. Faculty. 1997 Mary L. Friedman; 1996 Fred L. Horton Jr.; 1995 Candelas Newton; 
1994 Stewart Carter; 1993 John R. Earle. Alternate. 1994 Leonard Roberge; 1992 Katy 
Harriger; two students from the College and one student alternate. 

The Committee on Student Life 

Dean of the College or his designate, dean of students, a designated member of the 
administration; 1995 Ronald V. Dimock; 1994 Stephen B. Boyd; 1993 Mark Leary; and 
three undergraduate students. 

Other Faculty Assignments 
Faculty Advisers to the Honor Council 

1995 James T. Powell; 1994 TBA; 1993 Samuel T. Gladding 
Faculty Advisers to the Student Judicial Board 

1995 John H. Litcher; 1994 Richard Barnett; 1993 S. Douglas Beets 



259 



Faculty Marshals 

John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, 
Barbee M. Oakes, Catherine T. Harris 

University Senate 

President, provost, vice president for administration and planning, vice president for 
public affairs, vice president and counsel, executive vice president for health affairs of 
Wake Forest University and executive dean of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 
vice president for university relations, vice president for financial resource manage- 
ment and treasurer, vice president for student life and instructional resources, dean 
of the College, dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, dean of the Graduate 
School, dean of the School of Law, dean of the Babcock Graduate School of Manage- 
ment, director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, and the following: 

Representatives of the College: 1996 Katy Harriger, Ellen K. Kirkman, Peter D. Weigl; 
1995 Nancy J. Cotton, Claire H. Hammond, Donald Schoonmaker; 1994 Donald E. 
Frey, Jill J. McMillan, Harry B. Titus Jr.; 1993 Raymond E. Kuhn, Gillian R. Overing, 
Walter J. Rejeski. 

Representatives of the School of Business and Accountancy: 1993 John S. Dunkelberg. 

Representatives of the Graduate School: 1993 Huw Davies 

Representatives of the School of Law: 1993 Thomas E. Roberts. 

Representatives of the Babcock Graduate School of Management: 1993 Robert W. Shivery. 

Representatives of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine: 1993 Inglis J. Miller Jr. 

Institutional Review Board 

Director of Research and Sponsored Programs, University Counsel (consultant), and 
1994 Ralph Amen, Robert C. Beck, Mary Jane Berman, Fred L. Horton Jr., Jack Rejeski. 



260 



Index 



Academic Awards and 

Competitions, 27 
Academic Calendar, 2, 39 
Accountancy, 208 
Accreditation, 13 
Administration, 219 
Admission Deposit, 35, 36 
Admission Requirements, 34 
Advanced Placement, 36 
Advising, 39 
Advisory Council, School of Business 

and Accountancy, 218 
Anthropology, 78 
Application for Admission, 34 
Applied Music, 150 
Applied Music Fees, 38 
AROTC, 29, 143 
Art, 81 

Art History, 82 
Artists Series, Secrest, 31 
Asian Studies, 85 
Athletic Awards, 29 
Athletic Scholarships, 29 
Athletics, 28 

Attendance Requirement, 40 
Auditing Courses, 41 
Babcock Graduate School of 

Management, 8 
Basic Course Requirements, 68 
Biology, 87 
Board of Trustees, 214 
Board of Visitors, 216 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 8 
Buildings and Grounds, 9 
Business, 205 

Business and Accountancy, 8, 202 
Calendar, 2 
Campus Ministry, 29 
Career Services, 31 
Carswell Scholarships, 48 
Case Referral Panel, 25 
Charges, 36-38 
Chemistry, 93 
China, Study in, 65 



Chinese, 85, 100 

Class Attendance, 40 

Classical Languages, 96 

Classics, 98 

Classification, 40 

CLEP, 36 

Clubs, 27 

College History and Development, 18 

Combined Degrees, 75 

Committees of the Faculty, 255 

Communication Services, 12 

Computer Center, 10 

Computer Science, 137 

Concessions, 61 

Counseling Center, 31 

Course Numbers, 78 

Course Repetition, 43 

Courses of Instruction, 78 

Cultural Activities, 30 

Cultural Resource Preservation, 

Minor in, 72 
Dance, 195 
Dean's List, 43 
Debate, 30 

Degree Requirements, 67 
Degrees Offered, 67 
Dentistry Degree, 76 
Dijon Semester (University of 

Burgundy), 65, 179 
Divisional Course Requirements, 68 
Double Majors, 71 
Dropping a Course, 41 
Early Christian Studies, Minor in, 72 
Early Decision, 35 
East Asian Languages and 

Literatures, 100 
East European Studies, 74 
Economics, 101 
Education, 105 
Emeriti, 251 
Engineering Degree, 76 
English, 111 

English, Proficiency in the use of, 69 
Enrollment, 211 



261 



Examinations, 42 

Exchange Scholarships, 59 

Expenses, 36 

Experiment in International Living, 66 

Faculties, Undergraduate, 231 

Fees, 36 

Federal Financial Aid Programs, 58 

Fields of Study, 67 

Financial Aid, 47 

Food Services, 37 

Foreign Area Studies, 64 

Forestry and Environmental 

Studies Degree, 77 

France, Semester in, 65, 179 

Fraternities, 26 

French, 176 

General Requirements, 67 

Geographical Distribution, 212 

German, 117 

German Studies, 74 

Giles /Harris Music 

Competititons, 27 

Grade Reports, 43 

Grading, 42 

Graduate School, 8 

Graduation Distinctions, 43 

Greek, 97 

Handicapped Students, Admission, 35 

Hankins Scholarships, 48 

Health and Sport Science, 120 

Health and Sport Science 

Requirement, 69, 120 

Health Education Program, 32 

Health Service, 32 

Hebrew, 174 

History, 124 

History and Development, WFU, 18 

Honor Council, 25 

Honor Societies, 27 

Honor System, 24 

Honors Study, 63 

Housing, 39 

Humanities, 130 

Incomplete Grades, 42 

Institute of European Studies, 65 

Intercollegiate Athletics, 29 



Interdisciplinary Honors, 134 
Interdisciplinary Minors, 72 
Interfraternity Council, 26 
International Studies, 64, 197 
International Studies, Minor in, 72 
International Study, Office of, 64 
Intersociety Council, 26 
Intramural Athletics, 28 
Italian, 183 
Italian Studies, 74 
Japan, Study in, 66 
Japanese, 86, 100 
Joint Majors, 71 
Journalism, 112 
Judicial Council, 25 
Latin, 97 

Latin American Studies, 74 
Law School, 8 

Learning Assistance Program, 32 
Libraries, 12 
Linguistics, 134 
Loans, 60 

London Semester, 64 
Major Requirements, Options, 71 
Majors, 70 

Management School, 8 
Mathematical Economics, 102, 137 
Mathematics, 137 
Maximum Number of Courses, 71 
Medical School, 8 
Medical Technology, Com- 
bined Degrees, 75 
Microbiology Degree, 76 
Microcomputer Center, 12 
Military Science, 143 
Ministerial Concessions, 61 
Minority Affairs, Office of, 32 
Minors, 71 
Music, 145 

Music Education, 148 
Music Ensemble, 149 
Music History, 147 
Music Theory, 146 
Natural Sciences, 151 
North Carolina Student Incentive 
Grants, 54 



262 



Open Curriculum, 63 
Orientation, 39 
Overseas Courses, 197 
Part-Time Students, 40 
Pass /Fail Grades, 42 
Pell Grants, 58 
Phi Beta Kappa, 27 
Philosophy, 152 
Physician Assistant Program 

Degree, 75 
Physics, 156 
Placement Service, 31 
Pohtics, 159 
Probation, 44 
Procedures, 34 
Professional Fraternities, 27 
Professional Schools, 8 
Psychological Services, 31 
Psychology, 165 
Publications, 30 
Purpose, Statement of, 16 
Radio Stations, 30 
Readmission Requirements, 45 
Recognition, 13 
Refunds, 38 
Registration, 39 
Religion, 169 
Religious Activities, 29 
Repetition of Courses, 43 
Requirements for Continuation, 44 
Requirements for Degrees, 67 
Requirements for 
Readmission, 45 
Residence Hall Charges, 37, 39 
Resident Student Association, 26 
Residential Language Centers, 64 
Reynolds Scholarships, 47 
Romance Languages, 175 
Room Charges, 37 
Russia, Study in, 66 
Russian, 117 

Salamanca Semester, 65, 182 
Salem College, Study at, 63 
Scholarships, 47 
School of Business and 

Accountancy, 202 



School of Business and Accountancy 

Advisory Council, 218 
School of Law, 8 
Secrest Artists Series, 31 
Senior Testing, 74 
Societies, Social, 26 
Sociology, 184 
Spain, Semester in, 65, 182 
Spanish, 180 
Spanish Studies, 74 
Special Programs, 63 
Speech Communication, 188 
Student /Student Spouse 
Employment, 61 
Student Government, 24 
Student Health Service, 32 
Student Judicial Board, 25 
Student Legislature, 24 
Student Life, 24 
Student Publications, 30 
Student Union, 26 
Studio Art, 84 

Study Abroad Opportunities, 64 
Study Abroad in Non-Wake 
Forest Programs, 66 
Summer Session, 46 
Summer Study Elsewhere, 46 
Teaching Area Requirements, 106 
Theater, 192 
Transcripts, 38, 43 
Transfer Credit, 36, 46 
Transfer Students, Admission of, 36 
Trustees, 214 
Tuition, 37 

Undergraduate Faculties, 231 
Undergraduate Schools, 15 
University, 8 
Vehicle Registration, 38 
Venice, Semester in, 65, 184 
Veterans Benefits, 62 
Visitors, Board of, 216 
Wake Forest College, 16 
WAKE Radio (AM), 30 
WFDD (FM), 30 

Withdrawal from the College, 41 
Women's Studies, Minor in, 73 
Work/ Study Program, 58 



263 




The Edwin Graves Wilson Wing of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library was dedicated in 1992. 



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